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Genome-Protecting Compounds as Potential Geroprotectors

1
Laboratory of Geroprotective and Radioprotective Technologies, Institute of Biology, Komi Science Centre, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 Kommunisticheskaya st., 167982 Syktyvkar, Russia
2
Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University, 55 Oktyabrsky prosp., 167001 Syktyvkar, Russia
3
Center for Precision Genome Editing and Genetic Technologies for Biomedicine, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124484
Received: 31 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity)
Throughout life, organisms are exposed to various exogenous and endogenous factors that cause DNA damages and somatic mutations provoking genomic instability. At a young age, compensatory mechanisms of genome protection are activated to prevent phenotypic and functional changes. However, the increasing stress and age-related deterioration in the functioning of these mechanisms result in damage accumulation, overcoming the functional threshold. This leads to aging and the development of age-related diseases. There are several ways to counteract these changes: (1) prevention of DNA damage through stimulation of antioxidant and detoxification systems, as well as transition metal chelation; (2) regulation of DNA methylation, chromatin structure, non-coding RNA activity and prevention of nuclear architecture alterations; (3) improving DNA damage response and repair; (4) selective removal of damaged non-functional and senescent cells. In the article, we have reviewed data about the effects of various trace elements, vitamins, polyphenols, terpenes, and other phytochemicals, as well as a number of synthetic pharmacological substances in these ways. Most of the compounds demonstrate the geroprotective potential and increase the lifespan in model organisms. However, their genome-protecting effects are non-selective and often are conditioned by hormesis. Consequently, the development of selective drugs targeting genome protection is an advanced direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: geroprotectors; genomic protection; antioxidants; epidrugs; DNA repair activators; senolytics; senomorphics; aging geroprotectors; genomic protection; antioxidants; epidrugs; DNA repair activators; senolytics; senomorphics; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Proshkina, E.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Moskalev, A. Genome-Protecting Compounds as Potential Geroprotectors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4484. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124484

AMA Style

Proshkina E, Shaposhnikov M, Moskalev A. Genome-Protecting Compounds as Potential Geroprotectors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(12):4484. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124484

Chicago/Turabian Style

Proshkina, Ekaterina, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, and Alexey Moskalev. 2020. "Genome-Protecting Compounds as Potential Geroprotectors" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 12: 4484. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124484

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