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Characterization of the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and Analysis of the PR1 Molecular Marker in Vitis vinifera L. Inoculated with the Nematode Xiphinema index

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124485
Received: 30 May 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 3.0)
Upon pathogen attack, plants very quickly undergo rather complex physico-chemical changes, such as the production of new chemicals or alterations in membrane and cell wall properties, to reduce disease damages. An underestimated threat is represented by root parasitic nematodes. In Vitis vinifera L., the nematode Xiphinema index is the unique vector of Grapevine fanleaf virus, responsible for fanleaf degeneration, one of the most widespread and economically damaging diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in grapevines attacked by X. index. BVOCs play a role in plant defensive mechanisms and are synthetized in response to biotic damages. In our study, the BVOC profile was altered by the nematode feeding process. We found a decrease in β-ocimene and limonene monoterpene emissions, as well as an increase in α-farnesene and α-bergamotene sesquiterpene emissions in nematode-treated plants. Moreover, we evaluated the PR1 gene expression. The transcript level of PR1 gene was higher in the nematode-wounded roots, while in the leaf tissues it showed a lower expression compared to control grapevines. View Full-Text
Keywords: BVOCs; dagger nematodes; GC-MS; grapevine; monoterpenes; PR1 gene; sesquiterpenes; SPME; Xiphinema index BVOCs; dagger nematodes; GC-MS; grapevine; monoterpenes; PR1 gene; sesquiterpenes; SPME; Xiphinema index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castorina, G.; Grassi, F.; Consonni, G.; Vitalini, S.; Oberti, R.; Calcante, A.; Ferrari, E.; Bononi, M.; Iriti, M. Characterization of the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and Analysis of the PR1 Molecular Marker in Vitis vinifera L. Inoculated with the Nematode Xiphinema index. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124485

AMA Style

Castorina G, Grassi F, Consonni G, Vitalini S, Oberti R, Calcante A, Ferrari E, Bononi M, Iriti M. Characterization of the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and Analysis of the PR1 Molecular Marker in Vitis vinifera L. Inoculated with the Nematode Xiphinema index. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(12):4485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124485

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castorina, Giulia, Flaminia Grassi, Gabriella Consonni, Sara Vitalini, Roberto Oberti, Aldo Calcante, Enrico Ferrari, Monica Bononi, and Marcello Iriti. 2020. "Characterization of the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and Analysis of the PR1 Molecular Marker in Vitis vinifera L. Inoculated with the Nematode Xiphinema index" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 12: 4485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124485

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