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Review

Melatonin Modulates Plant Tolerance to Heavy Metal Stress: Morphological Responses to Molecular Mechanisms

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Khulna Agricultural University, Khulna 9100, Bangladesh
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
3
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Department of Biotechnology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Department of Agronomy and Haor Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh
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Faculty of Agriculture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
10
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
11
Institute of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Małgorzata M. Posmyk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111445
Received: 17 September 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 17 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Melatonin in Plants)
Heavy metal toxicity is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause serious damage to plant growth and productivity, which is a major problem for sustainable agriculture. It adversely affects plant molecular physiology and biochemistry by generating osmotic stress, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, membrane disorganization, cellular toxicity, and metabolic homeostasis. To improve and stimulate plant tolerance to heavy metal stress, the application of biostimulants can be an effective approach without threatening the ecosystem. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a biostimulator, plant growth regulator, and antioxidant, promotes plant tolerance to heavy metal stress by improving redox and nutrient homeostasis, osmotic balance, and primary and secondary metabolism. It is important to perceive the complete and detailed regulatory mechanisms of exogenous and endogenous melatonin-mediated heavy metal-toxicity mitigation in plants to identify potential research gaps that should be addressed in the future. This review provides a novel insight to understand the multifunctional role of melatonin in reducing heavy metal stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic stress; heavy metal; plant growth; phytomelatonin; oxidative stress abiotic stress; heavy metal; plant growth; phytomelatonin; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoque, M.N.; Tahjib-Ul-Arif, M.; Hannan, A.; Sultana, N.; Akhter, S.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Akter, F.; Hossain, M.S.; Sayed, M.A.; Hasan, M.T.; Skalicky, M.; Li, X.; Brestič, M. Melatonin Modulates Plant Tolerance to Heavy Metal Stress: Morphological Responses to Molecular Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111445

AMA Style

Hoque MN, Tahjib-Ul-Arif M, Hannan A, Sultana N, Akhter S, Hasanuzzaman M, Akter F, Hossain MS, Sayed MA, Hasan MT, Skalicky M, Li X, Brestič M. Melatonin Modulates Plant Tolerance to Heavy Metal Stress: Morphological Responses to Molecular Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(21):11445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111445

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoque, Md. Najmol, Md. Tahjib-Ul-Arif, Afsana Hannan, Naima Sultana, Shirin Akhter, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Fahmida Akter, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Md. Abu Sayed, Md. Toufiq Hasan, Milan Skalicky, Xiangnan Li, and Marián Brestič. 2021. "Melatonin Modulates Plant Tolerance to Heavy Metal Stress: Morphological Responses to Molecular Mechanisms" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 21: 11445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111445

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