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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 15, Issue 2 (February 2014) , Pages 1686-3355

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Open AccessArticle
C2-Ceramide Induces Cell Death and Protective Autophagy in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3336-3355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023336
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3134 | PDF Full-text (1441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ceramides are second messengers involved in several intracellular processes in cancer cells, amongst others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy of C2-ceramide (C2-Cer; N-acetyl-D-sphingosine) by investigating cell death and autophagy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [...] Read more.
Ceramides are second messengers involved in several intracellular processes in cancer cells, amongst others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy of C2-ceramide (C2-Cer; N-acetyl-D-sphingosine) by investigating cell death and autophagy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. C2-Cer showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in HN4 and HN30 cell lines. It simultaneously induced caspase-3-independent apoptosis and programmed necrosis. C2-Cer markedly increased the expression level of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) type II associated with protective autophagy. An autophagy inhibitor enhanced C2-Cer-mediated cytotoxicity, while a programmed-necrosis inhibitor produced the opposite effect. Furthermore, C2-Cer up-regulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but down-regulated its downstream substrate phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) during the autophagy process. These results suggested that C2-Cer exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing programmed apoptosis and necrosis in HNSCC, and these cytotoxic effects are enhanced by an autophagy inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
The Glutathione Peroxidase Gene Family in Thellungiella salsuginea: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Gene and Protein Expression Analysis under Stress Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3319-3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023319
Received: 22 January 2014 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3411 | PDF Full-text (1460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glutathione peroxidases (GPX) catalyze the reduction of H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols using reduced glutathione, which plays an essential role in ROS (reactive oxygen species) homeostasis and stress signaling. Thellungiella salsuginea (Eutrema salsugineum), a [...] Read more.
Glutathione peroxidases (GPX) catalyze the reduction of H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols using reduced glutathione, which plays an essential role in ROS (reactive oxygen species) homeostasis and stress signaling. Thellungiella salsuginea (Eutrema salsugineum), a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, displays an extremely high level of tolerance to salt, drought, cold and oxidative stresses. The enzymatic antioxidant systems may contribute to the stress tolerance of T. salsuginea. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the roles of the antioxidant enzymes in T. salsuginea by focusing on the GPX family. We identified the eight GPX genes in T. salsuginea, and the structure of the N-terminal domains indicated their putative chloroplastic, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic location. The exon-intron organization of these genes exhibited a conserved pattern among plant GPX genes. Multiple environmental stresses and hormone response related cis-acting elements were predicted in the promoters of TsGPX genes. The gene and protein expression profiles of TsGPXs in response to high level of salinity and osmotic stresses, in leaves and roots of T. salsuginea were investigated using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Our result showed that different members of the GPX gene family were coordinately regulated under specific environmental stress conditions, and supported the important roles of TsGPXs in salt and drought stress response in T. salsuginea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Expression of PHB2 in Rat Brain Cortex Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3299-3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023299
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3399 | PDF Full-text (1898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prohibitin2 (PHB2) is a ubiquitous, evolutionarily strongly conserved protein. It is one of the components of the prohibitin complex, which comprises two highly homologous subunits, PHB1 and PHB2. PHB2 is present in various cellular compartments including the nucleus and mitochondria. Recent studies have [...] Read more.
Prohibitin2 (PHB2) is a ubiquitous, evolutionarily strongly conserved protein. It is one of the components of the prohibitin complex, which comprises two highly homologous subunits, PHB1 and PHB2. PHB2 is present in various cellular compartments including the nucleus and mitochondria. Recent studies have identified PHB2 as a multifunctional protein that controls cell proliferation, apoptosis, cristae morphogenesis and the functional integrity of mitochondria. However its distribution and function in the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. In this study, we examined PHB2 expression and cellular localization in rats after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). Western Blot analysis showed PHB2 level was significantly enhanced at five days after injury compared to control, and then declined during the following days. The protein expression of PHB2 was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In comparison to contralateral cerebral cortex, we observed a highly significant accumulation of PHB2 at the ipsilateral brain. Immunofluorescence double-labeling showed that PHB2 was co-expressed with NeuN, GFAP. Besides, PHB2 also colocalized with activated caspase-3 and PCNA. To further investigate the function of PHB2, primary cultured astrocytes and the neuronal cell line PC12 were employed to establish a proliferation model and an apoptosis model, respectively, to simulate the cell activity after TBI to a certain degree. Knocking down PHB2 by siRNA partly increased the apoptosis level of PC12 stimulated by H2O2. While the PHB2 was interrupted by siRNA, the proliferation level of primary cultured astrocytes was inhibited notably than that in the control group. Together with our data, we hypothesized that PHB2 might play an important role in CNS pathophysiology after TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
Open AccessArticle
Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of the Immunomodulator Organotellurium Compound Ammonium Trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O')tellurate (AS101)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3287-3298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023287
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2432 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ammonium trichloro[1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101) is the most important synthetic Te compound from the standpoint of its biological activity. It is a potent immunomodulator with a variety of potential therapeutic applications and antitumoral action in several preclinical and clinical studies. An [...] Read more.
Ammonium trichloro[1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101) is the most important synthetic Te compound from the standpoint of its biological activity. It is a potent immunomodulator with a variety of potential therapeutic applications and antitumoral action in several preclinical and clinical studies. An experimental design has been used to develop and optimize a novel microwave-assisted synthesis (MAOS) of the AS101. In comparison to the results observed in the literature, refluxing Te(IV) chloride and ethylene glycol in acetonitrile (Method A), or by refluxing Te(IV) chloride and ammonium chloride in ethylene glycol (Method B), it was found that the developed methods in the present work are an effective alternative, because although performance slightly decreases compared to conventional procedures (75% vs. 79% by Method A, and 45% vs. 51% by Method B), reaction times decreased from 4 h to 30 min and from 4 h to 10 min, by Methods A and B respectively. MAOS is proving to be of value in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities, specially based on the benefit of its shorter reaction times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis Serine Proteases and Evidence for Their Indirect Role in Insecticide Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3272-3286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023272
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 9 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2697 | PDF Full-text (572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both [...] Read more.
The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 μg/g β-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with β-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview
miR-137: A New Player in Schizophrenia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3262-3271; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023262
Received: 12 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 3969 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disease and characterized by affective, cognitive, neuromorphological, and molecular abnormalities that may have a neurodevelopmental origin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical to neurodevelopment and adult neuronal processes by modulating the activity of multiple genes within biological networks. MiR-137 as [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disease and characterized by affective, cognitive, neuromorphological, and molecular abnormalities that may have a neurodevelopmental origin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical to neurodevelopment and adult neuronal processes by modulating the activity of multiple genes within biological networks. MiR-137 as a brain-enriched microRNA, plays important roles in regulating embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) fate determination, neuronal proliferation and differentiation, and synaptic maturation. Its dysregulation causes changes in the gene expression regulation network of the nervous system, thus inducing mental disorders. Recently, miR-137 has been confirmed as a gene related to schizophrenia susceptibility. In the following review, we summarize the expression pattern, epigenetic regulation and functions of miR-137. A more complete picture of the miR-137, which is dysregulated in psychiatric illness, may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessCommunication
Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3253-3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023253
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3784 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of [...] Read more.
Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Neuroprotective Role of Acupuncture and Activation of the BDNF Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3234-3252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023234
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5842 | PDF Full-text (480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have been conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture in many neurological disorders. Although the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has been linked to changes in signaling pathways, accumulating evidence suggest the participation of endogenous biological mediators, such as the neurotrophin [...] Read more.
Recent studies have been conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture in many neurological disorders. Although the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has been linked to changes in signaling pathways, accumulating evidence suggest the participation of endogenous biological mediators, such as the neurotrophin (NT) family of proteins, specifically, the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Accordingly, acupuncture can inhibit neurodegeneration via expression and activation of BDNF. Moreover, recent studies have reported that acupuncture can increase ATP levels at local stimulated points. We have also demonstrated that acupuncture could activate monocytes and increase the expression of BDNF via the stimulation of ATP. The purpose of this article is to review the recent findings and ongoing studies on the neuroprotective roles of acupuncture and therapeutic implications of acupuncture-induced activation of BDNF and its signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Protein–Protein Interaction with Pairwise Kernel Support Vector Machine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3220-3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023220
Received: 1 January 2014 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2957 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in many cellular processes. Unfortunately, the experimental methods currently used to identify PPIs are both time-consuming and expensive. These obstacles could be overcome by developing computational approaches to predict PPIs. Here, we report two methods of [...] Read more.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in many cellular processes. Unfortunately, the experimental methods currently used to identify PPIs are both time-consuming and expensive. These obstacles could be overcome by developing computational approaches to predict PPIs. Here, we report two methods of amino acids feature extraction: (i) distance frequency with PCA reducing the dimension (DFPCA) and (ii) amino acid index distribution (AAID) representing the protein sequences. In order to obtain the most robust and reliable results for PPI prediction, pairwise kernel function and support vector machines (SVM) were employed to avoid the concatenation order of two feature vectors generated with two proteins. The highest prediction accuracies of AAID and DFPCA were 94% and 93.96%, respectively, using the 10 CV test, and the results of pairwise radial basis kernel function are considerably improved over those based on radial basis kernel function. Overall, the PPI prediction tool, termed PPI-PKSVM, which is freely available at http://159.226.118.31/PPI/index.html, promises to become useful in such areas as bio-analysis and drug development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A New Pepstatin-Insensitive Thermopsin-Like Protease Overproduced in Peptide-Rich Cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3204-3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023204
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2483 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we gain insight into the extracellular proteolytic system of Sulfolobus solfataricus grown on proteinaceous substrates, providing further evidence that acidic proteases were specifically produced in response to peptide-rich media. The main proteolytic component was the previously isolated SsMTP (Sulfolobus [...] Read more.
In this study, we gain insight into the extracellular proteolytic system of Sulfolobus solfataricus grown on proteinaceous substrates, providing further evidence that acidic proteases were specifically produced in response to peptide-rich media. The main proteolytic component was the previously isolated SsMTP (Sulfolobus solfataricus multi-domain thermopsin-like protease), while the less abundant (named SsMTP-1) one was purified, characterized and identified as the sso1175 gene-product. The protein revealed a multi-domain organization shared with the cognate SsMTP with a catalytic domain followed by several tandemly-repeated motifs. Moreover, both enzymes were found spread across the Crenarchaeota phylum and belonging to the thermopsin family, although segregated into diverse phylogenetic clusters. SsMTP-1 showed a 75-kDa molecular mass and was stable in the temperature range 50–90 °C, with optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 2.0. Serine, metallo and aspartic protease inhibitors did not affect the enzyme activity, designating SsMTP-1 as a new member of the pepstatin-insensitive aspartic protease family. The peptide-bond-specificity of SsMTP-1 in the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B chain was uncommon amongst thermopsins, suggesting that it could play a distinct, but cooperative role in the protein degradation machinery. Interestingly, predictions of the transmembrane protein topology of SsMTP and SsMTP-1 strongly suggest a possible contribution in signal-transduction pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermophilic DNases, RNases and Proteases)
Open AccessArticle
Pattern Recognition Techniques Applied to the Study of Leishmanial Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Inhibition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3186-3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023186
Received: 13 August 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2444 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemometric pattern recognition techniques were employed in order to obtain Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) models relating the structures of a series of adenosine compounds to the affinity for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH). A training set of 49 compounds was [...] Read more.
Chemometric pattern recognition techniques were employed in order to obtain Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) models relating the structures of a series of adenosine compounds to the affinity for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH). A training set of 49 compounds was used to build the models and the best ones were obtained with one geometrical and four electronic descriptors. Classification models were externally validated by predictions for a test set of 14 compounds not used in the model building process. Results of good quality were obtained, as verified by the correct classifications achieved. Moreover, the results are in good agreement with previous SAR studies on these molecules, to such an extent that we can suggest that these findings may help in further investigations on ligands of LmGAPDH capable of improving treatment of leishmaniasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Inhibitors Protect against Ischemic Toxicity through Attenuating Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake from Endoplasmic Reticulum Store in PC12 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3172-3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023172
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2911 | PDF Full-text (1733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intracellular calcium homeostasis disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases, including ischemic brain injury. An imbalance in mitochondrial fission and fusion is one of the most important structural abnormalities found in a large number of mitochondrial dysfunction [...] Read more.
Intracellular calcium homeostasis disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases, including ischemic brain injury. An imbalance in mitochondrial fission and fusion is one of the most important structural abnormalities found in a large number of mitochondrial dysfunction related diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of mitochondrial division inhibitor A (mdivi A) and mdivi B, two small molecule inhibitors of mitochondrial fission protein dunamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1), in neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in PC12 cells. We found that mdivi A and mdivi B inhibited OGD-induced neuronal injury through attenuating apoptotic cell death. These two inhibitors also preserved mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cytochrome c release, as well as prevented loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Moreover, mdivi A and mdivi B significantly suppressed mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, but had no effect on cytoplasmic Ca2+ after OGD injury. The results of calcium imaging and immunofluorescence staining showed that Drp-1 inhibitors attenuated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release and prevented ER morphological changes induced by OGD. These results demonstrate that Drp-1 inhibitors protect against ischemic neuronal injury through inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake from the ER store and attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signaling in Biology and Patho-Biology)
Open AccessArticle
Evodiamine Induces Apoptosis and Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells through mTOR/S6K1-Mediated Downregulation of Mcl-1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3154-3171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023154
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3168 | PDF Full-text (1761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, has been considered as a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid isolated from the fruit of Evodia fructus [...] Read more.
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, has been considered as a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid isolated from the fruit of Evodia fructus, induced apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we found that evodiamine significantly reduced the protein levels of Mcl-1 in 253J and T24 bladder cancer cells, and overexpression of this molecule attenuated the apoptosis induced by evodiamine alone, or in combination with TRAIL. Further experiments revealed that evodiamine did not affect the mRNA level, proteasomal degradation and protein stability of Mcl-1. On the other hand, evodiamine inhibited the mTOR/S6K1 pathway, which usually regulates protein translation; moreover, knockdown of S6K1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively reduced Mcl-1 levels, indicating evodiamine downregulates c-FLIP through inhibition of mTOR/S6K1 pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that evodiamine induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis possibly through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of Mcl-1; furthermore, these findings provide a rationale for the combined application of evodiamine with TRAIL in the treatment of bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology 2014)
Open AccessReview
Autophagic Cell Death and Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3145-3153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023145
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 83 | Viewed by 5139 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process required for the normal development and physiology of metazoans. The three major mechanisms that induce PCD are called type I (apoptosis), type II (autophagic cell death), and type III (necrotic cell death). Dysfunctional PCD leads [...] Read more.
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process required for the normal development and physiology of metazoans. The three major mechanisms that induce PCD are called type I (apoptosis), type II (autophagic cell death), and type III (necrotic cell death). Dysfunctional PCD leads to diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Although apoptosis is the most common form of PCD, recent studies have provided evidence that there are other forms of cell death. One of such cell death is autophagic cell death, which occurs via the activation of autophagy. The present review summarizes recent knowledge about autophagic cell death and discusses the relationship with tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessReview
Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Obesity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3118-3144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023118
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4767 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen [...] Read more.
Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
Open AccessReview
Nanostructured Guidance for Peripheral Nerve Injuries: A Review with a Perspective in the Oral and Maxillofacial Area
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3088-3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023088
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3043 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Injury to peripheral nerves can occur as a result of various surgical procedures, including oral and maxillofacial surgery. In the case of nerve transaction, the gold standard treatment is the end-to-end reconnection of the two nerve stumps. When it cannot be performed, the [...] Read more.
Injury to peripheral nerves can occur as a result of various surgical procedures, including oral and maxillofacial surgery. In the case of nerve transaction, the gold standard treatment is the end-to-end reconnection of the two nerve stumps. When it cannot be performed, the actual strategies consist of the positioning of a nerve graft between the two stumps. Guided nerve regeneration using nano-structured scaffolds is a promising strategy to promote axon regeneration. Biodegradable electrospun conduits composed of aligned nanofibers is a new class of devices used to improve neurite extension and axon outgrowth. Self assembled peptide nanofibrous scaffolds (SAPNSs) demonstrated promising results in animal models for central nervous system injuries, and, more recently, for peripheral nerve injury. Aims of this work are (1) to review electrospun and self-assembled nanofibrous scaffolds use in vitro and in vivo for peripheral nerve regeneration; and (2) its application in peripheral nerve injuries treatment. The review focused on nanofibrous scaffolds with a diameter of less than approximately 250 nm. The conjugation in a nano scale of a natural bioactive factor with a resorbable synthetic or natural material may represent the best compromise providing both biological and mechanical cues for guided nerve regeneration. Injured peripheral nerves, such as trigeminal and facial, may benefit from these treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
Open AccessReview
Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3064-3087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023064
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 25 December 2013 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2941 | PDF Full-text (1659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM) and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM) are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl) and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6) to [...] Read more.
Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM) and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM) are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl) and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6) to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3040-3063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023040
Received: 7 October 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3356 | PDF Full-text (1129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating [...] Read more.
Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Barley β-Glucans-Containing Food Enhances Probiotic Performances of Beneficial Bacteria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3025-3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023025
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3771 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, the majority of prebiotics in the market are derived from non-digestible oligosaccharides. Very few studies have focused on non-digestible long chain complex polysaccharides in relation to their potential as novel prebiotics. Cereals β-glucans have been investigated for immune-modulating properties and beneficial effects [...] Read more.
Currently, the majority of prebiotics in the market are derived from non-digestible oligosaccharides. Very few studies have focused on non-digestible long chain complex polysaccharides in relation to their potential as novel prebiotics. Cereals β-glucans have been investigated for immune-modulating properties and beneficial effects on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cholesterol levels. Moreover, β-glucans have been reported to be highly fermentable by the intestinal microbiota in the caecum and colon, and can enhance both growth rate and lactic acid production of microbes isolated from the human intestine. In this work, we report the effects of food matrices containing barley β-glucans on growth and probiotic features of four Lactobacillus strains. Such matrices were able to improve the growth rate of the tested bacteria both in unstressed conditions and, importantly, after exposure to in vitro simulation of the digestive tract. Moreover, the effect of β-glucans-containing food on bacterial adhesion to enterocyte-like cells was analyzed and a positive influence on probiotic-enterocyte interaction was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3003-3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15023003
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3158 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), which belong to the ionotropic [...] Read more.
G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling and Regulation)
Open AccessArticle
Lipidomic Analysis of Serum from High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2991-3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022991
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4995 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lipid metabolites regulate fatty acid and glucose homeostasis. The intention of the current study is to identify circulating lipid species, which are altered in rodent obesity and strongly correlate with the classically measured metabolites glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mice fed a high fat [...] Read more.
Lipid metabolites regulate fatty acid and glucose homeostasis. The intention of the current study is to identify circulating lipid species, which are altered in rodent obesity and strongly correlate with the classically measured metabolites glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks have increased body weight and fasting glucose. Serum triglycerides are not altered, while cholesterol tends to be increased. Accordingly, major cholesteryl ester (CE) species and free cholesterol are not significantly raised in obesity while minor metabolites, including CE 20:3 and CE 18:3, are increased or reduced, respectively. Distinct sphingomyelin (SM) species are elevated while ceramides are not raised. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) species, including PI 34:1, are raised while others are decreased. PI 34:1 strongly correlates with fasting glucose and proinsulin levels. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) 26:0, 40:2, and 40:5, which are induced in obesity, correlate with cholesterol. PC 38:4 and PC 40:6 are also raised in fat fed mice and positively correlate with fasting glucose. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species are also changed in obesity and the already shown reduction of LPC 16:1 has been confirmed. LPC 22:4, which is increased, correlates with serum cholesterol. The data indicate that circulating levels of various lipid species are changed in the obesity model studied and some of them are strongly associated with classically measured metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle
A Genotoxic Stress-Responsive miRNA, miR-574-3p, Delays Cell Growth by Suppressing the Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog Gene in Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2971-2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022971
Received: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3029 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA that regulates the expression of its target genes by interacting with the complementary sequence of the target mRNA molecules. Recent evidence has shown that genotoxic stress induces miRNA expression, but the target genes involved and [...] Read more.
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA that regulates the expression of its target genes by interacting with the complementary sequence of the target mRNA molecules. Recent evidence has shown that genotoxic stress induces miRNA expression, but the target genes involved and role in cellular responses remain unclear. We examined the role of miRNA in the cellular response to X-ray irradiation by studying the expression profiles of radio-responsive miRNAs and their target genes in cultured human cell lines. We found that expression of miR-574-3p was induced in the lung cancer cell line A549 by X-ray irradiation. Overexpression of miR-574-3p caused delayed growth in A549 cells. A predicted target site was detected in the 3'-untranslated region of the enhancer of the rudimentary homolog (ERH) gene, and transfected cells showed an interaction between the luciferase reporter containing the target sequences and miR-574-3p. Overexpression of miR-574-3p suppressed ERH protein production and delayed cell growth. This delay was confirmed by knockdown of ERH expression. Our study suggests that miR-574-3p may contribute to the regulation of the cell cycle in response to X-ray irradiation via suppression of ERH protein production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Shape and Site Dependent in Vivo Degradation of Mg-Zn Pins in Rabbit Femoral Condyle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2959-2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022959
Received: 26 October 2013 / Revised: 2 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3085 | PDF Full-text (3010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan [...] Read more.
A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)
Open AccessArticle
HuR and TIA1/TIAL1 Are Involved in Regulation of Alternative Splicing of SIRT1 Pre-mRNA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2946-2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022946
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 19 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3271 | PDF Full-text (597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
SIRT1 is a pleiotropic protein that plays critical and multifunctional roles in metabolism, senescence, longevity, stress-responses, and cancer, and has become an important therapeutic target across a range of diseases. Recent research demonstrated that SIRT1 pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing to produce different isoforms, [...] Read more.
SIRT1 is a pleiotropic protein that plays critical and multifunctional roles in metabolism, senescence, longevity, stress-responses, and cancer, and has become an important therapeutic target across a range of diseases. Recent research demonstrated that SIRT1 pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing to produce different isoforms, such as SIRT1 full-length and SIRT1-∆Exon8 variants. Previous studies revealed these SIRT1 mRNA splice variants convey different characteristics and functions to the protein, which may in turn explain the multifunctional roles of SIRT1. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SIRT1 alternative splicing remain to be elucidated. Our objective is to search for new pathways that regulate of SIRT1 alternative splicing. Here we describe experiments showing that HuR and TIA1/TIAL1, two kinds of RNA-binding proteins, were involved in the regulation of alternative splicing of SIRT1 pre-mRNA under normal and stress circumstances: HuR increased SIRT1-∆Exon8 by promoting SIRT1 exon 8 exclusion, whereas TIA1/TIAL1 inhibition of the exon 8 exclusion led to a decrease in SIRT1-∆Exon8 mRNA levels. This study provides novel insight into how the alternative splicing of SIRT1 pre-mRNA is regulated, which has fundamental implications for understanding the critical and multifunctional roles of SIRT1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pre-mRNA Splicing)
Open AccessArticle
Three Basic Residues of Intracellular Loop 3 of the Beta-1 Adrenergic Receptor Are Required for Golgin-160-Dependent Trafficking
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2929-2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022929
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2762 | PDF Full-text (2467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Golgin-160 is a member of the golgin family of proteins, which have been implicated in the maintenance of Golgi structure and in vesicle tethering. Golgin-160 is atypical; it promotes post-Golgi trafficking of specific cargo proteins, including the β-1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR), a G [...] Read more.
Golgin-160 is a member of the golgin family of proteins, which have been implicated in the maintenance of Golgi structure and in vesicle tethering. Golgin-160 is atypical; it promotes post-Golgi trafficking of specific cargo proteins, including the β-1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR), a G protein-coupled receptor. Here we show that golgin-160 binds directly to the third intracellular loop of β1AR and that this binding depends on three basic residues in this loop. Mutation of the basic residues does not affect trafficking of β1AR from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi complex, but results in reduced steady-state levels at the plasma membrane. We hypothesize that golgin-160 promotes incorporation of β1AR into specific transport carriers at the trans-Golgi network to ensure efficient delivery to the cell surface. These results add to our understanding of the biogenesis of β1AR, and suggest a novel point of regulation for its delivery to the plasma membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling and Regulation)
Open AccessArticle
Soluble Calreticulin Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin (IL)-6 Production by Macrophages through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and NFκB Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2916-2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022916
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3677 | PDF Full-text (2284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have recently reported that soluble calreticulin (CRT) accumulates in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, following self-oligomerization, soluble recombinant CRT (rCRT) polypeptides exhibit potent immunostimulatory activities including macrophage activation in vitro and antibody induction in vivo [...] Read more.
We have recently reported that soluble calreticulin (CRT) accumulates in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, following self-oligomerization, soluble recombinant CRT (rCRT) polypeptides exhibit potent immunostimulatory activities including macrophage activation in vitro and antibody induction in vivo. This study was designed to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for soluble CRT-induced macrophage activation. Treatment of murine macrophages with oligomerized rCRT (OrCRT) led to (i) TNF-α and IL-6 transcription and protein expression without affecting intracellular mRNA stability; and (ii) IκBα degradation, NFκB phosphorylation and sustained MAPK phosphorylation in cells. Inhibition of IKK and JNK in macrophages substantially abrogated production of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by OrCRT, while ERK suppression only reduced IL-6 expression in parallel experiments. In vitro, fucoidan, a scavenger receptor A (SRA)-specific ligand, significantly reduced the uptake of FITC-labeled OrCRT by macrophages and subsequent MAPK and NFκB activation, thereby suggesting SRA as one of the potential cell surface receptors for soluble CRT. Together, these data indicate that soluble CRT in oligomerized form could play a pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases through induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α and IL-6) by macrophages via MAPK-NFκB signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessCommunication
Trans-Cinnamic Acid Increases Adiponectin and the Phosphorylation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase through G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2906-2915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022906
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2945 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adiponectin and intracellular 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are important modulators of glucose and fat metabolism. Cinnamon exerts beneficial effects by improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipids, e.g., through increasing adiponectin concentrations and AMPK activation. The underlying mechanism is unknown. The Gi [...] Read more.
Adiponectin and intracellular 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are important modulators of glucose and fat metabolism. Cinnamon exerts beneficial effects by improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipids, e.g., through increasing adiponectin concentrations and AMPK activation. The underlying mechanism is unknown. The Gi/Go-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A stimulates adiponectin secretion after binding its ligand niacin. Trans-cinnamic acid (tCA), a compound of cinnamon is another ligand. We hypothesize whether AMPK activation and adiponectin secretion by tCA is transmitted by GPR signaling. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi/Go-protein-coupling, and treated with different tCA concentrations. Treatment with tCA increased adiponectin and the pAMPK/AMPK ratio (p ≤ 0.001). PTX incubation abolished the increased pAMPK/AMPK ratio and adiponectin secretion. The latter remained increased compared to controls (p ≤ 0.002). tCA treatment stimulated adiponectin secretion and AMPK activation; the inhibitory effect of PTX suggests GPR is involved in tCA stimulated signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
NTCP and Beyond: Opening the Door to Unveil Hepatitis B Virus Entry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2892-2905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022892
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 8219 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, affecting approximately 240 million people worldwide, is a major public health problem that elevates the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that current anti-HBV drugs are limited to interferon-based regimens and nucleos(t)ide analogs, the [...] Read more.
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, affecting approximately 240 million people worldwide, is a major public health problem that elevates the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that current anti-HBV drugs are limited to interferon-based regimens and nucleos(t)ide analogs, the development of new anti-HBV agents is urgently needed. The viral entry process is generally an attractive target implicated in antiviral strategies. Using primary cells from humans and Tupaia belangeri, as well as HepaRG cells, important determinants of viral entry have been achieved. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was identified as an HBV entry receptor and enabled the establishment of a susceptible cell line that can efficiently support HBV infection. This finding will allow a deeper understanding of the requirements for efficient HBV infection, including the elucidation of the molecular entry mechanism. In addition, pharmacological studies suggest that NTCP is able to serve as a therapeutic target. This article summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV entry and the role of NTCP in this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2876-2891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022876
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2885 | PDF Full-text (707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Casein kinase 1 is a group of ubiquitous serine/threonine kinases that are involved in normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions, such as DNA repair, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies have indicated that casein kinase 1-epsilon (CK1ε) and casein [...] Read more.
Casein kinase 1 is a group of ubiquitous serine/threonine kinases that are involved in normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions, such as DNA repair, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies have indicated that casein kinase 1-epsilon (CK1ε) and casein kinase 1-delta (CK1δ) expression has a role in human cancers. We investigated the associations between CK1ε and CK1δ expression and the clinical parameters of oral cancer using immunohistochemical study methods on oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens. The results of our immunohistochemical analysis showed that the loss of CK1ε expression was greatly associated with a poor four-year survival rate in oral cancer patients (p = 0.002). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had a considerably poorer overall survival rate than patients who had positive CK1ε expressions (p = 0.022). A univariate analysis revealed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had considerably poorer overall survival (OS) than patients who had positive expression (p = 0.024, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7). In conclusion, our data indicated that the loss of cytoplasmic CK1ε expression is greatly associated with poor survival and might be an adverse survival factor. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Interplay between Endothelin and Erythropoietin in Astroglia: The Role in Protection against Hypoxia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2858-2875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022858
Received: 9 November 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3043 | PDF Full-text (1051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We show that, under in vitro conditions, the vulnerability of astroglia to hypoxia is reflected by alterations in endothelin (ET)-1 release and capacity of erythropoietin (EPO) to regulate ET-1 levels. Exposure of cells to 24 h hypoxia did not induce changes in ET-1 [...] Read more.
We show that, under in vitro conditions, the vulnerability of astroglia to hypoxia is reflected by alterations in endothelin (ET)-1 release and capacity of erythropoietin (EPO) to regulate ET-1 levels. Exposure of cells to 24 h hypoxia did not induce changes in ET-1 release, while 48–72 h hypoxia resulted in increase of ET-1 release from astrocytes that could be abolished by EPO. The endothelin receptor type A (ETA) antagonist BQ123 increased extracellular levels of ET-1 in human fetal astroglial cell line (SV-FHAS). The survival and proliferation of rat primary astrocytes, neural precursors, and neurons upon hypoxic conditions were increased upon administration of BQ123. Hypoxic injury and aging affected the interaction between the EPO and ET systems. Under hypoxia EPO decreased ET-1 release from astrocytes, while ETA receptor blockade enhanced the expression of EPO mRNA and EPO receptor in culture-aged rat astroglia. The blockade of ETA receptor can increase the availability of ET-1 to the ETB receptor and can potentiate the neuroprotective effects of EPO. Thus, the new therapeutic use of combined administration of EPO and ETA receptor antagonists during hypoxia-associated neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) can be suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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