Topic Editors

Department of Space Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Faculty, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands
Department of Aerospace Science & Technology, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, 157 72 Athens, Greece
Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan, Italy

Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
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27737

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are happy to announce a new MDPI topic on Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components, of which we will be editors.

Miniaturized spacecrafts in the micro- and nano-satellite class (CubeSats, PocketQubes, satellites on a chip, or any other miniaturized format) are represent game-changers in the space mission scenarios. They have contributed to “democratize” access to space, making it easier, faster, cheaper, and, ultimately, open to a much larger group of potential users and operators. The fast progress that has been made in the miniaturization of technologies and components has obviously played a crucial role in this evolution of the space sector. Nowadays, the use of standardized formats and design methods, the simplification of satellite infrastructures, and the availability of a wide variety of off-the shelf components and systems are making it possible to manufacture and operate a working spacecraft at a low cost. Eventually, these miniaturized spacecrafts, which were initially only used just in Academic or demonstration projects, are rapidly extending their range of applications to commercial and, in some cases, even very ambitious deep-space or interplanetary missions.

This Topic aims to host a selection of contributions covering innovative, cross-boundary, advanced developments related to technologies, systems, or components for this class of miniaturized spacecrafts. Any system, sub-system, or specific component of the spacecraft either at the hardware, software or conceptual design level is of interest to this Topic.

Manuscripts presenting original research or state-of-the-art reviews are welcome for submission. Authors are encouraged to submit articles on the analytical, numerical, design, test, or integration activities of micro-/nano-satellite technologies or systems. Proposed papers can either relate to a complete sub-system or specific components of it. Contributions on innovative ideas or concepts are welcome as well as contributions addressing embedded and integrated systems that combine different sub-systems or functions of the spacecraft into a single system.

We look forward to receiving your contributions. 

Prof. Dr. Angelo Cervone
Prof. Dr. Vaios Lappas
Dr. Vittorio Franzese
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • micro-/nano-satellites
  • CubeSats
  • miniaturized space systems
  • innovative small satellite technologies
  • integrated and embedded small satellite systems
  • miniaturized deep-space missions

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Aerospace
aerospace
2.6 3.0 2014 22.3 Days CHF 2400
Eng
eng
- - 2020 18.7 Days CHF 1200
Micromachines
micromachines
3.4 4.7 2010 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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18 pages, 21137 KiB  
Article
On-Orbit Relative Radiometric Calibration of the Bayer Pattern Push-Broom Sensor for Zhuhai-1 Video Satellites
by Litao Li, Zhen Li, Zhixin Wang, Yonghua Jiang, Xin Shen and Jiaqi Wu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020377 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
The two video satellites of the second and third batch of Zhuhai-1 microsatellites (referred to as OVS-2A/3A) are operational with their hyperspectral satellites, which improves the data acquisi-tion capability of the Zhuhai-1 remote sensing satellite constellation. Contrary to the linear array push-broom hyperspectral [...] Read more.
The two video satellites of the second and third batch of Zhuhai-1 microsatellites (referred to as OVS-2A/3A) are operational with their hyperspectral satellites, which improves the data acquisi-tion capability of the Zhuhai-1 remote sensing satellite constellation. Contrary to the linear array push-broom hyperspectral satellites and plane array CCD video satellites, the OVS satellite is equipped with a planar array Bayer pattern sensor, which can obtain single-band grayscale images by push-broom imaging. Additionally, the Bayer color reconstruction algorithm can interpolate sensor data to provide RGB color band information. Therefore, for the Bayer pattern push-broom sensor, the relative calibration method of linear push-broom or array cameras cannot be directly applied. The radiometric calibration of the Bayer pattern push-broom imaging mode has become a matter of concern; therefore, this study developed a radiometric calibration method for the Bayer pattern push-broom sensor of the OVS satellite and verified its effectiveness and accuracy. OVS images were used to perform on-orbit relative radiometric calibration, and the calibration accu-racy, including streaking metrics and root-mean-square error, was better than 1%, meeting the specification requirements for the OVS satellite. Visually, after calibration correction, the streaking and striping noise of the Bayer images was removed, and the radiometric quality of the image was considerably improved, providing a good data basis for subsequent research in remote sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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14 pages, 5546 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Algorithm for Infrared Earth Sensor with a Large Field of View
by Bendong Wang, Hao Wang and Zhonghe Jin
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9409; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239409 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Infrared Earth sensors with large-field-of-view (FOV) cameras are widely used in low-Earth-orbit satellites. To improve the accuracy and speed of Earth sensors, an algorithm based on modified random sample consensus (RANSAC) and weighted total least squares (WTLS) is proposed. Firstly, the modified RANSAC [...] Read more.
Infrared Earth sensors with large-field-of-view (FOV) cameras are widely used in low-Earth-orbit satellites. To improve the accuracy and speed of Earth sensors, an algorithm based on modified random sample consensus (RANSAC) and weighted total least squares (WTLS) is proposed. Firstly, the modified RANSAC with a pre-verification step was used to remove the noisy points efficiently. Then, the Earth’s oblateness was taken into consideration and the Earth’s horizon was projected onto a unit sphere as a three-dimensional (3D) curve. Finally, the TLS and WTLS were used to fit the projection of the Earth horizon. With the help of TLS and WTLS, the accuracy of the Earth sensor was greatly improved. Simulated images and on-orbit infrared images obtained via the satellite Tianping-2B were used to assess the performance of the algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the method outperforms RANSAC, M-estimator sample consensus (MLESAC), and Hough transformation in terms of speed. The accuracy of the algorithm for nadir estimation is approximately 0.04° (root-mean-square error) when Earth is fully visible and 0.16° when the off-nadir angle is 120°, which is a significant improvement upon other nadir estimation algorithms Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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19 pages, 11920 KiB  
Article
Cloud Detection Autonomous System Based on Machine Learning and COTS Components On-Board Small Satellites
by Carlos Salazar, Jesus Gonzalez-Llorente, Lorena Cardenas, Javier Mendez, Sonia Rincon, Julian Rodriguez-Ferreira and Ignacio F. Acero
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5597; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215597 - 06 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
One of the main applications of small satellites is Earth observation. CubeSats and different kinds of nanosatellites usually form constellations that obtain images mainly using an optical payload. There is a massive amount of data generated by these satellites and a limited capacity [...] Read more.
One of the main applications of small satellites is Earth observation. CubeSats and different kinds of nanosatellites usually form constellations that obtain images mainly using an optical payload. There is a massive amount of data generated by these satellites and a limited capacity of download due to volume and mass constraints that make it difficult to use high-speed communication systems and high-power systems. For this reason, it is important to develop satellites with the autonomy to process data on board. In this way, the limited communication channel can be used efficiently to download relevant images containing the required information. In this paper, a system for the satellite on-board processing of RGB images is proposed, which automatically detects the cloud coverage level to prioritize the images and effectively uses the download time and the mission operation center. The system implements a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) on a Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS) microcontroller that receives the image and returns the cloud level (priority). After training, the system was tested on a dataset of 100 images with an accuracy of 0.9 and it was also evaluated with CubeSat images to evaluate the performance of a different image sensor. This implementation contributes to the development of autonomous satellites with processing on board. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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20 pages, 27048 KiB  
Article
Design and Verification of an Integrated Panoramic Sun Sensor atop a Small Spherical Satellite
by Qi Zhang and Yulin Zhang
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8130; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218130 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
This paper proposes an integrated panoramic sun sensor (IPSS) for the small spherical satellite Q-SAT that has been working in orbit since 2020. IPSS is essentially a set of temperature-compensated photoelectric cells distributed on the spherical surface of Q-SAT. Compared with traditional sun [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an integrated panoramic sun sensor (IPSS) for the small spherical satellite Q-SAT that has been working in orbit since 2020. IPSS is essentially a set of temperature-compensated photoelectric cells distributed on the spherical surface of Q-SAT. Compared with traditional sun sensors, IPSS has full spherical coverage of 4π so that the sun vector from any direction can be inversed. The mechatronic design and mathematical model of the proposed IPSS are presented. In-depth error analyses in terms of albedo effect, sampling error, parameter deviation, etc. are carried out. IPSS can provide a sun vector inversion accuracy of 1.5 where albedo disturbance does not dominate. Simulation results show that the measurement of IPSS together with a COTS magnetometer can support the three-axis attitude determination of satellites in various orbits and can adapt to the seasonal variations of subpolar points. Ground experimental results and on-orbit data have also verified the feasibility and performance of IPSS. Although the panoramic sun sensor is designed for the small spherical Q-SAT, it can also be applied to other satellites with limited power budgets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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20 pages, 12461 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a New Deployable Docking Mechanism for Microsatellites
by Yong Zhao, Tao Yang, Honghao Yue, Xiaoze Yang, Dong Bai and Fei Yang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(19), 5002; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14195002 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
In-orbit docking technology of microsatellites to realize combined reconfiguration has a wide application prospect, such as large antennas and space telescopes. In order to reduce collision impact and improve docking accuracy, a new deployable docking mechanism is proposed based on the slider-crank principle, [...] Read more.
In-orbit docking technology of microsatellites to realize combined reconfiguration has a wide application prospect, such as large antennas and space telescopes. In order to reduce collision impact and improve docking accuracy, a new deployable docking mechanism is proposed based on the slider-crank principle, which has the advantages of smaller volume and larger posture tolerance. To achieve large capture tolerance and increase the success rate of docking, the posture error is analyzed by considering the specific boundary of the position and pose. And a step-by-step cooperative capture strategy is proposed to complete the velocity selection and action matching among multiple capture arms. The reliable docking of posture correction in the docking process is realized by designing the action path of the docking mechanism. The effects of tolerance capture under different initial posture conditions are analyzed by dynamic simulation. The effectiveness and superiority of the step-by-step cooperative capture strategy are valid by comparison with the synchronized capture strategy. The comparison results show that the impact force is reduced by 8% than the synchronized strategy. The capture experiments are carried out to verify the docking performance. The results show the proposed configuration with a step-by-step cooperative capture strategy achieves successfully reliable capture, weak impact, and large posture tolerance under eight extreme initial pose conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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20 pages, 3778 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Random Access Methods for IoT-over-Satellite
by Chiu Chun Chan, Bassel Al Homssi and Akram Al-Hourani
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(17), 4232; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14174232 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellations are currently being explored to provide global and seamless coverage for IoT-over-Satellite applications. Random access techniques require low transmission overhead providing a compatible route for IoT-over-Satellite applications, however, coming at the expense of the offered quality-of-service. In [...] Read more.
Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellations are currently being explored to provide global and seamless coverage for IoT-over-Satellite applications. Random access techniques require low transmission overhead providing a compatible route for IoT-over-Satellite applications, however, coming at the expense of the offered quality-of-service. In this paper, we develop a realistic uplink performance framework that incorporates many practical parameters such as the satellite availability, packet collision and interference, Doppler shift, and impairments experienced in a typical Satellite-to-Ground channel. The framework is capable of assessing multiple key performance indicators of the overall IoT-over-Satellite random access system. The performance is presented in terms of the bit error rate, packet error rate, and the energy wasted per IoT device. To emulate a realistic IoT-over-Satellite network, LoRa modulated traffic is first generated and injected into the Satellite-to-Ground channel. The results indicate high resistance to Doppler shifts even without any Doppler correction and provide some resistance to highly congested environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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19 pages, 6281 KiB  
Article
Recognition of Aircraft Activities at Airports on Video Micro-Satellites: Methodology and Experimental Validation
by Rui Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Longlong Xiao and Jiayu Qiu
Aerospace 2022, 9(8), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace9080414 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1491
Abstract
The remote sensing satellite constellation based on micro-satellites is an important means to construct a global and all-sky earth observation system in the future. Therefore, realizing the recognition of aircraft activities on video micro-satellites is a key technology that needs to be solved [...] Read more.
The remote sensing satellite constellation based on micro-satellites is an important means to construct a global and all-sky earth observation system in the future. Therefore, realizing the recognition of aircraft activities on video micro-satellites is a key technology that needs to be solved urgently. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for aircraft activity recognition that can be deployed on video micro-satellites was proposed. First, aircraft detection was performed on the first incoming remote sensing image using a robust DCNN-based object detection model. Then, a multi-target tracking model incorporating geospatial information was built for aircraft tracking and activity recognition. The algorithm was deployed on an embedded AI computer which was a COTS component. The algorithm was verified using remote sensing videos from commercial micro-satellites. Experimental results show that the algorithm can process aircraft targets of different sizes, and is equally effective even with complex environmental backgrounds, lighting conditions, and various movements of the aircraft, such as turning, entering, and exiting. Based on aircraft tracking results and geospatial information, the motion speed of each aircraft can be obtained, and its activity can be divided into parking, taxiing, or flying. The scheme proposed in this paper has good application prospects in the realization of on-orbit event recognition in micro-satellites with limited computing and memory resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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22 pages, 18495 KiB  
Article
Deriving 3-D Surface Deformation Time Series with Strain Model and Kalman Filter from GNSS and InSAR Data
by Panfeng Ji, Xiaolei Lv and Rui Wang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122816 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
This study proposes a new set of processing procedures based on the strain model and the Kalman filter (SM-Kalman) to obtain high-precision three-dimensional surface deformation time series from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data. Implementing the Kalman [...] Read more.
This study proposes a new set of processing procedures based on the strain model and the Kalman filter (SM-Kalman) to obtain high-precision three-dimensional surface deformation time series from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data. Implementing the Kalman filter requires the establishment of state and observation equations. In the time domain, the state equation is generated by fitting the pre-existing deformation time series based on a deformation model containing linear and seasonal terms. In the space domain, the observation equation is established with the assistance of the strain model to realize the spatial combination of InSAR and GNSS observation data at each moment. Benefiting from the application of the Kalman filter, InSAR and GNSS data at different moments can be synchronized. The time and measurement update steps are performed dynamically to generate a 3-D deformation time series with high precision and a high resolution in the temporal and spatial domains. Sentinel-1 SAR and GNSS datasets in the Los Angeles area are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The datasets include twenty-seven ascending track SAR images, thirty-four descending track SAR images and the daily time series of forty-eight GNSS stations from January 2016 to November 2018. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed SM-Kalman method can produce high-precision deformation results at the millimeter level and provide two types of 3-D deformation time series with the same temporal resolution as InSAR or GNSS observations according to the needs of users. The new method achieves a high degree of temporal and spatial fusion of GNSS and InSAR data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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22 pages, 30457 KiB  
Article
On-Orbit Geometric Distortion Correction on Star Images through 2D Legendre Neural Network
by Chenguang Shi, Rui Zhang, Yong Yu and Xiaodong Lin
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122814 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The star tracker is a prerequisite device to realize high-precision attitude determination for a spacecraft. However, due to the errors in optical lens machining, optical path assembly, and temperature alternation, optical instruments suffer from some amount of optical geometric distortion, resulting in declining [...] Read more.
The star tracker is a prerequisite device to realize high-precision attitude determination for a spacecraft. However, due to the errors in optical lens machining, optical path assembly, and temperature alternation, optical instruments suffer from some amount of optical geometric distortion, resulting in declining star tracker accuracy. The on-orbit distortion correction of star images is indispensable for precise performance. In this paper, a novel single-layer 2D Legendre neural network (2DLNN) to automatically correct the geometric distortion of the star tracker is proposed. An offline training method grounded on batch star images and an online training algorithm based on sequential star images are designed, respectively. The 2DLNN realizes the ground-based and on-orbit online correction of optical geometric distortion for the star tracker. The 2DLNN features self-learning, lifelong learning, and good adaptability. The single-layer neural network is simple, quick convergence, which is suitable for on-orbit implementation. The simulations demonstrate that the average distortion error can be reduced to less than 0.04 px after ground-based training. In the earth-orientation mode of the LEO satellite, the on-orbit sequential training algorithm can converge in 2500 star images under 1 frame/s. The proposed 2DLNN can achieve high-precision correction at the sub-pixel level, effectively improving the star tracker’s attitude determination accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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18 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Fuel Optimization and Guidance for Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking
by Ahmed Mehamed Oumer and Dae-Kwan Kim
Aerospace 2022, 9(5), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace9050276 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
Autonomous rendezvous and docking (RVD) fuel optimization with field-of-view and obstacle avoidance constraints is a nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, making it computationally intensive for onboard computation on CubeSats. This paper proposes an RVD fuel optimization and guidance technique suitable for onboard computation [...] Read more.
Autonomous rendezvous and docking (RVD) fuel optimization with field-of-view and obstacle avoidance constraints is a nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, making it computationally intensive for onboard computation on CubeSats. This paper proposes an RVD fuel optimization and guidance technique suitable for onboard computation on CubeSats, considering the shape, size and computational limitations of CubeSats. The computation time is reduced by dividing the guidance problem into separate orbit and attitude guidance problems, formulating the orbit guidance problem as a convex optimization problem by considering the CubeSat shape, and then solving the orbit guidance problem with a convex optimization solver and the attitude guidance problem analytically by exploiting the attitude geometry. The performance of the proposed guidance method is demonstrated through simulations, and the results are compared with those of conventional methods that perform orbit guidance optimization with attitude quaternion feedback control. The proposed method shows better performance, in terms of fuel efficiency, than conventional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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21 pages, 19631 KiB  
Article
A Cloud-Computing-Based Portable Networked Ground Station System for Microsatellites
by Yifei Jiang, Shufan Wu, Qiankun Mo, Wenzheng Liu and Xiao Wei
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093569 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Microsatellites have attracted a large number of scholars and engineers because of their portability and distribution characteristics. The ground station suitable for microsatellite service has become an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a networked ground station and verify it on [...] Read more.
Microsatellites have attracted a large number of scholars and engineers because of their portability and distribution characteristics. The ground station suitable for microsatellite service has become an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a networked ground station and verify it on our own microsatellite. The specific networked ground station system consists of multiple ground nodes. They can work together to complete data transmission tasks with higher efficiency. After describing our microsatellite project, a reasonable distribution of ground nodes is given. A cloud computing model is used to realize the coordination of multiple ground nodes. An adaptive communication system between satellites and ground stations is used to increase link efficiency. Extensive on-orbit experiments were used to validate our design. The experimental results show that our networked ground station has excellent performance in data transmission capability. Finally, the specific cloud-computing-based ground station network successfully completes our satellite mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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12 pages, 4254 KiB  
Article
Study of the Two-Line Element Accuracy by 1U CubeSat with a GPS Receiver
by Pavel Kovář, Pavel Puričer and Kateřina Kovářová
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082902 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2927
Abstract
There is a common practice to calculate orbital trajectories of space objects like satellites and space debris using Two-Line Element Sets (TLEs). However, TLEs provide rather coarse parameters for fine orbit computation and their precision varies with age of their issue and position [...] Read more.
There is a common practice to calculate orbital trajectories of space objects like satellites and space debris using Two-Line Element Sets (TLEs). However, TLEs provide rather coarse parameters for fine orbit computation and their precision varies with age of their issue and position of the satellite. The paper evaluates such induced position determination error using the comparison of a position calculated from TLE data for a small CubeSat class satellite and a position obtained from the on-board custom GPS receiver that is a part of such satellite payload. The analyses of the impact of satellite position at the orbit, i.e., a dependency of position error on satellite geographical latitude, and impact of the ageing of TLE data in frame of position and velocity vector were made. There was shown that use of TLE data can bring some significant errors in calculation of predicted satellite position which can affect performance and efficiency of some related tasks like steering the ground station antenna for communication with the satellite or planning the satellites operations namely for the classes of small and amateur satellites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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10 pages, 16783 KiB  
Article
Polarization Gradient Effect of Negative Capacitance LTFET
by Hao Zhang, Shupeng Chen, Hongxia Liu, Shulong Wang, Dong Wang, Xiaoyang Fan, Chen Chong, Chenyu Yin and Tianzhi Gao
Micromachines 2022, 13(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13030344 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
In this paper, an L-shaped tunneling field effect transistor (LTFET) with ferroelectric gate oxide layer (Si: HfO2) is proposed. The electric characteristic of NC-LTFET is analyzed using Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD. Compared with the conventional LTFET, a steeper subthreshold swing (SS = [...] Read more.
In this paper, an L-shaped tunneling field effect transistor (LTFET) with ferroelectric gate oxide layer (Si: HfO2) is proposed. The electric characteristic of NC-LTFET is analyzed using Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD. Compared with the conventional LTFET, a steeper subthreshold swing (SS = 18.4 mV/dec) of NC-LTFET is obtained by the mechanism of line tunneling at low gate voltage instead of diagonal tunneling, which is caused by the non-uniform voltage across the gate oxide layer. In addition, we report the polarization gradient effect in a negative capacitance TFET for the first time. It is noted that the polarization gradient effect should not be ignored in TFET. When the polarization gradient parameter g grows larger, the dominant tunneling mechanism that affects the SS is the diagonal tunneling. The on-state current (Ion) and SS of NC-LTFET become worse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Micro/Nano Satellite Technology, Systems and Components)
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