Topic Editors

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
School of Computer Science and Technology, Hangzhou Dianzi University Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310008, China
Dr. Mohammed Aquil Mirza
Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU), Hong Kong, China
Department of Economics, Division of Mathematics and Informatics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografou, Greece
School of Mathematical Sciences, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18106 Niš, Serbia

Intelligent Systems and Robotics

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2023
Viewed by
45483

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This topic mainly focuses on the control and analysis of systems and robotics, such as complex systems, nonlinear dynamics, neural networks, data management, novel computational algorithms, mobile robots and articulated robots. Research on generalized system theory, distributed intelligent systems, bioengineering, robotics and systems, computational social behaviors, medical robotics, mechatronics, unmanned systems, multi-robot teams and networked swarms, machine intelligence, learning, system autonomy and autonomous systems, design for autonomy, cyber physical systems, and other related areas in which cutting-edge technologies have been developed and applied to model, design, build, and test complex engineering and autonomous systems, robot modeling, motion control methods, and computer vision algorithms are welcome to contribute to this topic.

Prof. Dr. Shuai Li
Prof. Dr. Dechao Chen
Dr. Mohammed Aquil Mirza
Prof. Dr. Vasilios N. Katsikis
Prof. Dr. Dunhui Xiao
Prof. Dr. Predrag Stanimirović
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.252 5.0 2008 15.5 Days 2200 CHF Submit
Machines
machines
2.899 3.1 2013 16.2 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Robotics
robotics
- 4.9 2012 19.5 Days 1600 CHF Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.847 6.4 2001 15 Days 2400 CHF Submit
Systems
systems
2.895 4.3 2013 18.1 Days 1600 CHF Submit
Algorithms
algorithms
- 3.3 2008 17.6 Days 1600 CHF Submit
Mathematics
mathematics
2.592 2.9 2013 16.8 Days 2100 CHF Submit
Automation
automation
- - 2020 16.5 Days 1000 CHF Submit

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Published Papers (40 papers)

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Article
UPAFuzzySystems: A Python Library for Control and Simulation with Fuzzy Inference Systems
Machines 2023, 11(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11050572 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 380
Abstract
The main goal of control theory is input tracking or system stabilization. Different feedback-computed controlled systems exist in this area, from deterministic to soft methods. Some examples of deterministic methods are Proportional (P), Proportional Integral (PI), Proportional Derivative (PD), Proportional Integral Derivative (PID), [...] Read more.
The main goal of control theory is input tracking or system stabilization. Different feedback-computed controlled systems exist in this area, from deterministic to soft methods. Some examples of deterministic methods are Proportional (P), Proportional Integral (PI), Proportional Derivative (PD), Proportional Integral Derivative (PID), Linear Quadratic (LQ), Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), State Feedback (SF), Adaptative Regulators, and others. Alternatively, Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs) are soft-computing methods that allow using the human expertise in logic in IF–THEN rules. The fuzzy controllers map the experience of an expert in controlling the plant. Moreover, the literature shows that optimization algorithms allow the adaptation of FISs to control different processes as a black-box problem. Python is the most used programming language, which has seen the most significant growth in recent years. Using open-source libraries in Python offers numerous advantages in software development, including saving time and resources. In this paper, we describe our proposed UPAFuzzySystems library, developed as an FISs library for Python, which allows the design and implementation of fuzzy controllers with transfer-function and state-space simulations. Additionally, we show the use of the library for controlling the position of a DC motor with Mamdani, FLS, Takagi–Sugeno, fuzzy P, fuzzy PD, and fuzzy PD-I controllers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
A Minimalist Self-Localization Approach for Swarm Robots Based on Active Beacon in Indoor Environments
Sensors 2023, 23(10), 4926; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23104926 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 390
Abstract
When performing indoor tasks, miniature swarm robots are suffered from their small size, poor on-board computing power, and electromagnetic shielding of buildings, which means that some traditional localization methods, such as global positioning system (GPS), simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and ultra-wideband (UWB), [...] Read more.
When performing indoor tasks, miniature swarm robots are suffered from their small size, poor on-board computing power, and electromagnetic shielding of buildings, which means that some traditional localization methods, such as global positioning system (GPS), simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and ultra-wideband (UWB), cannot be employed. In this paper, a minimalist indoor self-localization approach for swarm robots is proposed based on active optical beacons. A robotic navigator is introduced into a swarm of robots to provide locally localization services by actively projecting a customized optical beacon on the indoor ceiling, which contains the origin and the reference direction of localization coordinates. The swarm robots observe the optical beacon on the ceiling via a bottom-up-view monocular camera, and extract the beacon information on-board to localize their positions and headings. The uniqueness of this strategy is that it uses the flat, smooth, and well-reflective ceiling in the indoor environment as a ubiquitous plane for displaying the optical beacon; meanwhile, the bottom-up view of swarm robots is not easily blocked. Real robotic experiments are conducted to validate and analyze the localization performance of the proposed minimalist self-localization approach. The results show that our approach is feasible and effective, and can meet the needs of swarm robots to coordinate their motion. Specifically, for the stationary robots, the average position error and heading error are 2.41 cm and 1.44°; when the robots are moving, the average position error and heading error are less than 2.40 cm and 2.66°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Hybrid Vibration Control Algorithm of a Flexible Manipulator System
Robotics 2023, 12(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12030073 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Flexible manipulator systems in specific applications such as space exploration, nuclear waste treatment, medical applications, etc., often have characteristics superior to conventional rigid manipulator systems. However, their elasticity and complex dynamics lead to difficulties encountered in control processes. Research on improving the structure [...] Read more.
Flexible manipulator systems in specific applications such as space exploration, nuclear waste treatment, medical applications, etc., often have characteristics superior to conventional rigid manipulator systems. However, their elasticity and complex dynamics lead to difficulties encountered in control processes. Research on improving the structure of the control model plays a very important role in reducing the above limitations and achieving great benefits for the flexible manipulator system. In this study, a general method for modelling a flexible robotic manipulator is introduced. Furthermore, two control models for flexible manipulators are proposed. The first model uses two proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controllers, where the first one is used for position control, and the other is applied for vibration reduction. The second model is an enhanced development of the first with the addition of a fuzzy logic controller to optimise oscillation suppression. Selected experimental results are presented and compared to evaluate the performance of the proposed control mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Designing Behaviors of Robots Based on the Artificial Emotion Expression Method in Human–Robot Interactions
Machines 2023, 11(5), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11050533 - 06 May 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
How to express emotions through motion behaviors of robots (mainly for robotic arms) to achieve human–robot emotion interactions is the focus of this paper. An artificial emotion expression method that accords with human emotion that can deal with external stimuli and has the [...] Read more.
How to express emotions through motion behaviors of robots (mainly for robotic arms) to achieve human–robot emotion interactions is the focus of this paper. An artificial emotion expression method that accords with human emotion that can deal with external stimuli and has the capability of emotion decision-making was proposed based on the motion behaviors of robot. Firstly, a three-dimensional emotion space was established based on the motion indexes (deviation coefficient, acceleration, and interval time). Then, an artificial emotion model, which was divided into three parts (the detection and processing of external events, the generation and modification of emotion response vectors, and the discretization of emotions) was established in the three-dimensional emotion space. Then emotion patterns (love, excited, happy, anxiety, hate) and emotion intensity were calculated based on the artificial emotion model in human–robot interaction experiments. Finally, the influence of motion behaviors of humanoid robot NAO on the emotion expression of experimenters was studied through human–robot emotion interaction experiments based on the emotion patterns and emotion intensity. The positive emotion patterns (love, excited, happy) and negative emotion patterns (anxiety, hate) of the experimenters were evaluated. The experimental results showed that the personalized emotion responses could be generated autonomously for external stimuli, and the change process of human emotions could be simulated effectively according to the established artificial emotion model. Furthermore, the experimenters could recognize the emotion patterns expressed by the robot according to the motion behaviors of the robot, and whether experimenters were familiar with robots did not influence the recognition of different emotion patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
An Incremental Inverse Reinforcement Learning Approach for Motion Planning with Separated Path and Velocity Preferences
Robotics 2023, 12(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12020061 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Humans often demonstrate diverse behaviors due to their personal preferences, for instance, related to their individual execution style or personal margin for safety. In this paper, we consider the problem of integrating both path and velocity preferences into trajectory planning for robotic manipulators. [...] Read more.
Humans often demonstrate diverse behaviors due to their personal preferences, for instance, related to their individual execution style or personal margin for safety. In this paper, we consider the problem of integrating both path and velocity preferences into trajectory planning for robotic manipulators. We first learn reward functions that represent the user path and velocity preferences from kinesthetic demonstration. We then optimize the trajectory in two steps, first the path and then the velocity, to produce trajectories that adhere to both task requirements and user preferences. We design a set of parameterized features that capture the fundamental preferences in a pick-and-place type of object transportation task, both in the shape and timing of the motion. We demonstrate that our method is capable of generalizing such preferences to new scenarios. We implement our algorithm on a Franka Emika 7-DoF robot arm and validate the functionality and flexibility of our approach in a user study. The results show that non-expert users are able to teach the robot their preferences with just a few iterations of feedback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
SLP-Improved DDPG Path-Planning Algorithm for Mobile Robot in Large-Scale Dynamic Environment
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3521; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073521 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Navigating robots through large-scale environments while avoiding dynamic obstacles is a crucial challenge in robotics. This study proposes an improved deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) path planning algorithm incorporating sequential linear path planning (SLP) to address this challenge. This research aims to enhance [...] Read more.
Navigating robots through large-scale environments while avoiding dynamic obstacles is a crucial challenge in robotics. This study proposes an improved deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) path planning algorithm incorporating sequential linear path planning (SLP) to address this challenge. This research aims to enhance the stability and efficiency of traditional DDPG algorithms by utilizing the strengths of SLP and achieving a better balance between stability and real-time performance. Our algorithm generates a series of sub-goals using SLP, based on a quick calculation of the robot’s driving path, and then uses DDPG to follow these sub-goals for path planning. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SLP-enhanced DDPG path planning algorithm outperforms traditional DDPG algorithms by effectively navigating the robot through large-scale dynamic environments while avoiding obstacles. Specifically, the proposed algorithm improves the success rate by 12.33% compared to the traditional DDPG algorithm and 29.67% compared to the A*+DDPG algorithm in navigating the robot to the goal while avoiding obstacles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Communication
A New Self-Reconfiguration Wave-like Crawling Robot: Design, Analysis, and Experiments
Machines 2023, 11(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030398 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Traditional mobile robots with fixed structures lack the ability to cope with complex terrains and tasks. Reconfigurable modular mobile robots have received considerable attention as they can automatically reassemble according to the changing environment or task. In this paper, a new self-reconfiguration wave-like [...] Read more.
Traditional mobile robots with fixed structures lack the ability to cope with complex terrains and tasks. Reconfigurable modular mobile robots have received considerable attention as they can automatically reassemble according to the changing environment or task. In this paper, a new self-reconfiguration wave-like crawling (SWC) robot is presented to improve the mobile robots’ locomotion capacity. First, the mechanical design of the wave-like crawling mechanism is detailed. Then, the series and parallel connections are introduced to achieve self-reconfiguration. In addition, the kinematic model of the SWC robot is established. Finally, experiments were performed to verify the robotic system with wireless data transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Estimation of Knee Assistive Moment in a Gait Cycle Using Knee Angle and Knee Angular Velocity through Machine Learning and Artificial Stiffness Control Strategy (MLASCS)
Robotics 2023, 12(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12020044 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Nowadays, many people around the world cannot walk perfectly because of their knee problems. A knee-assistive device is one option to support walking for those with low or not enough knee muscle forces. Many research studies have created knee devices with control systems [...] Read more.
Nowadays, many people around the world cannot walk perfectly because of their knee problems. A knee-assistive device is one option to support walking for those with low or not enough knee muscle forces. Many research studies have created knee devices with control systems implementing different techniques and sensors. This study proposes an alternative version of the knee device control system without using too many actuators and sensors. It applies the machine learning and artificial stiffness control strategy (MLASCS) that uses one actuator combined with an encoder for estimating the amount of assistive support in a walking gait from the recorded gait data. The study recorded several gait data and analyzed knee moments, and then trained a k-nearest neighbor model using the knee angle and the angular velocity to classify a state in a gait cycle. This control strategy also implements instantaneous artificial stiffness (IAS), a control system that requires only knee angle in each state to determine the amount of supporting moment. After validating the model via simulation, the accuracy of the machine learning model is around 99.9% with the speed of 165 observers/s, and the walking effort is reduced by up to 60% in a single gait cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Energy Efficiency of a Wheeled Bio-Inspired Hexapod Walking Robot in Sloping Terrain
Robotics 2023, 12(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12020042 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Multi-legged robots, such as hexapods, have great potential to navigate challenging terrain. However, their design and control are usually much more complex and energy-demanding compared to wheeled robots. This paper presents a wheeled six-legged robot with five degrees of freedom, that is able [...] Read more.
Multi-legged robots, such as hexapods, have great potential to navigate challenging terrain. However, their design and control are usually much more complex and energy-demanding compared to wheeled robots. This paper presents a wheeled six-legged robot with five degrees of freedom, that is able to move on a flat surface using wheels and switch to gait in rugged terrain, which reduces energy consumption. The novel joint configuration mimics the structure of insect limbs and allows our robot to overcome difficult terrain. The wheels reduce energy consumption when moving on flat terrain and the trochanter joint reduces energy consumption when moving on slopes, extending the operating time and range of the robot. The results of experiments on sloping terrain are presented. It was confirmed that the use of the trochanter joint can lead to a reduction in energy consumption when moving in sloping terrain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Exact and Heuristic Multi-Robot Dubins Coverage Path Planning for Known Environments
Sensors 2023, 23(5), 2560; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052560 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Coverage path planning (CPP) of multiple Dubins robots has been extensively applied in aerial monitoring, marine exploration, and search and rescue. Existing multi-robot coverage path planning (MCPP) research use exact or heuristic algorithms to address coverage applications. However, several exact algorithms always provide [...] Read more.
Coverage path planning (CPP) of multiple Dubins robots has been extensively applied in aerial monitoring, marine exploration, and search and rescue. Existing multi-robot coverage path planning (MCPP) research use exact or heuristic algorithms to address coverage applications. However, several exact algorithms always provide precise area division rather than coverage paths, and heuristic methods face the challenge of balancing accuracy and complexity. This paper focuses on the Dubins MCPP problem of known environments. Firstly, we present an exact Dubins multi-robot coverage path planning (EDM) algorithm based on mixed linear integer programming (MILP). The EDM algorithm searches the entire solution space to obtain the shortest Dubins coverage path. Secondly, a heuristic approximate credit-based Dubins multi-robot coverage path planning (CDM) algorithm is presented, which utilizes the credit model to balance tasks among robots and a tree partition strategy to reduce complexity. Comparison experiments with other exact and approximate algorithms demonstrate that EDM provides the least coverage time in small scenes, and CDM produces a shorter coverage time and less computation time in large scenes. Feasibility experiments demonstrate the applicability of EDM and CDM to a high-fidelity fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Dynamic Parameter Identification of Collaborative Robot Based on WLS-RWPSO Algorithm
Machines 2023, 11(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020316 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Parameter identification of the dynamic model of collaborative robots is the basis of the development of collaborative robot motion state control, path tracking, state monitoring, fault diagnosis, and fault tolerance systems, and is one of the core contents of collaborative robot research. Aiming [...] Read more.
Parameter identification of the dynamic model of collaborative robots is the basis of the development of collaborative robot motion state control, path tracking, state monitoring, fault diagnosis, and fault tolerance systems, and is one of the core contents of collaborative robot research. Aiming at the identification of dynamic parameters of the collaborative robot, this paper proposes an identification algorithm based on weighted least squares and random weighted particle swarm optimization (WLS-RWPSO). Firstly, the dynamics mathematical model of the robot is established using the Lagrangian method, the dynamic parameters of the robot to be identified are determined, and the linear form of the dynamics model of the robot is derived taking into account the joint friction characteristics. Secondly, the weighted least squares method is used to obtain the initial solution of the parameters to be identified. Based on the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm, a random weight particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the local optimal problem to identify the dynamic parameters of the robot. Thirdly, the fifth-order Fourier series is designed as the excitation trajectory, and the original data collected by the sensor are denoised and smoothed by the Kalman filter algorithm. Finally, the experimental verification on a six-degree-of-freedom collaborative robot proves that the predicted torque obtained by the identification algorithm in this paper has a high degree of matching with the measured torque, and the established model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the robot, effectively improving the identification accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Damping Ratio Prediction for Redundant Cartesian Impedance-Controlled Robots Using Machine Learning Techniques
Mathematics 2023, 11(4), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11041021 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Implementing impedance control in Cartesian task space or directly at the joint level is a popular option for achieving desired compliance behavior for robotic manipulators performing tasks. The damping ratio is an important control criterion for modulating the dynamic response; however, tuning or [...] Read more.
Implementing impedance control in Cartesian task space or directly at the joint level is a popular option for achieving desired compliance behavior for robotic manipulators performing tasks. The damping ratio is an important control criterion for modulating the dynamic response; however, tuning or selecting this parameter is not easy, and can be even more complicated in cases where the system cannot be directly solved at the joint space level. Our study proposes a novel methodology for calculating the local optimal damping ratio value and supports it with results obtained from five different scenarios. We carried out 162 different experiments and obtained the values of the inertia, stiffness, and damping matrices for each experiment. Then, data preprocessing was carried out to select the most significant variables using different criteria, reducing the seventeen initial variables to only three. Finally, the damping ratio values were calculated (predicted) using automatic regression tools. In particular, five-fold cross-validation was used to obtain a more generalized model and to assess the forecasting performance. The results show a promising methodology capable of calculating and predicting control parameters for robotic manipulation tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Safety Verification of Multiple Industrial Robot Manipulators with Path Conflicts Using Model Checking
Machines 2023, 11(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020282 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Software development for robotic systems is traditionally performed based on simulations, manual code implementation, and testing. However, this software development approach can cause safety issues in some scenarios, including multiple robots sharing a workspace. When different robots are executing individual planned tasks, they [...] Read more.
Software development for robotic systems is traditionally performed based on simulations, manual code implementation, and testing. However, this software development approach can cause safety issues in some scenarios, including multiple robots sharing a workspace. When different robots are executing individual planned tasks, they may collide when not adequately coordinated. Safety problems related to coordination between robots may not be encountered during testing, depending on timing, but may occur during the system’s operation. In this case, formal verification methods can provide a more reliable means to ensure the safety of robotic systems. This paper uses the formal method of model checking for the safety verification of multiple industrial robot manipulators with path conflicts. We give comparative results of two model-checking tools applied to a system with two robot manipulators. Whole workflows, from requirement specification to testing, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
An Artificial Neural Network Model for Project Effort Estimation
Systems 2023, 11(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11020091 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Estimating the project effort remains a challenge for project managers and effort estimators. In the early phases of a project, having a high level of uncertainty and lack of experience cause poor estimation of the required work. Especially for projects that produce a [...] Read more.
Estimating the project effort remains a challenge for project managers and effort estimators. In the early phases of a project, having a high level of uncertainty and lack of experience cause poor estimation of the required work. Especially for projects that produce a highly customized unique product for each customer, it is challenging to make estimations. Project effort estimation has been studied mainly for software projects in the literature. Currently, there has been no study on estimating effort in customized machine development projects to the best of our knowledge. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature regarding project effort estimation for customized machine development projects. Additionally, this study focused on a single phase of a project, the automation phase, in which the machine is automated according to customer-specific requirements. Therefore, the effort estimation of this phase is crucial. In some cases, this is the first time that the company has experienced the requirements specific to the customer. For this purpose, this study proposed a model to estimate how much work is required to automate a machine. Insufficient effort estimation is one of the main reasons behind project failures, and nowadays, researchers prefer more objective approaches such as machine learning over expert-based ones. This study also proposed an artificial neural network (ANN) model for this purpose. Data from past projects were used to train the proposed ANN model. The proposed model was tested on 11 real-life projects and showed promising results with acceptable prediction accuracy. Additionally, a desktop application was developed to make this system easier to use for project managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
EfferDeepNet: An Efficient Semantic Segmentation Method for Outdoor Terrain
Machines 2023, 11(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020256 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 790
Abstract
The recognition of terrain and outdoor complex environments based on vision sensors is a key technology in practical robotics applications, and forms the basis of autonomous navigation and motion planning. While traditional machine learning methods can be applied to outdoor terrain recognition, their [...] Read more.
The recognition of terrain and outdoor complex environments based on vision sensors is a key technology in practical robotics applications, and forms the basis of autonomous navigation and motion planning. While traditional machine learning methods can be applied to outdoor terrain recognition, their recognition accuracy is low. In order to improve the accuracy of outdoor terrain recognition, methods based on deep learning are widely used. However, the network structure of deep learning methods is very complex, and the number of parameters is large, which cannot meet the actual operating requirements of of unmanned systems. Therefore, in order to solve the problems of poor real-time performance and low accuracy of deep learning algorithms for terrain recognition, this paper proposes the efficient EfferDeepNet network for pixel level terrain recognition in order to realize global perception of outdoor environment. First, this method uses convolution kernels with different sizes in the depthwise separable convolution (DSC) stage to extract more semantic feature information. Then, an attention mechanism is introduced to weight the acquired features, focusing on the key local feature areas. Finally, in order to avoid redundancy due to a large number of features and parameters in the model, this method uses a ghost module to make the network more lightweight. In addition, to solve the problem of pixel level terrain recognition having a negative effect on image boundary segmentation, the proposed method integrates an enhanced feature extraction network. Experimental results show that the proposed EfferDeepNet network can quickly and accurately perform global recognition and semantic segmentation of terrain in complex environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Improved Chimpanzee Search Algorithm with Multi-Strategy Fusion and Its Application
Machines 2023, 11(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020250 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
An improved chimpanzee optimization algorithm incorporating multiple strategies (IMSChoA) is proposed to address the problems of initialized population boundary aggregation distribution, slow convergence speed, low precision, and proneness to fall into local optimality of the chimpanzee search algorithm. Firstly, the improved sine chaotic [...] Read more.
An improved chimpanzee optimization algorithm incorporating multiple strategies (IMSChoA) is proposed to address the problems of initialized population boundary aggregation distribution, slow convergence speed, low precision, and proneness to fall into local optimality of the chimpanzee search algorithm. Firstly, the improved sine chaotic mapping is used to initialize the population to solve the population boundary aggregation distribution problem. Secondly, a linear weighting factor and an adaptive acceleration factor are added to join the particle swarm idea and cooperate with the improved nonlinear convergence factor to balance the global search ability of the algorithm, accelerate the convergence of the algorithm, and improve the convergence accuracy. Finally, the sparrow elite mutation and Bernoulli chaos mapping strategy improved by adaptive change water wave factor are added to improve the ability of individuals to jump out of the local optimum. Through the comparative analysis of benchmark functions seeking optimization and the comparison of Wilcoxon rank sum statistical test seeking results, it can be seen that the IMSChoA optimization algorithm has stronger robustness and applicability. Further, the IMSChoA optimization algorithm is applied to two engineering examples to verify the superiority of the IMSChoA optimization algorithm in dealing with mechanical structure optimization design problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Orientation Control System: Enhancing Aerial Maneuvers for Quadruped Robots
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031234 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
For legged robots, aerial motions are the only option to overpass obstacles that cannot be circumvented with standard locomotion gaits. In these cases, the robot must perform a leap to either jump onto the obstacle or fly over it. However, these movements represent [...] Read more.
For legged robots, aerial motions are the only option to overpass obstacles that cannot be circumvented with standard locomotion gaits. In these cases, the robot must perform a leap to either jump onto the obstacle or fly over it. However, these movements represent a challenge, because, during the flight phase, the Center of Mass (CoM) cannot be controlled, and there is limited controllability over the orientation of the robot. This paper focuses on the latter issue and proposes an Orientation Control System (OCS), consisting of two rotating and actuated masses (flywheels or reaction wheels), to gain control authority on the orientation of the robot. Due to the conservation of angular momentum, the rotational velocity if the robot can be adjusted to steer the robot’s orientation, even when the robot has no contact with the ground. The axes of rotation of the flywheels are designed to be incident, leading to a compact orientation control system that is capable of controlling both roll and pitch angles, considering the different moments of inertia in the two directions. The concept was tested by means of simulations on the robot Solo12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Research on Multi-Objective Multi-Robot Task Allocation by Lin–Kernighan–Helsgaun Guided Evolutionary Algorithms
Mathematics 2022, 10(24), 4714; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10244714 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 926
Abstract
Multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) and route planning are crucial for a large-scale multi-robot system. In this paper, the problem is formulated to minimize the total energy consumption and overall task completion time simultaneously, with some constraints taken into consideration. To represent a solution, [...] Read more.
Multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) and route planning are crucial for a large-scale multi-robot system. In this paper, the problem is formulated to minimize the total energy consumption and overall task completion time simultaneously, with some constraints taken into consideration. To represent a solution, a novel one-chromosome representation technique is proposed, which eases the consequent genetic operations and the construction of the cost matrix. Lin–Kernighan–Helsgaun (LKH), a highly efficient sub-tour planner, is employed to generate prophet generation beforehand as well as guide the evolutionary direction during the proceeding of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, aiming to promote convergence of the Pareto front. Numerical experiments on the benchmark show the LKH guidance mechanism is effective for two famous multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, namely multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA), of which LKH-guided NSGA exhibits the best performance on three predefined indicators, namely C-metric, HV, and Spacing, respectively. The generalization experiment on a multiple depots MRTA problem with constraints further demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach for practical decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Algorithm for Determining the Types of Inverse Kinematics Solutions for Sequential Planar Robots and Their Representation in the Configuration Space
Algorithms 2022, 15(12), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/a15120469 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The work defines in a new way the different types of solutions of the inverse kinematics (IK) problem for planar robots with a serial topology and presents an algorithm for solving it. The developed algorithm allows the finding of solutions for a wide [...] Read more.
The work defines in a new way the different types of solutions of the inverse kinematics (IK) problem for planar robots with a serial topology and presents an algorithm for solving it. The developed algorithm allows the finding of solutions for a wide range of robots by using a geometric approach, representing points in a polar coordinate system. Inverse kinematics, which is one of the most important, most studied and challenging problems in robotics, aims to calculate the values of the joint variables, given the desired position and orientation of the robot’s end effector. Configuration space is defined by joint angles and is the basis of most motion planning algorithms. Areas in the working and configuration space are generated that are reachable with different types of solutions. Programs are created that use the proposed algorithm for robots with two and three rotational degrees of freedom, and graphically present the results in the workspace and configuration space. The possibility of transitioning from one type of solution to another by passing through a singular configuration is discussed. The results are important for planning motions in the workspace and configuration space, as well as for the design and kinematic analysis of robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Estimation of the Interaction Forces in a Compliant pHRI Gripper
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121128 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Physical human–robot interaction (pHRI) is an essential skill for robots expected to work with humans, such as assistive or rescue robots. However, due to hard safety and compliance constraints, pHRI is still underdeveloped in practice. Tactile sensing is vital for pHRI, as constant [...] Read more.
Physical human–robot interaction (pHRI) is an essential skill for robots expected to work with humans, such as assistive or rescue robots. However, due to hard safety and compliance constraints, pHRI is still underdeveloped in practice. Tactile sensing is vital for pHRI, as constant occlusions while grasping make it hard to rely on vision or range sensors alone. More specifically, measuring interaction forces in the gripper is crucial to avoid injuries, predict user intention and perform successful collaborative movements. This work exploits the inherent compliance of a gripper with four underactuated fingers which was previously designed by the authors and designed to manipulate human limbs. A new analytical model is proposed to calculate the external interaction forces by combining all finger forces, which are estimated by using the gripper proprioceptive sensor readings uniquely. An experimental evaluation of the method and an example application in a control system with active compliance have been included to evaluate performance. The results prove that the proposed finger arrangement offers good performance at measuring the lateral interaction forces and torque around the gripper’s Z-axis, providing a convenient and efficient way of implementing adaptive and compliant grasping for pHRI applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
An End-to-End Real-Time Lightweight Network for the Joint Segmentation of Optic Disc and Optic Cup on Fundus Images
Mathematics 2022, 10(22), 4288; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10224288 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Glaucoma is the second-most-blinding eye disease in the world and accurate segmentation of the optic disc (OD) and optic cup (OC) is essential for the diagnosis of glaucoma. To solve the problems of poor real-time performance, high algorithm complexity, and large memory consumption [...] Read more.
Glaucoma is the second-most-blinding eye disease in the world and accurate segmentation of the optic disc (OD) and optic cup (OC) is essential for the diagnosis of glaucoma. To solve the problems of poor real-time performance, high algorithm complexity, and large memory consumption of fundus segmentation algorithms, a lightweight segmentation algorithm, GlauNet, based on convolutional neural networks, is proposed. The algorithm designs an efficient feature-extraction network and proposes a multiscale boundary fusion (MBF) module, which greatly improves the segmentation efficiency of the algorithm while ensuring segmentation accuracy. Experiments show that the algorithm achieves Dice scores of 0.9701/0.8959, 0.9650/0.8621, and 0.9594/0.8795 on three publicly available datasets—Drishti-GS, RIM-ONE-r3, and REFUGE-train—for both the optic disc and the optic cup. The number of model parameters is only 0.8 M, and it only takes 13 ms to infer an 800 × 800 fundus image on a GTX 3070 GPU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Obstacles Avoidance for Mobile Robot Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller
Robotics 2022, 11(6), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11060130 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Intelligent mobile robots need to deal with different kinds of uncertainties in order to perform their tasks, such as tracking predefined paths and avoiding static and dynamic obstacles until reaching their destination. In this research, a Robotino® from Festo Company was used [...] Read more.
Intelligent mobile robots need to deal with different kinds of uncertainties in order to perform their tasks, such as tracking predefined paths and avoiding static and dynamic obstacles until reaching their destination. In this research, a Robotino® from Festo Company was used to reach a predefined target in different scenarios, autonomously, in a static and dynamic environment. A Type-2 fuzzy logic controller was used to guide and help Robotino® reach its predefined destination safely. The Robotino® collects data from the environment. The rules of the Type-2 fuzzy logic controller were built from human experience. They controlled the Robotino® movement, guiding it toward its goal by controlling its linear and angular velocities, preventing it from colliding obstacles at the same time, as well. The Takagi–Sugeno–Kang (TSK) algorithm was implemented. Real-time and simulation experimental results showed the capability and effectiveness of the proposed controller, especially in dealing with uncertainty problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Deep-Learning-Based Cyber-Physical System Framework for Real-Time Industrial Operations
Machines 2022, 10(11), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10111001 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Automation in the industry can improve production efficiency and human safety when performing complex and hazardous tasks. This paper presented an intelligent cyber-physical system framework incorporating image processing and deep-learning techniques to facilitate real-time operations. A convolutional neural network (CNN) is one of [...] Read more.
Automation in the industry can improve production efficiency and human safety when performing complex and hazardous tasks. This paper presented an intelligent cyber-physical system framework incorporating image processing and deep-learning techniques to facilitate real-time operations. A convolutional neural network (CNN) is one of the most widely used deep-learning techniques for image processing and object detection analysis. This paper used a variant of a CNN known as the faster R-CNN (R stands for the region proposals) for improved efficiency in object detection and real-time control analysis. The control action related to the detected object is exchanged with the actuation system within the cyber-physical system using a real-time data exchange (RTDE) protocol. We demonstrated the proposed intelligent CPS framework to perform object detection-based pick-and-place operations in real time as they are one of the most widely performed operations in quality control and industrial systems. The CPS consists of a camera system that is used for object detection, and the results are transmitted to a universal robot (UR5), which then picks the object and places it in the right location. Latency in communication is an important factor that can impact the quality of real-time operations. This paper discussed a Bayesian approach for uncertainty quantification of latency through the sampling–resampling approach, which can later be used to design a reliable communication framework for real-time operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Binary Feature Description of 3D Point Cloud Based on Retina-like Sampling on Projection Planes
Machines 2022, 10(11), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10110984 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 749
Abstract
A binary feature description and registration algorithm for a 3D point cloud based on retina-like sampling on projection planes (RSPP) are proposed in this paper. The algorithm first projects the point cloud within the support radius around the key point to the XY, [...] Read more.
A binary feature description and registration algorithm for a 3D point cloud based on retina-like sampling on projection planes (RSPP) are proposed in this paper. The algorithm first projects the point cloud within the support radius around the key point to the XY, YZ, and XZ planes of the Local Reference Frame (LRF) and performs retina-like sampling on the projection plane. Then, the binarized Gaussian density weight values at the sampling points are calculated and encoded to obtain the RSPP descriptor. Finally, rough registration of point clouds is performed based on the RSPP descriptor, and the RANSAC algorithm is used to optimize the registration results. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on public point cloud datasets. The test results show that the RSPP-based point cloud registration algorithm has a good registration effect under no noise, 0.25 mr, and 0.5 mr Gaussian noise. The experimental results verify the correctness and robustness of the proposed registration method, which can provide theoretical and technical support for the 3D point cloud registration application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Deep Reinforcement Learning for Model Predictive Controller Based on Disturbed Single Rigid Body Model of Biped Robots
Machines 2022, 10(11), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10110975 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
This paper modifies the single rigid body (SRB) model, and considers the swinging leg as the disturbances to the centroid acceleration and rotational acceleration of the SRB model. This paper proposes deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based model predictive control (MPC) to resist the disturbances [...] Read more.
This paper modifies the single rigid body (SRB) model, and considers the swinging leg as the disturbances to the centroid acceleration and rotational acceleration of the SRB model. This paper proposes deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based model predictive control (MPC) to resist the disturbances of the swinging leg. The DRL predicts the swing leg disturbances, and then MPC gives the optimal ground reaction forces according to the predicted disturbances. We use the proximal policy optimization (PPO) algorithm among the DRL methods since it is a very stable and widely applicable algorithm. It is an on-policy algorithm based on the actor–critic framework. The simulation results show that the improved SRB model and the PPO-based MPC method can accurately predict the disturbances of the swinging leg to the SRB model and resist the disturbance, making the locomotion more robust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
A Fast Point Clouds Registration Algorithm Based on ISS-USC Feature for the 3D Laser Scanner
Algorithms 2022, 15(10), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/a15100389 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 994
Abstract
The point clouds registration is a key step in data processing for the 3D laser scanner to obtain complete information of the object surface, and there are many algorithms. In order to overcome the disadvantages of slow calculation speed and low accuracy of [...] Read more.
The point clouds registration is a key step in data processing for the 3D laser scanner to obtain complete information of the object surface, and there are many algorithms. In order to overcome the disadvantages of slow calculation speed and low accuracy of existing point clouds registration algorithms, a fast point clouds registration algorithm based on the improved voxel filter and ISS-USC feature is proposed. Firstly, the improved voxel filter is used for down-sampling to reduce the size of the original point clouds data. Secondly, the intrinsic shape signature (ISS) feature point detection algorithm is used to extra feature points from the down-sampled point clouds data, and then the unique shape context (USC) descriptor is calculated to describe the extracted feature points. Next, the improved random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is used for coarse registration to obtain the initial position. Finally, the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm based on KD tree is used for fine registration, which realizes the transform from the point clouds scanned by the 3D laser scanner at different angles to the same coordinate system. Through comparing with other algorithms and the registration experiment of the VGA connector for monitor, the experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, and it has fastest registration speed while maintaining high registration accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Evaluating the Influence of Data Entropy in the Use of a Smart Equipment for Traffic Management at Border Check Point
Machines 2022, 10(10), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100937 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 754
Abstract
The transit through a Border Check Point of cargo vehicles supposes, in the case of the Romanian highway network, the carrying out of a process of weighing and verifying of transport licenses. The limited number of weighing equipment and the long duration of [...] Read more.
The transit through a Border Check Point of cargo vehicles supposes, in the case of the Romanian highway network, the carrying out of a process of weighing and verifying of transport licenses. The limited number of weighing equipment and the long duration of these processes cause large queues and long waiting times. A solution for these problems is to use smart equipment to identify the cargo vehicles and to separate the vehicles that require weighing from exempted ones. The separation process is made using external input data. The quality of received data can generate some dysfunctionality in the separation process. The discrete simulation model can be used to evaluate the influence of the uncertainty over the system serving parameters. A study case is developed for a real situation using real data collected from a Romanian Highway Traffic Control Center (HTMC). The results are used in the implementation of the new smart equipment in a Romanian Border Check Point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Robust Prescribed Trajectory Tracking Control of a Robot Manipulator Using Adaptive Finite-Time Sliding Mode and Extreme Learning Machine Method
Robotics 2022, 11(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11050111 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
This study aims to provide a robust trajectory tracking controller which guarantees the prescribed performance of a robot manipulator, both in transient and steady-state modes, experiencing parametric uncertainties. The main core of the controller is designed based on the adaptive finite-time sliding mode [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide a robust trajectory tracking controller which guarantees the prescribed performance of a robot manipulator, both in transient and steady-state modes, experiencing parametric uncertainties. The main core of the controller is designed based on the adaptive finite-time sliding mode control (SMC) and extreme learning machine (ELM) methods to collectively estimate the parametric model uncertainties and enhance the quality of tracking performance. Accordingly, the global estimation with a fast convergence rate is achieved while the tracking error and the impact of chattering on the control input are mitigated significantly. Following the control design, the stability of the overall control system along with the finite-time convergence rate is proved, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is investigated via extensive simulation studies. The results of simulations confirm that the prescribed transient and steady-state performances are obtained with enough accuracy, fast convergence rate, robustness, and smooth control input which are all required for practical implementation and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Taikobot: A Full-Size and Free-Flying Humanoid Robot for Intravehicular Astronaut Assistance and Spacecraft Housekeeping
Machines 2022, 10(10), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100933 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
This paper proposes a full-size and free-flying humanoid robot named Taikobot that aims to assist astronauts in a space station and maintain spacecrafts between human visits. Taikobot adopts a compact and lightweight (∼25 kg) design to work in microgravity, which also reduces launch [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a full-size and free-flying humanoid robot named Taikobot that aims to assist astronauts in a space station and maintain spacecrafts between human visits. Taikobot adopts a compact and lightweight (∼25 kg) design to work in microgravity, which also reduces launch costs and improves safety during human–robot collaboration. Taikobot’s anthropomorphic dual arm system and zero-g legs allow it to share a set of intravehicular human–machine interfaces. Unlike ground-walking robots, Taikobot maneuvers in a novel push–flight–park (PFP) strategy as an equivalent astronaut in a space station to maximize workspace and flexibility. We propose a PFP motion planning and control method based on centroidal dynamics and multi-contact model. Based on the proposed method, we carried out extensive simulations and verified the feasibility and advantages of the novel locomotion strategy. We also developed a prototype of Taikobot and carried out several ground experiments on typical scenarios where the robot collaborates with human astronauts. The experiments show that Taikobot can do some simple and repetitive tasks along with astronauts and has the potential to help astronauts improve their onboard working efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Learning-Based Shared Control Using Gaussian Processes for Obstacle Avoidance in Teleoperated Robots
Robotics 2022, 11(5), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11050102 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Physically inspired models of the stochastic nature of the human-robot-environment interaction are generally difficult to derive from first principles, thus alternative data-driven approaches are an attractive option. In this article, Gaussian process regression is used to model a safe stop maneuver for a [...] Read more.
Physically inspired models of the stochastic nature of the human-robot-environment interaction are generally difficult to derive from first principles, thus alternative data-driven approaches are an attractive option. In this article, Gaussian process regression is used to model a safe stop maneuver for a teleoperated robot. In the proposed approach, a limited number of discrete experimental training data points are acquired to fit (or learn) a Gaussian process model, which is then used to predict the evolution of the process over a desired continuous range (or domain). A confidence measure for those predictions is used as a tuning parameter in a shared control algorithm, and it is demonstrated that it can be used to assist a human operator by providing (low-level) obstacle avoidance when they utilize the robot to carry out safety-critical tasks that involve remote navigation using the robot. The algorithm is personalized in the sense that it can be tuned to match the specific driving style of the person that is teleoperating the robot over a specific terrain. Experimental results demonstrate that with the proposed shared controller enabled, the human operator is able to more easily maneuver the robot in environments with (potentially dangerous) static obstacles, thus keeping the robot safe and preserving the original state of the surroundings. The future evolution of this work will be to apply this shared controller to mobile robots that are being deployed to inspect hazardous nuclear environments, ensuring that they operate with increased safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Tableware Tidying-Up Robot System for Self-Service Restaurant–Detection and Manipulation of Leftover Food and Tableware-
Sensors 2022, 22(18), 7006; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22187006 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
In this study, an automated tableware tidying-up robot system was developed to tidy up tableware in a self-service restaurant with a large amount of tableware. This study focused on sorting and collecting tableware placed on trays detected by an RGB-D camera. Leftover food [...] Read more.
In this study, an automated tableware tidying-up robot system was developed to tidy up tableware in a self-service restaurant with a large amount of tableware. This study focused on sorting and collecting tableware placed on trays detected by an RGB-D camera. Leftover food was also treated with this robot system. The RGB-D camera efficiently detected the position and height of the tableware and whether there was leftover food or not by image processing. A parallel arm and robot hand mechanism was designed to realize the advantages of a low cost and high processing speed. Two types of rotation mechanisms were designed to realize the function of throwing away leftover food. The effectiveness of the camera detection system was verified through the experiments of tableware and leftover food detection. The effectiveness of the prototype robot and the rotation assist mechanism was verified through the experiments of grasping tableware, throwing away leftover food by two types of rotating mechanisms, collecting multiple tableware, and the sorting of overlapping tableware with multiple robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
A Study on Data Analysis for Improving Driving Safety in Field Operational Test (FOT) of Autonomous Vehicles
Machines 2022, 10(9), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090784 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
In this study, an autonomous driving test was conducted from the perspective of FOT (field operational test). For data analysis and improvement methods, scenarios for FOT were classified and defined by considering autonomous driving level (SAE J3016) and the viewpoints of the vehicle, [...] Read more.
In this study, an autonomous driving test was conducted from the perspective of FOT (field operational test). For data analysis and improvement methods, scenarios for FOT were classified and defined by considering autonomous driving level (SAE J3016) and the viewpoints of the vehicle, driver, road, environment, etc. To obtain data from FOT, performance indicators were selected, a data collection environment was implemented in the test cases, and driving roads were selected to obtain driving data from the vehicle while it was driven on an actual road. In the pilot FOT course, data were collected in various driving situations using a test vehicle, and the effect of autonomous driving-related functions on improving driving safety was studied through data analysis of discovered major events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Adaptive Neural-PID Visual Servoing Tracking Control via Extreme Learning Machine
Machines 2022, 10(9), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090782 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
The vision-guided robot is intensively embedded in modern industry, but it is still a challenge to track moving objects in real time accurately. In this paper, a hybrid adaptive control scheme combined with an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) and proportional–integral–derivative (PID) is proposed [...] Read more.
The vision-guided robot is intensively embedded in modern industry, but it is still a challenge to track moving objects in real time accurately. In this paper, a hybrid adaptive control scheme combined with an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) and proportional–integral–derivative (PID) is proposed for dynamic visual tracking of the manipulator. The scheme extracts line features on the image plane based on a laser-camera system and determines an optimal control input to guide the robot, so that the image features are aligned with their desired positions. The observation and state–space equations are first determined by analyzing the motion features of the camera and the object. The system is then represented as an autoregressive moving average with extra input (ARMAX) and a valid estimation model. The adaptive predictor estimates online the relevant 3D parameters between the camera and the object, which are subsequently used to calculate the system sensitivity of the neural network. The ELM–PID controller is designed for adaptive adjustment of control parameters, and the scheme was validated on a physical robot platform. The experimental results showed that the proposed method’s vision-tracking control displayed superior performance to pure P and PID controllers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Utilisation of Initialised Observation Scheme for Multi-Joint Robotic Arm in Lyapunov-Based Adaptive Control Strategy
Mathematics 2022, 10(17), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10173126 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
In this paper, we present a modelling, dynamic analysis, and controller tuning comparison for a five-degree-of-freedom (DoF) multi-joint robotic arm based on the Lyapunov-based Adaptive Controller (LAC). In most pick-and-place applications of robotic arms, it is essential to control the end-effector trajectory to [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a modelling, dynamic analysis, and controller tuning comparison for a five-degree-of-freedom (DoF) multi-joint robotic arm based on the Lyapunov-based Adaptive Controller (LAC). In most pick-and-place applications of robotic arms, it is essential to control the end-effector trajectory to reach a precise target position. The kinematic solution of the 5-DoF robotic arm has been determined by the Lagrangian technique, and the mathematical model of each joint has been obtained in the range of motion condition. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control parameters of the LAC have been determined by the Lyapunov stability approach and are initialised by four observation methods based on the obtained transfer function. The effectiveness of the initialised controller’s parameters is compared by a unit step response as the desired input of the controller system. As a result, the average error (AE) for Ziegler–Nichols is 6.6%, 83%, and 53% lower than for Pettit & Carr, Chau, and Bucz. The performance of LAC for the robotic arm model is validated in a virtual 3D model under a robot operating system environment. The results of root mean square error by LAC are 0.021 (rad) and 0.025 (rad) for joint 1 and joint 2, respectively, which indicate the efficiency of the proposed LAC strategy in reaching the predetermined trajectory and the potential of minimizing the controller tuning complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
VLP Landmark and SLAM-Assisted Automatic Map Calibration for Robot Navigation with Semantic Information
Robotics 2022, 11(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11040084 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
With the rapid development of robotics and in-depth research of automatic navigation technology, mobile robots have been applied in a variety of fields. Map construction is one of the core research focuses of mobile robot development. In this paper, we propose an autonomous [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of robotics and in-depth research of automatic navigation technology, mobile robots have been applied in a variety of fields. Map construction is one of the core research focuses of mobile robot development. In this paper, we propose an autonomous map calibration method using visible light positioning (VLP) landmarks and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). A layout map of the environment to be perceived is calibrated by a robot tracking at least two landmarks mounted in the venue. At the same time, the robot’s position on the occupancy grid map generated by SLAM is recorded. The two sequences of positions are synchronized by their time stamps and the occupancy grid map is saved as a sensor map. A map transformation method is then performed to align the orientation of the two maps and to calibrate the scale of the layout map to agree with that of the sensor map. After the calibration, the semantic information on the layout map remains and the accuracy is improved. Experiments are performed in the robot operating system (ROS) to verify the proposed map calibration method. We evaluate the performance on two layout maps: one with high accuracy and the other with rough accuracy of the structures and scale. The results show that the navigation accuracy is improved by 24.6 cm on the high-accuracy map and 22.6 cm on the rough-accuracy map, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Research on Path Planning and Trajectory Tracking of an Unmanned Electric Shovel Based on Improved APF and Preview Deviation Fuzzy Control
Machines 2022, 10(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080707 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
With the development and upgrading of intelligent mines, research on the unmanned walking of intelligent electric shovels (ES) has been carried out to improve the moving efficiency of extra-large excavators. This paper first introduces an electric shovel’s primary moving condition in an open-pit [...] Read more.
With the development and upgrading of intelligent mines, research on the unmanned walking of intelligent electric shovels (ES) has been carried out to improve the moving efficiency of extra-large excavators. This paper first introduces an electric shovel’s primary moving condition in an open-pit mine. According to the moving characteristics of the heavy-duty crawler, the artificial potential field (APF) algorithm is improved to plan the moving trajectory of the electric shovel and carry out simulation verification. A dynamic model of an electric shovel is established. A fuzzy control tracking method is proposed based on preview displacement and centroid displacement deviation. The robustness of the tracking algorithm is verified by multi-condition simulation. Finally, the electric shovel prototype is tested through path planning and tracking experiments. The experimental results show that the improved artificial potential field algorithm can plan an obstacle-free path that satisfies the movement of an electric shovel, and the electric shovel can quickly track the preset trajectory. The maximum deviation of the track tracking center of mass is no more than 10 cm, and the deviation of the heading angle when the shovel reaches the endpoint is within 2°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Path Planning for Wheeled Mobile Robot in Partially Known Uneven Terrain
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5217; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145217 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Path planning for wheeled mobile robots on partially known uneven terrain is an open challenge since robot motions can be strongly influenced by terrain with incomplete environmental information such as locally detected obstacles and impassable terrain areas. This paper proposes a hierarchical path [...] Read more.
Path planning for wheeled mobile robots on partially known uneven terrain is an open challenge since robot motions can be strongly influenced by terrain with incomplete environmental information such as locally detected obstacles and impassable terrain areas. This paper proposes a hierarchical path planning approach for a wheeled robot to move in a partially known uneven terrain. We first model the partially known uneven terrain environment respecting the terrain features, including the slope, step, and unevenness. Second, facilitated by the terrain model, we use A algorithm to plan a global path for the robot based on the partially known map. Finally, the Q-learning method is employed for local path planning to avoid locally detected obstacles in close range as well as impassable terrain areas when the robot tracks the global path. The simulation and experimental results show that the designed path planning approach provides satisfying paths that avoid locally detected obstacles and impassable areas in a partially known uneven terrain compared with the classical A algorithm and the artificial potential field method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
TR-Net: A Transformer-Based Neural Network for Point Cloud Processing
Machines 2022, 10(7), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10070517 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Point cloud is a versatile geometric representation that could be applied in computer vision tasks. On account of the disorder of point cloud, it is challenging to design a deep neural network used in point cloud analysis. Furthermore, most existing frameworks for point [...] Read more.
Point cloud is a versatile geometric representation that could be applied in computer vision tasks. On account of the disorder of point cloud, it is challenging to design a deep neural network used in point cloud analysis. Furthermore, most existing frameworks for point cloud processing either hardly consider the local neighboring information or ignore context-aware and spatially-aware features. To deal with the above problems, we propose a novel point cloud processing architecture named TR-Net, which is based on transformer. This architecture reformulates the point cloud processing task as a set-to-set translation problem. TR-Net directly operates on raw point clouds without any data transformation or annotation, which reduces the consumption of computing resources and memory usage. Firstly, a neighborhood embedding backbone is designed to effectively extract the local neighboring information from point cloud. Then, an attention-based sub-network is constructed to better learn a semantically abundant and discriminatory representation from embedded features. Finally, effective global features are yielded through feeding the features extracted by attention-based sub-network into a residual backbone. For different downstream tasks, we build different decoders. Extensive experiments on the public datasets illustrate that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. For example, our TR-Net performs 93.1% overall accuracy on the ModelNet40 dataset and the TR-Net archives a mIou of 85.3% on the ShapeNet dataset for part segmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Robust Image Matching Based on Image Feature and Depth Information Fusion
Machines 2022, 10(6), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10060456 - 08 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a robust image feature extraction and fusion method to effectively fuse image feature and depth information and improve the registration accuracy of RGB-D images. The proposed method directly splices the image feature point descriptors with the corresponding point [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a robust image feature extraction and fusion method to effectively fuse image feature and depth information and improve the registration accuracy of RGB-D images. The proposed method directly splices the image feature point descriptors with the corresponding point cloud feature descriptors to obtain the fusion descriptor of the feature points. The fusion feature descriptor is constructed based on the SIFT, SURF, and ORB feature descriptors and the PFH and FPFH point cloud feature descriptors. Furthermore, the registration performance based on fusion features is tested through the RGB-D datasets of YCB and KITTI. ORBPFH reduces the false-matching rate by 4.66~16.66%, and ORBFPFH reduces the false-matching rate by 9~20%. The experimental results show that the RGB-D robust feature extraction and fusion method proposed in this paper is suitable for the fusion of ORB with PFH and FPFH, which can improve feature representation and registration, representing a novel approach for RGB-D image matching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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Article
Adaptive Swarm Fuzzy Logic Controller of Multi-Joint Lower Limb Assistive Robot
Machines 2022, 10(6), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10060425 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The idea of developing a multi-joint rehabilitation robot is to satisfy the demands for recovery of lower limb functionality in hemiplegic impairments and assist the physiotherapists with their therapy plans. This work aims at to implement the Lyapunov Adaptive and Swarm-Fuzzy Logic Control [...] Read more.
The idea of developing a multi-joint rehabilitation robot is to satisfy the demands for recovery of lower limb functionality in hemiplegic impairments and assist the physiotherapists with their therapy plans. This work aims at to implement the Lyapunov Adaptive and Swarm-Fuzzy Logic Control (LASFC) strategy of 4-degree of freedom (4-DoF) Lower Limb Assistive Robot (LLAR) application, in which the control law is an integration of swarm-fuzzy logic control (SFLC) and Lyapunov adaptive control (LAC) with particle swarm optimization (PSO). The controller is established based on the sliding filtered steady-state error for SFLC. Its parameters are tuned by using PSO for the mathematical model of LLAR. The fuzzy defuzzification membership is set based on the tuned parameters for the real-time control system. LAC strategy is determined using stability analysis of the system to choose the controller’s parameters by observation of the system’s output and reference. The control law implemented in LLAR is the integration of SFLC and LAC to adjust the input voltage of joints. The parameters tuned by PSO are compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) statistically. In addition, the real-time trajectory tracking of the proposed controller for each joint is compared with LAC and SFLC separately. The experiment revealed that the LASFC has superior performance to the other two methods in trajectory tracking. For example, the average error for left hip by LASFC is 53.57% and 68% lower than SFLC and LAC, respectively. By the statistical analysis, it can be ascertained that the LASFC strategy performed efficiently for real-time control of the joint trajectory tracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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