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Immunological Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome and Related Disorders

by 1,†, 2,3,† and 4,5,6,*
1
Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
2
Department of Pediatrics, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei 106, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan
4
Department of Pediatric Neurology, National Taiwan University Children’s Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
5
Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Chia-Jui Hsu and Lee-Chin Wong contributed equally to the paper.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020853
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 9 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 16 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Chronic tic disorder and Tourette syndrome are common childhood-onset neurological diseases. However, the pathophysiology underlying these disorders is unclear, and most studies have focused on the disinhibition of the corticostriatal–thalamocortical circuit. An autoimmune dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenetic mechanism of Tourette syndrome and related neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive–compulsive disorder, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This is based on evidence from animal model studies and clinical findings. Herein, we review and give an update on the clinical characteristics, clinical evidence, and genetic studies in vitro as well as animal studies regarding immune dysfunction in Tourette syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tourette syndrome; PANDAS; immunological dysfunction; basal ganglia; neuroinflammation Tourette syndrome; PANDAS; immunological dysfunction; basal ganglia; neuroinflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, C.-J.; Wong, L.-C.; Lee, W.-T. Immunological Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome and Related Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020853

AMA Style

Hsu C-J, Wong L-C, Lee W-T. Immunological Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome and Related Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020853

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hsu, Chia-Jui, Lee-Chin Wong, and Wang-Tso Lee. 2021. "Immunological Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome and Related Disorders" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020853

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