Next Article in Journal
The Radial Propagation of Heat in Strongly Driven Non-Equilibrium Fusion Plasmas
Previous Article in Journal
Quantum Interference Effects on Information Phase Space and Entropy Squeezing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reduced Models of Point Vortex Systems
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2019, 21(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020149

A Study of the Cross-Scale Causation and Information Flow in a Stormy Model Mid-Latitude Atmosphere

Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamical Studies, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, 219 Ningliu Blvd, Nanjing 210044, China
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and Stochastics for Multiscale Nonlinear Systems)
PDF [750 KB, uploaded 5 February 2019]

Abstract

A fundamental problem regarding the storm–jet stream interaction in the extratropical atmosphere is how energy and information are exchanged between scales. While energy transfer has been extensively investigated, the latter has been mostly overlooked, mainly due to a lack of appropriate theory and methodology. Using a recently established rigorous formalism of information flow, this study attempts to examine the problem in the setting of a three-dimensional quasi-geostrophic zonal jet, with storms excited by a set of optimal perturbation modes. We choose for this study a period when the self-sustained oscillation is in quasi-equilibrium, and when the energetics mimick the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation where available potential energy is cascaded downward to smaller scales, and kinetic energy is inversely transferred upward toward larger scales. By inverting a three-dimensional elliptic differential operator, the model is first converted into a low-dimensional dynamical system, where the components correspond to different time scales. The information exchange between the scales is then computed through ensemble prediction. For this particular problem, the resulting cross-scale information flow is mostly from smaller scales to larger scales. That is to say, during this period, this model extratropical atmosphere is dominated by a bottom-up causation, as collective patterns emerge out of independent entities and macroscopic thermodynamic properties evolve from random molecular motions. This study makes a first step toward an important field in understanding the eddy–mean flow interaction in weather and climate phenomena such as atmospheric blocking, storm track, North Atlantic Oscillation, to name a few.
Keywords: causality; information flow; multiscale interaction; self-organization; storm; atmospheric jet stream; weather and climate patterns causality; information flow; multiscale interaction; self-organization; storm; atmospheric jet stream; weather and climate patterns
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, X.S. A Study of the Cross-Scale Causation and Information Flow in a Stormy Model Mid-Latitude Atmosphere. Entropy 2019, 21, 149.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top