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Open AccessReview

Neutrophil Adaptations upon Recruitment to the Lung: New Concepts and Implications for Homeostasis and Disease

1
Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, 30322 GA, USA
2
Center for CF & Airways Disease Research, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, 30322 GA, USA
3
Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Immunology and Critical Care Medicine and Cystic Fibrosis Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
4
Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), 10178 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030851
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 24 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends of Neutrophil Biology)
Neutrophils have a prominent role in all human immune responses against any type of pathogen or stimulus. The lungs are a major neutrophil reservoir and neutrophilic inflammation is a primary response to both infectious and non-infectious challenges. While neutrophils are well known for their essential role in clearance of bacteria, they are also equipped with specific mechanisms to counter viruses and fungi. When these defense mechanisms become aberrantly activated in the absence of infection, this commonly results in debilitating chronic lung inflammation. Clearance of bacteria by phagocytosis is the hallmark role of neutrophils and has been studied extensively. New studies on neutrophil biology have revealed that this leukocyte subset is highly adaptable and fulfills diverse roles. Of special interest is how these adaptations can impact the outcome of an immune response in the lungs due to their potent capacity for clearing infection and causing damage to host tissue. The adaptability of neutrophils and their propensity to influence the outcome of immune responses implicates them as a much-needed target of future immunomodulatory therapies. This review highlights the recent advances elucidating the mechanisms of neutrophilic inflammation, with a focus on the lung environment due to the immense and growing public health burden of chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute lung inflammatory diseases such as transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). View Full-Text
Keywords: margination; metabolism; scavenging; stress response; transcription margination; metabolism; scavenging; stress response; transcription
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giacalone, V.D.; Margaroli, C.; Mall, M.A.; Tirouvanziam, R. Neutrophil Adaptations upon Recruitment to the Lung: New Concepts and Implications for Homeostasis and Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030851

AMA Style

Giacalone VD, Margaroli C, Mall MA, Tirouvanziam R. Neutrophil Adaptations upon Recruitment to the Lung: New Concepts and Implications for Homeostasis and Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(3):851. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030851

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giacalone, Vincent D.; Margaroli, Camilla; Mall, Marcus A.; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra. 2020. "Neutrophil Adaptations upon Recruitment to the Lung: New Concepts and Implications for Homeostasis and Disease" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 3: 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030851

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