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Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Herbal Small-Molecule Drugs for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

by Wei Wuli 1,2,†, Sheng-Tzung Tsai 3,†, Tzyy-Wen Chiou 2,* and Horng-Jyh Harn 1,4,*
1
Department of Bioinnovation Center, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical foundation, Hualien 97002, Taiwan
2
Department of Life Science, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Hualien Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 97002, Taiwan
4
Department of Pathology, Hualien Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 97002, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041327
Received: 14 December 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 16 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Inhibitors of Amyloid Aggregation)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular amyloid plaques composed of the β-amyloid peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and associates with progressive declines in memory and cognition. Several genes play important roles and regulate enzymes that produce a pathological accumulation of β-amyloid in the brain, such as gamma secretase (γ-secretase). Induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Alzheimer’s disease with different underlying genetic mechanisms may help model different phenotypes of Alzheimer’s disease and facilitate personalized drug screening platforms for the identification of small molecules. We also discuss recent developments by γ-secretase inhibitors and modulators in the treatment of AD. In addition, small-molecule drugs isolated from Chinese herbal medicines have been shown effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease. We propose a mechanism of small-molecule drugs in treating Alzheimer’s disease. Combining therapy with different small-molecule drugs may increase the chance of symptomatic treatment. A customized strategy tailored to individuals and in combination with therapy may be a more suitable treatment option for Alzheimer’s disease in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells; Alzheimer’s disease; γ-Secretase induced pluripotent stem cells; Alzheimer’s disease; γ-Secretase
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Wuli, W.; Tsai, S.-T.; Chiou, T.-W.; Harn, H.-J. Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Herbal Small-Molecule Drugs for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1327.

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