Throughout life, organisms are exposed to various exogenous and endogenous factors that cause DNA damages and somatic mutations provoking genomic instability. At a young age, compensatory mechanisms of genome protection are activated to prevent phenotypic and functional changes. However, the increasing stress and age-related deterioration in the functioning of these mechanisms result in damage accumulation, overcoming the functional threshold. This leads to aging and the development of age-related diseases. There are several ways to counteract these changes: (1) prevention of DNA damage through stimulation of antioxidant and detoxification systems, as well as transition metal chelation; (2) regulation of DNA methylation, chromatin structure, non-coding RNA activity and prevention of nuclear architecture alterations; (3) improving DNA damage response and repair; (4) selective removal of damaged non-functional and senescent cells. In the article, we have reviewed data about the effects of various trace elements, vitamins, polyphenols, terpenes, and other phytochemicals, as well as a number of synthetic pharmacological substances in these ways. Most of the compounds demonstrate the geroprotective potential and increase the lifespan in model organisms. However, their genome-protecting effects are non-selective and often are conditioned by hormesis. Consequently, the development of selective drugs targeting genome protection is an advanced direction.
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