Topic Editors

Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
College of Ecology and Environment, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China

Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 June 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Viewed by
56933

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water resources, mainly comprising groundwater and surface water, are a fundamental condition for human survival and society development. Groundwater is more available and exploited than surface water around the world due to extensive distribution, stable flow, reliable quality, natural self-cleaning capacity, and resistance to contamination.

In recent decades, with the explosive growth of human activities, various groundwater pollutions (nitrate, arsenic, phosphorus, antibiotic, microplastics and etc.) have been produced around the world. Therefore, it is urgent to launch groundwater pollution control and groundwater management to manage serious and widespread groundwater pollution. In this Topic, to explore novel knowledge around groundwater pollution control and groundwater management, we invite authors to contribute original and unpublished articles on constructive, conceptual, experimental, empirical, theoretical, or practical work to this Special Issue. Novel research papers with tables, figures, and references are invited, as well as reviews and case reports.

Papers reporting new approaches to assess and address groundwater pollution are also welcome. Submissions to the Topic will be subject to peer review before final publication. Submitted papers must not be submitted to any other publication at the same time. The final decision for paper publication will be made based on peer review reports by the Topic Editors, or the Editor-in-Chief in cases of a conflict of interest. Published full-text papers will be available online on the Topic website. We sincerely hope that you will contribute your outstanding research to us.

Dr. Yunhui Zhang
Dr. Qili Hu
Dr. Liting Hao
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • groundwater resource
  • applied hydrochemistry
  • environmental isotope
  • groundwater remediation
  • water and wastewater treatment
  • environmental impact assessment
  • environmental spatial analysis
  • environmental economics
  • environmental policy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Geosciences
geosciences
2.4 5.3 2011 26.2 Days CHF 1800
Hydrology
hydrology
3.1 4.9 2014 18.6 Days CHF 1800
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 7.3 2004 24.3 Days CHF 2500
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
4.2 8.3 2009 24.7 Days CHF 2700
Water
water
3.0 5.8 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (32 papers)

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39 pages, 14075 KiB  
Article
Assessing Groundwater Resources Vulnerability with the New DRASTIC-LP: A Case Study in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
by Chaiyathat Imsamranrat and Adisorn Leelasantitham
Water 2024, 16(4), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040547 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Groundwater vulnerability has gained widespread attention, particularly in Chiang Mai Province, one of Thailand’s fastest-growing cities, which is experiencing rapid development in both economic and social sectors. The expansion of urban communities and the industrial, tourism, and agriculture sectors has resulted in the [...] Read more.
Groundwater vulnerability has gained widespread attention, particularly in Chiang Mai Province, one of Thailand’s fastest-growing cities, which is experiencing rapid development in both economic and social sectors. The expansion of urban communities and the industrial, tourism, and agriculture sectors has resulted in the overutilization of available resources, notably water resources. This overuse, coupled with the adoption of modern technology to boost productivity and meet market demands, has led to an increased reliance on groundwater to supplement surface water sources, providing benefits across all sectors. However, the economic and social growth plays a pivotal role in shaping the diversity of land use, encompassing residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities. These activities, in turn, directly contribute to environmental pollution, particularly in terms of the risk of groundwater contamination in Chiang Mai Province. This study aims to predict the future vulnerabilities of groundwater resources under an ensemble of climate change scenarios and changes in land-use patterns. Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand is one of the fastest-growing cities and therefore is experiencing rapid urbanization, as well as land-use pattern changes, which was important for the case study. The new DRASTIC model, namely the DRASTIC-LP model, combined with GIS-based techniques and overlay techniques, was used to generate the map of groundwater resource vulnerabilities. A point pollution source (P)-related land-use pattern (L) that represents contamination impacts was considered an additional new DRASTIC parameter. The study’s findings reveal the high reliability and maximum effectiveness of the new DRASTIC-LP model in assessing groundwater vulnerability and contamination-risk areas under a climate change scenario (by MIROC-ESM-CHEM model under RCP.8.5 scenario) and land-use pattern changes (by CA_Markov Chian Model) for both the current year (2020) and the next 50-year period (2021–2070). Furthermore, the new DRASTIC-LP model is employed to trace the movement of pollutants from high- to very high-risk areas based on the groundwater vulnerability and contamination-risk maps. The results highlight that waste disposal dumping sites pose a more critical distribution and movement of pollutants when compared to industrial sites. Additionally, unconsolidated aquifers and cracked consolidated rock aquifers show a potentially higher occurrence of pollutant distribution and movement when compared to consolidated aquifers. Consequently, the study’s outcomes are applied to formulate guidelines for the management and control of groundwater resource contamination. These guidelines serve as valuable tools for decision makers, aiding in pollution prevention and the effective management of contamination risks in groundwater resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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12 pages, 5248 KiB  
Article
A Conceptual Framework for Modeling Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Diesel Attenuation Capacity: A Case Study across Namyangju, South Korea
by Livinia Saputra, Sang Hyun Kim, Kyung-Jin Lee, Seo Jin Ki, Ho Young Jo, Seunghak Lee and Jaeshik Chung
Hydrology 2024, 11(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11020019 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1583
Abstract
The vadose zone acts as a natural buffer against groundwater contamination, and thus, its attenuation capacity (AC) directly affects groundwater vulnerability to pollutants. A regression model from the previous study predicting the overall AC of soils against diesel was further expanded to the [...] Read more.
The vadose zone acts as a natural buffer against groundwater contamination, and thus, its attenuation capacity (AC) directly affects groundwater vulnerability to pollutants. A regression model from the previous study predicting the overall AC of soils against diesel was further expanded to the GIS-based overlay-index model. Among the six physicochemical parameters used in the regression model, saturation degree (SD) is notably susceptible to climatological and meteorological events. To accommodate the lack of soil SD historical data, a series of infiltration simulations were separately conducted using Phydrus code with moving boundary conditions (i.e., rainfall records). The temporal variation of SD and the resulting AC under transient conditions are captured by building a space–time cube using a temporal raster across the study area within the designated time frame (1997–2022). The emerging hot spot analysis (EHSA) tool, based on the Getis–Ord Gi* and Mann–Kendall statistics, is applied to further identify any existing pattern associated with both SD and AC in both space and time simultaneously. Under stationary conditions, AC decreases along depth and is relatively lower near water bodies. Similarly, AC cold spot trends also show up near water bodies under transient conditions. The result captures not only the trends across time but also shows the exact location where the changes happen. The proposed framework provides an efficient tool to look for locations that have a persistently low or a gradually decreasing ability to attenuate diesel over time, indicating the need for stricter management regulations from a long-term perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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17 pages, 16840 KiB  
Article
Leachate Experiments to Evaluate Weathering of Waste Rock for Backfill Aquifers in Restored Coal Mine Pits, Powder River Basin, USA
by Julianna Martin and Jeff B. Langman
Geosciences 2024, 14(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences14010004 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Restoration of open-pit mines may utilize waste rock for landscape reconstruction, which can include the construction of backfill aquifers. Weathering and contaminant transport may be different in backfill aquifers compared to the surrounding aquifer because of newly available mineral surfaces and transportable nano- [...] Read more.
Restoration of open-pit mines may utilize waste rock for landscape reconstruction, which can include the construction of backfill aquifers. Weathering and contaminant transport may be different in backfill aquifers compared to the surrounding aquifer because of newly available mineral surfaces and transportable nano- to micro-scale particles generated during mining. Waste rock from the Cordero Rojo open-pit coal mine in the Powder River Basin was exposed to benchtop leachate experiments for 20 weeks at temperatures of 5 °C and 20 °C. Collected leachate was analyzed for Eh, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and cation and anion concentrations as unfiltered and 0.45-μm and 0.2-μm filtered concentrations. During the experiment, leachate Eh and pH substantially varied during the first 55 days, which corresponds to a period of high specific conductance (>1000 µS/cm) and alkalinity (>200 mg/L). Correspondingly, anion and cation concentrations were the largest during this early weathering stage, and the filter fractions indicated multiple forms of transported elements. After this early weathering stage, column leachate evolved towards a weathering equilibrium of neutral, oxidizing, and low solute conditions indicated by positive Eh values, pH near 7, and specific conductance <500 μS/cm. This evolution was reflected in the decline and stabilization or non-detection of metal(loid) concentrations reflective of a shift to primarily bulk aluminosilicate weathering when coal- and salt-associated elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, and selenium, were not detected or at minimal concentrations. Over the course of the experiment, the solute trend of certain elements indicated particular weathering processes—cadmium and nanoparticle transport, selenium and salt dissolution, and arsenic and pyrite oxidation. The mining of overburden formations and use of the waste rock for backfill aquifers as part of landscape reconstruction will create newly available mineral surfaces and nanoparticles that will weather to produce solute concentrations not typically found in groundwater associated with the original overburden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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20 pages, 5806 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Evidence Constraining Genesis and Mineral Scaling of the Yangbajing Geothermal Field, Southwestern China
by Hu Yang, Xingcheng Yuan, Yongling Chen, Jiawei Liu, Chun Zhan, Guosen Lv, Junfeng Hu, Minglu Sun and Yunhui Zhang
Water 2024, 16(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010024 - 20 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
The Yangbajing geothermal field, a renowned high-temperature geothermal resource in Tibet of southwestern China, has been utilized for power generation for several decades. To improve geothermal exploitation in the Yangbajing, genesis and mineral scaling have yet to be further revealed. In this study, [...] Read more.
The Yangbajing geothermal field, a renowned high-temperature geothermal resource in Tibet of southwestern China, has been utilized for power generation for several decades. To improve geothermal exploitation in the Yangbajing, genesis and mineral scaling have yet to be further revealed. In this study, hydrochemistry and D-O-Sr isotopy were employed for analyzing genesis and mineral scaling in the Yangbajing geothermal field. The geothermal waters were weakly alkaline and had a high TDS content (1400–2900 mg/L) with the Cl-Na, Cl·HCO3-Na, and HCO3·Cl-Na types. The dissolution of silicate minerals (sodium and potassium feldspars) and positive cation exchange controlled the hydrogeochemical process. The geothermal water was recharged from snow-melted water and meteoric water originating from the Nyainqentanglh Mountains and Tangshan Mountains. The geothermal waters possessed the highest reservoir temperature of 299 °C and the largest circulation depth of 2010 m according to various geothermometers. The geothermal waters can produce CaCO3 and SiO2 scaling during vertical and horizontal transport. These achievements can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development and conservation of the high-temperature geothermal resources in Yangbajing and elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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11 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Transport of Oxygen-Doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride in Saturated Sand: Effects of Concentration, Grain Size, and Ionic Strength
by Thanh-Tuan Nguyen, Do-Gun Kim and Seok-Oh Ko
Water 2024, 16(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010006 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 901
Abstract
In this study, the characteristics and transport of oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (OgCN) were investigated in comparison with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and the transport of OgCN was evaluated under various conditions. OgCN was superior to MWCNT in transport within a quartz sand [...] Read more.
In this study, the characteristics and transport of oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (OgCN) were investigated in comparison with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and the transport of OgCN was evaluated under various conditions. OgCN was superior to MWCNT in transport within a quartz sand layer with less attachment and more detachment than MWCNT, which is attributable to more diverse and abundant functional groups, charges, defects, and amorphous graphitic structures. OgCN transport was well described by a one-dimensional advection–dispersion–retention model. The coefficients of retention (Smax), attachment (ka), and detachment (kd) calculated by the model were not always well-correlated with OgCN concentration and the grain size of the medium, suggesting that the OgCN transport was affected by various factors such as attachment, detachment, and pore size. However, it was clearly and significantly inhibited by ionic strength, via improved aggregation of OgCN. It is believed that the results of this study contribute to establish proper sub-surface injection strategies of carbonaceous materials for in situ chemical oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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16 pages, 41664 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Appraisal of Trace Elements in Groundwater in an Urban Area: A Case Study of Sichuan Basin, Southwest China
by Zhongyou Yu, Rongwen Yao, Xun Huang and Yuting Yan
Water 2023, 15(24), 4286; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244286 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Intense anthropogenic activities pose a serious threat to groundwater quality in urban areas. Assessing pollution levels and the health risks of trace elements within urban groundwater is crucial for protecting the groundwater environment. In this study, the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and [...] Read more.
Intense anthropogenic activities pose a serious threat to groundwater quality in urban areas. Assessing pollution levels and the health risks of trace elements within urban groundwater is crucial for protecting the groundwater environment. In this study, the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and health risk assessment were conducted to analyze trace element pollution levels and the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of groundwater resources in Sichuan Basin, SW China, based on the hydrochemical results of 114 groundwater samples. The HPI results displayed that 14.92% of groundwater samples were contaminated, primarily attributed to anthropogenic influence. The health risk assessment indicated that children faced the highest non-carcinogenic risk while adults had the highest carcinogenic risk. The Monte Carlo simulation further enhanced the reliability of the health risk model. A sensitivity analysis indicated that Pb was the most sensitive element affecting both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The achievements of this research would provide a basis for groundwater management in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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13 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Development of Slow-Releasing Tablets Combined with Persulfate and Ferrous Iron for In Situ Chemical Oxidation in Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Aquifers
by Geumhee Yun, Sunhwa Park, Young Kim and Kyungjin Han
Water 2023, 15(23), 4103; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234103 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Slow-releasing tablets combined with persulfate acting as an oxidant and ferrous iron acting as an activator were manufactured for in situ chemical oxidation. The trichloroethylene (TCE) removal efficiency according to the molar ratio of the oxidizer and activator in the 0, 0.5, 1, [...] Read more.
Slow-releasing tablets combined with persulfate acting as an oxidant and ferrous iron acting as an activator were manufactured for in situ chemical oxidation. The trichloroethylene (TCE) removal efficiency according to the molar ratio of the oxidizer and activator in the 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 molar ratio (persulfate: ferrous iron) reactors were 15%, 89%, 90%, 82%, 71%, and 55%, respectively. In a batch reactor injected with an oxidation-activation combined tablet (OACT) and a liquid oxidizing/activator, the TCE removal efficiencies were 100% and 70%, respectively, showing that the tablet form had a high efficiency in contaminant removal. The evaluation of the dissolution characteristics and TCE removal efficiency of OACT 0.5 (tablet with a 1:0.5 molar ratio of persulfate to activator) and OACT 1.0 (tablet with a 1:1 molar ratio of persulfate to activator) under continuous flow conditions showed that the TCE removal efficiency of the OACT 1.0 column was approximately 1.4 times higher than that of OACT 0.5. The longevities of persulfate and ferrous iron of the OACT 1.0 tablet were 43.2 days and 41.7 days, respectively. Thus, OACT 1.0, which was manufactured effectively, was suitable for in situ slow-release chemical oxidation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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21 pages, 10959 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Appraisal and Driving Forces of Groundwater Quality and Potential Health Risks of Nitrate in Typical Agricultural Area of Southwestern China
by Jiawei Liu, Chang Yang, Si Chen, Yangshuang Wang, Xingjun Zhang, Wulue Kang, Junyi Li, Ying Wang, Qili Hu and Xingcheng Yuan
Water 2023, 15(23), 4095; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234095 - 25 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Elucidating the hydrogeochemical processes and quality assessment of groundwater holds significant importance for its sustainable development. In this paper, 53 groundwater samples were collected from a typical agricultural area in the northeastern Chongqing municipality in SW China. The integration of multivariate statistical analysis, [...] Read more.
Elucidating the hydrogeochemical processes and quality assessment of groundwater holds significant importance for its sustainable development. In this paper, 53 groundwater samples were collected from a typical agricultural area in the northeastern Chongqing municipality in SW China. The integration of multivariate statistical analysis, ion ratio analysis, geomodelling analysis, the entropy water quality index, health risks assessment, and sensitivity analysis was carried out to explore the hydrochemical processes and quality assessment of groundwater in this study. The statistical results reveal that the cationic concentrations followed the order of Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+, while the anionic components were in the order of HCO3 > SO42− > NO3 > Cl. Based on the Piper trilinear diagram, the hydrochemical types were shown as Ca-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 types. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the groundwater samples could be categorized into three groups. The hydrochemical compositions were primarily influenced by water–rock interactions (e.g., carbonate dissolution and silicate weathering). In terms of irrigation suitability, the sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) ranged from 0.05 to 1.82, and the electrical conductivity (EC) varied from 116 to 1094 μs/cm, indicating that most groundwater samples were suitable for irrigation. The entropy-weighted water quality index ranged from 15 to 94, suggesting that the groundwater samples were suitable for drinking purposes. Non-carcinogenic human health risks followed the order of children > adult females > adult males, within the average values of 0.30, 0.21, and 0.18, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters had the weight order of NO3 > body weight (BW) > ingestion rate (IR) > exposure frequency (EF). Hence, we recommend prioritizing the management of areas with high salinity levels, while avoiding the excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers, raising awareness among local residents about safe groundwater, and providing robust support for the sustainable development of groundwater in typical agricultural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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14 pages, 5125 KiB  
Article
Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater and Risk Factors for Its Pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
by Oumar Traoré, Dissinviel Stéphane Kpoda, René Dembélé, Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba, Johannes Cairns, Nicolas Barro and Kaisa Haukka
Water 2023, 15(21), 3734; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213734 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Ouagadougou is a city with three million inhabitants and an increasing demand for water of sufficient quality. New boreholes are drilled to match demand, but their protection from anthropogenic contamination is insufficient. To assess the quality of urban groundwater in Ouagadougou for the [...] Read more.
Ouagadougou is a city with three million inhabitants and an increasing demand for water of sufficient quality. New boreholes are drilled to match demand, but their protection from anthropogenic contamination is insufficient. To assess the quality of urban groundwater in Ouagadougou for the first time, a total of 32 borehole water samples were collected and assessed for bacteriological and physicochemical features using established methods. Health risk inspections and hazard assessments were undertaken at sampling sites to identify potential hazards and contributing factors. Statistical analysis was used to identify associations between risk factors and water pollution. The study revealed poor quality of groundwater in Ouagadougou with major nonconformities related to total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and turbidity. Water samples from 19 boreholes (59%) were contaminated with coliforms, and 11 (34%) with E. coli. Additionally, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacterial spores were detected. Deviations from physicochemical quality requirements were observed for water turbidity, pH, nitrate, fluorine, and iron. Risk analysis showed the major high-risk practices to be sludge spreading or having a garbage heap, a latrine, a septic tank, or dirty water near a borehole. Based on these results, for public health protection, authorities must take strict measures to prohibit such practices around these important sources of drinking water in Ouagadougou. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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23 pages, 12588 KiB  
Article
Water–Rock Interactions, Genesis Mechanism, and Mineral Scaling of Geothermal Waters in Northwestern Sichuan, SW China
by Guosen Lv, Xu Zhang, Denghui Wei, Zhongyou Yu, Xingcheng Yuan, Minglu Sun, Xiangxinyu Kong and Yunhui Zhang
Water 2023, 15(21), 3730; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213730 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Geothermal resources are the vital renewable energy for resolving energy crisis and environmental deterioration. Understanding hydrogeochemical processes, genesis mechanisms and scaling trends is crucial for securing the sustainable utilization of geothermal resources. In this study, fourteen geothermal waters were collected for hydrochemical and [...] Read more.
Geothermal resources are the vital renewable energy for resolving energy crisis and environmental deterioration. Understanding hydrogeochemical processes, genesis mechanisms and scaling trends is crucial for securing the sustainable utilization of geothermal resources. In this study, fourteen geothermal waters were collected for hydrochemical and δ2H–δ18O isotopic analyses in northwestern Sichuan, SW China to clarify hydrogeochemical processes, genesis mechanisms, and scaling trends. Geothermal waters were recharged via atmospheric precipitation. Three different types of geothermal waters were identified using a piper diagram. Class 1 geothermal water with HCO3–Na and HCO3–SO4–Na types formed in the contact zone with Yanshanian intrusions and heated by residual radioactive heat. The hydrochemical processes were sodium/potassium silicate dissolution and positive cation–exchange. Class 2 geothermal water with HCO3–Ca and HCO3–Ca–Mg type was carbonate–type and heated by geothermal gradient. The dissolution of carbonate minerals dominated the hydrochemical process. Class 3 geothermal water with the SO4–Ca–Mg type was determined within deep faults. The dissolution of carbonatite and gypsum minerals and the oxidation of sulfides played a vital role in the hydrochemical process. The reservoir temperatures of geothermal waters followed the orders of Class 1 (74.9–137.6 °C) > Class 3 (85.9–100 °C) > Class 2 (38.7–93.5 °C). Calcium carbonate scaling should be paid attention to in Class1 and Class 3 geothermal water, and calcium sulfate scaling merely occurs in Class 3 geothermal water. This study provides vital information for geothermal exploitation in western Sichuan and other similar areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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20 pages, 4979 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeological Aspects of the Municipal Water Supply of Albania: Situation and Problems
by Romeo Eftimi, Kastriot Shehu and Franko Sara
Hydrology 2023, 10(10), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10100193 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
The municipal water supply, related mainly to the cities of Albania, began to develop in the second half of the 19th century and very intensively after 1945. Today, the reported mean water production for the cities, on average, is about 300 l/capita/d, including [...] Read more.
The municipal water supply, related mainly to the cities of Albania, began to develop in the second half of the 19th century and very intensively after 1945. Today, the reported mean water production for the cities, on average, is about 300 l/capita/d, including drinking and industrial water supplies. The territory of Albania has an uneven distribution of very heterogeneous aquifers conditioning often the difficulty of municipal water supply solutions. In this article, are analyzed and classified the hydrogeological aspects of the water supply sources of the settlements, which are summarized in five groups: (a) wells in alluvial intergranular aquifers; (b) karst springs; (c) wells in karst aquifers; (d) springs in fissured rocks; and (e) mixed water sources. For each group of the water supply sources, the main concerns regarding the quantity and quality problems are analyzed, facilitated by the description of a variety of representative examples of different situations. Based on the gained experience, important recommendations are given for the better understanding of hydrogeological aspects of water supply systems, related to the river water recharge areas, the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, and the high vulnerability of karst aquifers, as well as transboundary aquifers. However, the main problem of public water supply of Albania remains the poor management of water supply systems, which is reflected in the significant water losses, as well as the low public awareness of requests for sustainable use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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18 pages, 11577 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Investigations of the Geothermal Waters in the Kangding Area, SW China: Constraints from Hydrochemistry and D-O-T Isotopy
by Xialin Zhang, Chengdong Deng, Tao Feng and Yunhui Zhang
Water 2023, 15(15), 2761; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152761 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Geothermal resources, as a representative of clean energy, has been paid significant attention in the world. Due to active neotectonics and widespread magmatic rocks, the abundant geothermal waters in the Kangding area have been investigated. Hydrochemistry and D–O–T isotopy studies were carried out [...] Read more.
Geothermal resources, as a representative of clean energy, has been paid significant attention in the world. Due to active neotectonics and widespread magmatic rocks, the abundant geothermal waters in the Kangding area have been investigated. Hydrochemistry and D–O–T isotopy studies were carried out to clarify the genetic mechanism of geothermal waters. The hydrochemical types of geothermal waters are mainly Ca2+–Na+–HCO3 type, Na+–Cl–HCO3 type, and Na+–HCO3 type. Silicate dissolution and the cation exchange process are the water–rock interactions determining hydrochemical compositions. The recharge elevation of geothermal water was calculated to be 3034–3845 m, with an average of 3416 m. The reservoir temperatures of shallow and deep geothermal reservoirs vary from 50 to 115 °C and from 114 to 219 °C, respectively, and the mixing ratio of cold water is 0.56–0.89. These findings help to reveal the genetic mechanism of geothermal waters in the Kangding area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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18 pages, 12344 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Quaternary Groundwater in Baoshan Basin, Western Yunnan, China
by Yi Xiao, Jiahui Zhang, Aihua Long, Shiguang Xu, Tingting Guo, Xinchen Gu, Xiaoya Deng and Pei Zhang
Water 2023, 15(15), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152736 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The shallow groundwater of the quaternary system in the Baoshan basin, Yunnan Province is seriously polluted, threatening human health and restricting local socio-economic development; therefore, it is necessary to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanisms of the shallow groundwater of the quaternary [...] Read more.
The shallow groundwater of the quaternary system in the Baoshan basin, Yunnan Province is seriously polluted, threatening human health and restricting local socio-economic development; therefore, it is necessary to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanisms of the shallow groundwater of the quaternary system in the Baoshan basin. This study used EVS 2022 to establish a 3D visual geological model of the quaternary system in the basin and divided the shallow groundwater aquifers of the quaternary system into three groundwater systems, sampling 22, 9, and 4 groups in each groundwater system, respectively. Mathematical statistics, Piper’s trilinear diagram, Gibbs plots, the Gaillardet model, the ion ratio method, groundwater saturation, and the PCA-APCS-MLR model were used to analyze the groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of the study area. The results show the following: (1) The types of groundwater chemicals are mainly HCO3-Ca-Mg type and HCO3-Ca, the causes of the water chemical characteristics are mainly influenced by water–rock interaction and alternate cation adsorption, and the rock types with which the groundwater exchanges substances are carbonate rocks and silicate rocks. (2) The Fe2+, Mn2+, and NH3-N contents in groundwater systems I and II exceed the standard, which is the human activity area, and groundwater pollution is mainly affected by human activities. (3) Four main categories of factors were obtained according to the PCA-APCS-MLR model, namely dissolution filtration, migration and enrichment factors, geological and human activity factors, and environmental factors and pollution factors; the cumulative contribution of variance was 77.84%, and the groundwater chemical characteristics were jointly influenced by hydrogeological conditions and human activities. The results of this study provide a basis for groundwater protection and management in the Baoshan basin, where groundwater system I is the key area for pollution and should be strengthened for control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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20 pages, 8100 KiB  
Article
How to Predict the Efficacy of Free-Product DNAPL Pool Extraction Using 3D High-Precision Numerical Simulations: An Interdisciplinary Test Study in South-Western Sicily (Italy)
by Alessandra Feo, Federica Lo Medico, Pietro Rizzo, Maurizio Gasparo Morticelli, Riccardo Pinardi, Edoardo Rotigliano and Fulvio Celico
Hydrology 2023, 10(7), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10070143 - 6 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are known to be denser than water and immiscible with other fluids. Once released into the environment, they migrate downward through the variably saturated zone, causing severe damage. For this reason, it is essential to properly develop a [...] Read more.
Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are known to be denser than water and immiscible with other fluids. Once released into the environment, they migrate downward through the variably saturated zone, causing severe damage. For this reason, it is essential to properly develop a rapid response strategy, including predictions of contaminant migration trajectories from numerical simulations modeling. This paper presents a series of simulations of free-product DNAPL extraction by means of a purpose-designed pumping well. The objective is to minimize the environmental impact caused by DNAPL release in the subsurface, estimating the recoverable free-product DNAPL, depending on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer medium, and estimating the leaving residual DNAPL that could act as a long-term pollution source. Coupling the numerical simulations to the bacterial community characterization (through biomolecular analyses), it was verified that (i) the DNAPL recovery (mainly PCE at the study site) through a pumping well would be almost complete and (ii) the application of other remediation techniques (such as bioremediation) would not be necessary to remove the pollution source because (iii) a natural attenuation process is provided by the autochthonous bacterial community, which is characterized by genera (such as Dechloromonas, Rhodoferax, and Desulfurivibrio) that have metabolic pathways capable of favoring the degradation of chlorinated compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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22 pages, 7537 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Quality Variations in Multiple Aquifers: A Comprehensive Evaluation for Public Health and Agricultural Use
by Jeerapong Laonamsai, Veeraphat Pawana, Phupha Chipthamlong, Phornsuda Chomcheawchan, Kiattipong Kamdee, Bounhome Kimmany and Phongthorn Julphunthong
Geosciences 2023, 13(7), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13070195 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Understanding hydrological and hydrochemical processes is crucial for the effective management and protection of groundwater resources. This study conducted a comprehensive investigation into hydrochemical processes and variations in groundwater quality across five distinct aquifers in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thailand: Bangkok (BKK), Phra [...] Read more.
Understanding hydrological and hydrochemical processes is crucial for the effective management and protection of groundwater resources. This study conducted a comprehensive investigation into hydrochemical processes and variations in groundwater quality across five distinct aquifers in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thailand: Bangkok (BKK), Phra Pradaeng (PPD), Nakhon Luang (NKL), Nonthaburi (NTB), and Sam Khok (SK). Utilizing various diagrams, the findings revealed that high levels of sodium and salinity in shallow aquifers (BKK and PPD) were found which can impede soil permeability and have potential consequences on crop yields. The presence of four distinct types of groundwater—Na-Cl, Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3—suggests the influence of rock weathering, mineral dissolution, and ion exchange reactions with the surrounding geological formations, controlling the chemistry in the groundwater basin. The research also highlights concerns regarding groundwater quality, particularly elevated concentrations of heavy metals (e.g., Zn, Hg, Pd, Fe, and Mn) exceeding safe drinking water guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in certain samples. The evaluation of water suitability for consumption and irrigation using the Water Quality Index (WQI) and Wilcox diagram reveals a predominance of “poor” or “unsuitable” categorizations. Untreated sewage discharge and fertilizer usage were identified as the primary anthropogenic activities affecting hydrochemical processes in groundwater. These findings emphasize the need for continuous monitoring, appropriate management, and remediation efforts to mitigate potential hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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20 pages, 3202 KiB  
Article
The Characterization of Groundwater Quality for Safe Drinking Water Wells via Disinfection and Sterilization in Jordan: A Case Study
by Mehaysen Al-Mahasneh, Abeer Al Bsoul, Nada Al-Ananzeh, Hussam Elddin Al-Khasawane, Marwan Al-Mahasneh and Raeda Tashtoush
Hydrology 2023, 10(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10060135 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2246
Abstract
This work aims to evaluate the quality of drinking water in the Disi aquifer in Jordan. Several water quality parameters are included in the mathematical equation to evaluate the average water quality and establish the suitability of water for drinking purposes. Water sampling [...] Read more.
This work aims to evaluate the quality of drinking water in the Disi aquifer in Jordan. Several water quality parameters are included in the mathematical equation to evaluate the average water quality and establish the suitability of water for drinking purposes. Water sampling zones from three wells were used to calculate the water quality indices (WQI). The water samples were analyzed for several physicochemical parameters, including pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3−, SO42−, Cl, NO3, total hardness, electrical conductivity (EC) and other elements (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, As2−, Pb4+ and Cu2+), in the groundwater wells. Biological parameters, such as faecal coliform, were also tested. The Weighted Arithmetic WQI indicated that most of the wells were of good to excellent quality. These determined indices support decision making and are beneficial to monitoring the groundwater quality in the Disi aquifer. The relative weight is specific to each parameter and ranges from 1 to 5; it establishes the importance of the water quality parameters for domestic purposes. The WQI analysis rates the water quality between 75 to 65 from good to medium. The water quality of the Disi aquifer for potable drinking water was compared with the guidelines of the World Health Organization (2011) and the Jordan Drinking Standard (JS286); the results indicated that water in the Disi aquifer was of high quality and was fit for drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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23 pages, 12336 KiB  
Article
Anthropogenic Contamination in the Free Aquifer of the San Luis Potosí Valley
by Sonia Torres-Rivera, José Ramón Torres-Hernández, Simón Eduardo Carranco-Lozada, María Elena García-Arreola, Rubén Alfonso López-Doncel and Jesús Anibal Montenegro-Ríos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(12), 6152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20126152 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
The San Luis Potosí valley is an endorheic basin that contains three aquifers: a shallow unconfined aquifer of alluvial material and two deep aquifers, free and confined. The groundwater contamination documented for the shallow aquifer generates contamination of the deep unconfined type aquifer, [...] Read more.
The San Luis Potosí valley is an endorheic basin that contains three aquifers: a shallow unconfined aquifer of alluvial material and two deep aquifers, free and confined. The groundwater contamination documented for the shallow aquifer generates contamination of the deep unconfined type aquifer, from which part of the population’s drinking water needs are met. This study records incipient anthropogenic contamination of two types: biogenic and potentially toxic trace elements. The studied contaminants include fecal coliform bacteria, total coliform, nitrate, and potentially toxic elements such as: manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd). This contamination in some locations exceeds the permissible limit for human consumption. Some major consequences to health, including severe illness, may be caused by the trace elements. The present results give a first signal about the contamination of the deep unconfined type aquifer due to anthropogenic activity in the valley. This is a priority issue because this aquifer supplies drinking water, and in the short or medium term it will have an effect on public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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29 pages, 10391 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes Using GIS-Based IWQI, EWQI and HHR Model
by Ying Wang, Rui Li, Xiangchuan Wu, Yuting Yan, Changli Wei, Ming Luo, Yong Xiao and Yunhui Zhang
Water 2023, 15(12), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122233 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Groundwater pollution has emerged as a significant water crisis in various regions around the globe. Groundwater serves as a crucial source of water for human consumption and agricultural activities in the Sichuan Basin where groundwater quality has yet to be concentrated. A total [...] Read more.
Groundwater pollution has emerged as a significant water crisis in various regions around the globe. Groundwater serves as a crucial source of water for human consumption and agricultural activities in the Sichuan Basin where groundwater quality has yet to be concentrated. A total of 41 groundwater samples were collected from domestic wells in Suining city of the Sichuan Basin, which were used for analyzing the hydrogeochemical processes and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. In the study area, groundwater samples belonged to the HCO3-Ca type. Hydrochemical compositions were dominated by carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution with positive cation exchange. Agricultural activities and urban sewage were the primary sources of NO3 pollution. The irrigation water quality index (IWQI) was calculated using electronic conductivity (EC), Na+, Cl, HCO3, and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The IWQI values showed that the suitability of groundwater irrigation was generally good and presented the decreasing trend southeastwardly. According to the entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI), the groundwater quality for drinking purposes was generally good. However, there were some local areas with poor water quality concentrated in the southeast part. According to the human health risk (HHR) model, the groundwater was deemed safe for adults and children. However, for infants, the nitrate level in the groundwater remained high and posed potential health risks. The combined IWQI and EWQI evaluation served as a valuable reference for the utilization of the groundwater resource in the Sichuan Basin, as well as other comparable regions worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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14 pages, 3558 KiB  
Article
Spatial Optimization of the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network in the Kingdom of Bahrain
by Waleed Al-Zubari, Ali Al-Shaabani and Nadir Abdulhameid
Water 2023, 15(12), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122169 - 8 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Groundwater resource development, management, and planning essentially rely on their quantitative and qualitative monitoring. The information obtained from the monitoring networks of a given groundwater resource is used as a significant indicator for the status of that resource, and management schemes are subsequently [...] Read more.
Groundwater resource development, management, and planning essentially rely on their quantitative and qualitative monitoring. The information obtained from the monitoring networks of a given groundwater resource is used as a significant indicator for the status of that resource, and management schemes are subsequently made in order to develop and utilize this resource on a sustainable basis. In this study, the performance of the existing monitoring network of the quality of groundwater in Bahrain was evaluated and was spatially optimized using the geostatistical method of kriging. The estimation variance was used as a criterium in the design process, and variance reduction was used to measure the network performance. The process resulted in an increase in the number of observation points from 15 currently monitored wells to 91 wells, with 74% of these being augmented industrial and commercial wells that were to be self-reported to internalize the cost of groundwater management in their users. It is recommended that temporal optimization procedures for the groundwater level are conducted and that monitored groundwater quality data are stored in a dedicated groundwater management information system (MIS) along with the monitored data of groundwater levels and abstraction to effectively support the process of decision making for groundwater planning and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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13 pages, 3220 KiB  
Article
Purpose-Designed Hydrogeological Maps for Wide Interconnected Surface–Groundwater Systems: The Test Example of Parma Alluvial Aquifer and Taro River Basin (Northern Italy)
by Riccardo Pinardi, Alessandra Feo, Andrea Ruffini and Fulvio Celico
Hydrology 2023, 10(6), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10060127 - 4 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Hydrogeological maps must synthesize scientific knowledge about the hydraulic features and the hydrogeological behavior of a specific area, and, at the same time, they must meet the expectations of land planners and administrators. Thus, hydrogeological maps can be fully effective when they are [...] Read more.
Hydrogeological maps must synthesize scientific knowledge about the hydraulic features and the hydrogeological behavior of a specific area, and, at the same time, they must meet the expectations of land planners and administrators. Thus, hydrogeological maps can be fully effective when they are purpose-designed, especially in complex interconnected systems. In this case study, purpose-designed graphical solutions emphasize all the hydraulic interconnections that play significant roles in recharging the multilayered alluvial aquifer, where the majority of wells have been drilled for human purposes, artificial channels are used for agricultural purposes, and the shallow groundwater feeds protected groundwater-dependent ecosystems. The hydrogeological map was then designed to be the synthesis of three different and hydraulically interconnected main contexts: (i) the alluvial aquifer, (ii) the hydrographic basin of the Taro losing river, and (iii) those hard-rock aquifers whose springs feed the same river. The main hydrogeological map was integrated with two smaller sketches and one hydrogeological profile. One small map was drawn from a modeling perspective because it facilitates visualization of the alluvial aquifer bottom and the “no-flow boundaries.” The other small sketch shows the artificial channel network that emphasizes the hydraulic connection between water courses and groundwater within the alluvial aquifer. The hydrogeological profile was reconstructed to be able to (i) show the main heterogeneities within the aquifer system (both layered and discontinuous), (ii) visualize the coexistence of shallower and deeper groundwater, (iii) emphasize the hydraulic interconnections between subsystems, and (iv) suggest the coexistence of groundwater pathways with different mean residence times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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19 pages, 14239 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Seawater Intrusion Process Based on Multiple Monitoring Methods: Study in the Southern Coastal Plain of Laizhou Bay, China
by Hongwei Liu, Lin Gao, Chuanming Ma and Yi Yuan
Water 2023, 15(11), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112013 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Affected by natural factors and human activities, seawater intrusion has become a geo-environmental problem, significantly impacting human production and life. Seawater intrusion weakens coastal areas’ geo-environmental carrying capacity, limiting industry and commerce development potential. On the other hand, it may provide convenient deep [...] Read more.
Affected by natural factors and human activities, seawater intrusion has become a geo-environmental problem, significantly impacting human production and life. Seawater intrusion weakens coastal areas’ geo-environmental carrying capacity, limiting industry and commerce development potential. On the other hand, it may provide convenient deep seawater resources for coastal aquaculture development. Therefore, how to quantitatively analyze seawater intrusion’s process, scope, and influencing factors has become a hotspot for hydrogeological researchers. This study uses chemical sampling analysis, environmental isotope, fixed-point, and geophysical methods to monitor long-term seawater intrusion in the southern coastal plain of Laizhou Bay. According to the monitoring data, the chemical type of fresh groundwater changes from Ca·Mg-HCO3 to Na-HCO3·Cl, Na·Ca-HCO3·Cl from south to north, and the changing trend of brackish groundwater is from Mg·Na·Ca-HCO3, Mg·Ca-HCO3 to Na-Cl·HCO3, Na·Mg-Cl. Saline groundwater is mainly of the Na-Cl and Na·Mg-Cl type. Brine is of the Cl-Na type. The relationship between 18O, 2H, and Cl shows that groundwater was affected by evaporation, dissolution, and mixing in the runoff process. The relationship between water level and TDS in monitoring wells at different locations and depths confirms the existence of seasonal variations and layered intrusion phenomena in groundwater recharge sources. From July 2018 to December 2019, the south intrusion and north retreat rates were approximately 213.3 m/a and 105.9 m/a, respectively. From August 2016 to December 2019, the seawater intrusion front on the Dawangdong profile generally retreated northward at approximately 27 m/a. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the utilization of groundwater in local production and life. Comparative analysis and mutual verification of multiple monitoring methods can provide basic ideas for constructing a multi-source monitoring system for seawater intrusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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17 pages, 3656 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Analytical Solution of Horizontal Diffusion Equation into the Vadose Zone
by Christos Tzimopoulos, Nikiforos Samarinas, Basil Papadopoulos and Christos Evangelides
Hydrology 2023, 10(5), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10050107 - 8 May 2023
Viewed by 2298
Abstract
The process of how soil moisture profiles evolve into the soil and reach the root zone could be estimated by solving the appropriate strong nonlinear Richards’ equation. The nonlinearity of the equation occurs because diffusivity D is generally an exponential function of water [...] Read more.
The process of how soil moisture profiles evolve into the soil and reach the root zone could be estimated by solving the appropriate strong nonlinear Richards’ equation. The nonlinearity of the equation occurs because diffusivity D is generally an exponential function of water content. In this work, the boundary conditions of the physical problem are considered fuzzy for various reasons (e.g., machine impression, human errors, etc.), and the overall problem is encountered with a new approximate fuzzy analytical solution, leading to a system of crisp boundary value problems. According to the results, the proposed fuzzy analytical solution is in close agreement with Philip’s semi-analytical method, which is used as a reference solution, after testing 12 different types of soils. Additionally, possibility theory is applied, enabling the decision-makers to take meaningful actions and gain knowledge of various soil and hydraulic properties (e.g., sorptivity, infiltration, etc.) for rational and productive engineering studies (e.g., irrigation systems). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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16 pages, 46305 KiB  
Article
Exploring Multiscale Variability in Groundwater Quality: A Comparative Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Patterns via Clustering
by Ismail Mohsine, Ilias Kacimi, Shiny Abraham, Vincent Valles, Laurent Barbiero, Fabrice Dassonville, Tarik Bahaj, Nadia Kassou, Abdessamad Touiouine, Meryem Jabrane, Meryem Touzani, Badr El Mahrad and Tarik Bouramtane
Water 2023, 15(8), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081603 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
Defining homogeneous units to optimize the monitoring and management of groundwater is a key challenge for organizations responsible for the protection of water for human consumption. However, the number of groundwater bodies (GWBs) is too large for targeted monitoring and recommendations. This study, [...] Read more.
Defining homogeneous units to optimize the monitoring and management of groundwater is a key challenge for organizations responsible for the protection of water for human consumption. However, the number of groundwater bodies (GWBs) is too large for targeted monitoring and recommendations. This study, carried out in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region of France, is based on the intersection of two databases, one grouping together the physicochemical and bacteriological analyses of water and the other delimiting the boundaries of groundwater bodies. The extracted dataset contains 8627 measurements from 1143 observation points distributed over 63 GWB. Data conditioning through logarithmic transformation, dimensional reduction through principal component analysis, and hierarchical classification allows the grouping of GWBs into 11 homogeneous clusters. The fractions of unexplained variance (FUV) and ANOVA R2 were calculated to assess the performance of the method at each scale. For example, for the total dissolved load (TDS) parameter, the temporal variance was quantified at 0.36 and the clustering causes a loss of information with an R2 going from 0.63 to 0.4 from the scale of the sampling point to that of the GWB cluster. The results show that the logarithmic transformation reduces the effect of outliers and improves the quality of the GWB clustering. The groups of GWBs are homogeneous and clearly distinguishable from each other. The results can be used to define specific management and protection strategies for each group. The study also highlights the need to take into account the temporal variability of groundwater quality when implementing monitoring and management programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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17 pages, 14832 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Water Quality of Shallow Groundwater in Desert Area of Kunyu City, Southern Margin of Tarim Basin, China
by Runchi Tang, Shuning Dong, Mengfei Zhang, Zhenfang Zhou, Chenghang Zhang, Pei Li and Mengtong Bai
Water 2023, 15(8), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081563 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang is located in the northwest inland arid region of China, but research shows that the region is rich in groundwater resources. To understand the hydrochemical characteristics and water quality of shallow groundwater in the desert area of the [...] Read more.
The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang is located in the northwest inland arid region of China, but research shows that the region is rich in groundwater resources. To understand the hydrochemical characteristics and water quality of shallow groundwater in the desert area of the southern margin of the Tarim Basin, the groundwater was systematically sampled and tested. The ion characteristics and evolution mechanism of groundwater were analyzed by mathematical statistics, Schukarev classification, Piper three-line diagram, Gibbs model and ion ratio. Water quality was evaluated by the water quality index method (WQI) and irrigation water suitability-related parameters. The results indicated that the dominant cation in the study area is Na+, and the main dominant anions are SO42− and Cl. According to total dissolved solids (TDS), the groundwater mainly belongs to brackish water and semi-saline water. The hydrochemical chemistry types are mainly Cl·SO4-Na·Mg type, followed by Cl-Na type, and the ion source is mainly the weathering and dissolution of evaporation rock, silicate and sulphate. The hydrochemical process is primarily controlled by evaporation concentration and rock weathering, and the cation exchange is weak. Furthermore, the WQI spatial distribution map shows that the groundwater in the middle of the study area is unsuitable for drinking and there are two areas with high WQI values greater than 500. In contrast, the good-excellent groundwater is scattered in the East. The groundwater generally has high to very high salinity, with significant changes in alkalinity. In addition, 54% of the water samples exceed the magnesium hazard (MH) limit. Therefore, certain measures should be taken before irrigation. This study has important implications for the rational development and reasonable utilization of local groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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15 pages, 6126 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Surface and Subsurface Water Quality in Hyper-Arid Environments
by Ahmed Mohamed, Ahmed Asmoay, Saad S. Alarifi and Musaab A. A. Mohammed
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040086 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Forty-eight water samples (30 groundwater and 18 surface water samples) were collected from the study region. Physical and chemical examinations were performed on the water samples to determine the values of various variables. Several graphs, sheets, and statistical measures, including the sodium solubility [...] Read more.
Forty-eight water samples (30 groundwater and 18 surface water samples) were collected from the study region. Physical and chemical examinations were performed on the water samples to determine the values of various variables. Several graphs, sheets, and statistical measures, including the sodium solubility percentage (SSP), the sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and Piper’s diagram, were used to plot the concentration of the principal ions and the chloride mass balance (CMB). The contents of the variables were compared with the contents in other local areas and the standard allowable safe limits as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Water pH values were neutral for all water samples. Electric conductivity (EC) readings revealed that water samples vacillated from slightly mineralized to excessively mineralized. Water salinities were fresh and very fresh according to the total dissolved solids (TDS) amounts. The hardness of water ranged from medium to hard in the surface water and from medium to very hard in the groundwater samples. Bicarbonate, sodium, and calcium made up the highest amounts in the surface water samples. The highest concentrations of bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and sodium were found in the groundwater. Diagrams show the major ion relationships as well as the type and origin of the water. According to Piper’s plots, most of the water samples under investigation were Ca-HCO3 type, Mg water types, followed by SO4.Ca-Cl water types. This highlighted the elemental preponderance of bicarbonate and alkaline earth (Ca2+ + Mg2+). This dominance is caused by evaporite and carbonate minerals dissolving in water because of anthropogenic activities and interaction processes. The groundwater recharge was estimated to be 0.89–1.6 mm/yr based on Chloride Mass Balance. The examined water samples can also be used for cattle, poultry, and irrigation. Additionally, the groundwater is of poorer quality than the surface water, although both types of water are adequate for various industries, with a range of 14 to 94 percent. With the exception of a few groundwater samples, the tested water samples are suitable for a number of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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16 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Modeling a Metamorphic Aquifer through a Hydro-Geophysical Approach: The Gap between Field Data and System Complexity
by Francesco Chidichimo, Michele De Biase, Francesco Muto and Salvatore Straface
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040080 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The productivity of metamorphic aquifers is generally lower than that of the more common alluvial and carbonates ones. However, in some Mediterranean areas, such as the Calabria region (Italy), water scarcity combined with the presence of extensive metamorphic water bodies requires the development [...] Read more.
The productivity of metamorphic aquifers is generally lower than that of the more common alluvial and carbonates ones. However, in some Mediterranean areas, such as the Calabria region (Italy), water scarcity combined with the presence of extensive metamorphic water bodies requires the development of further studies to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of these groundwater systems in order to achieve their sustainable exploitation. The interest in this goal becomes even greater if climate change effects are considered. The purpose of this study was to provide the geological-structural and hydrogeological numerical modeling of a metamorphic aquifer, using direct and indirect data measurement, in a large area of the Sila Piccola in Calabria. The hydrodynamic characterization of the crystalline-metamorphic aquifer, constituted by granite and metamorphic rocks, is extremely complex. The MODFLOW-2005 groundwater model was used to simulate flow phenomena in the aquifer, obtaining hydraulic conductivity values of 2.7 × 10−6 m/s, which turned out to be two orders of magnitude higher than those obtained from the interpretation of the slug-tests performed in the study area. The mathematical model was also able to estimate the presence of a lateral recharge from a neighboring deep aquifer providing a significant water supply to the system under investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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20 pages, 5701 KiB  
Article
Development of Groundwater Flow Models for the Integrated Management of the Alluvial Aquifer Systems of Dravsko polje and Ptujsko polje, Slovenia
by Ada Vengust, Anja Koroša, Janko Urbanc and Nina Mali
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030068 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
With increasing exploitation of groundwater resources and implementation of various activities in their recharge areas, it is vital to conduct a comprehensive assessment of aquifers to ensure their conservation and sustainable management. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to conceptualise [...] Read more.
With increasing exploitation of groundwater resources and implementation of various activities in their recharge areas, it is vital to conduct a comprehensive assessment of aquifers to ensure their conservation and sustainable management. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to conceptualise and identify the functioning of two connected aquifer systems in north-eastern Slovenia: the Quaternary porous aquifers Dravsko polje and Ptujsko polje. The study presents the conceptual models of both aquifers and their interconnectedness using separate mathematical-numerical models with the aim of ensuring an integrated management of these alluvial aquifer systems. It also highlights the importance of understanding connections between such systems for simulating groundwater flow and transport of different contaminants. To describe the entire aquifer system, the study defines its three essential elements: the geometry of the aquifers, their recharge by precipitation, and other boundary conditions. The geometry of the Quaternary aquifers was defined using Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) with the ESRI’s ArcMap software. Next, LIDAR was used for determining their surface geometry. The hydrogeologic model was designed using the Groundwater Modelling System (GMS) developed by AQUAVEO. We used the MODFLOW 2000 calculation method based on the finite difference method (FDM). The model was calibrated with the PEST module, which was used to calibrate hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic heads between the measured and modelled data. Finally, the model was validated using the Nash–Sutcliffe (NSE) efficiency coefficient. In addition, the model results estimated using the PEST tool were validated with the hydraulic conductivities determined at the pumping sites (pumping tests), each belonging to water protection zones that define the maximum travel time of the particles. This was performed using the MODPATH method. The paper also presents the possibility of modelling heterogeneous but interdependent aquifers in a groundwater body. Modelling the connection between the two aquifers, which are the most important ones in the region, is essential for a comprehensive management of the entire system of water resources. The models allow for a better understanding of groundwater flow in both aquifers. Moreover, their interconnectedness will be used for further studies in this field, as well as for integrated water management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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16 pages, 4515 KiB  
Article
Screening and Optimization of Conditions for the Adsorption of Cd2+ in Serpentine by Using Response Surface Methodology
by Xufeng Zhang, Liyu Du and Wenjuan Jin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416848 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
In order to explore the optimal conditions for the adsorption of Cd2+ in serpentine, this paper studied the adsorption of simulated cadmium solutions with serpentine as an adsorbent. On the basis of a single factor experiment, four factors including the amount of [...] Read more.
In order to explore the optimal conditions for the adsorption of Cd2+ in serpentine, this paper studied the adsorption of simulated cadmium solutions with serpentine as an adsorbent. On the basis of a single factor experiment, four factors including the amount of serpentine, initial pH, the initial concentration of solutions, and adsorption time were selected as the influencing factors, and the adsorption quantity and adsorption rate of serpentine to Cd2+ were double response values using the Box–Behnken design. Response surface analyses were used to study the effects of four factors on the adsorption quantity and adsorption rate of serpentine on cadmium, and the interaction between various factors. The results showed that the optimum adsorption conditions were as follows: the amount of serpentine was 1%, the initial pH was 5.5, the initial solution concentration was 40.83 mg·L−1, and the adsorption time was 26.78 h. Under these conditions, the theoretical adsorption quantity and adsorption rate of serpentine to Cd2+ were 3.99 mg·g−1 and 95.24%, respectively. At the same time, after three repeated experiments, the actual adsorption quantity and adsorption rate of serpentine to Cd2+ were 3.91 mg·g−1 and 94.68%, respectively, and the theoretical value was similar to the actual value. Therefore, it was proved that the experimental design of the regression model is reliable, and it is feasible to use the response surface method to optimize the adsorption conditions of serpentine on Cd2+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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23 pages, 6591 KiB  
Article
Coupling Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes (δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) to Identify the Major Factors Affecting the Hydrochemical Process of Groundwater and Surface Water in the Lower Reaches of the Yarlung-Zangbo River, Southern Tibet, Southwestern China
by Xiao Yu, Xingcheng Yuan, Hongyang Guo, Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Tongming Luo, Zhaocheng Gong and Haoqing Huang
Water 2022, 14(23), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233906 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
In Tibet, water resource has been less studied due to remote and harsh conditions. In this study, hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) were employed to investigate the major factors affecting the hydrochemical process [...] Read more.
In Tibet, water resource has been less studied due to remote and harsh conditions. In this study, hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) were employed to investigate the major factors affecting the hydrochemical process of groundwater and surface water in the lower reaches of the Yarlung-Zangbo River, southern Tibet. Groundwater and surface water were weakly alkaline and very soft to moderately hard water. The hydrochemical type of surface water is mainly Ca-HCO3 (mainstream) and Ca-SO4-HCO3 (tributary), while the hydrochemical type of groundwater was mainly Ca-SO4-HCO3. Multivariate statistical analysis and Gibbs analysis proposed hydrochemical components were dominated by water-rock interaction. Ion ratio, saturation index, and Sr isotope revealed calcite dissolution and silicate weathering with local sulfide oxidation were involved in water–rock interaction. D-O isotopes indicated the recharge source was mainly derived from atmosphere precipitation. The entropy-weighted water quality index indicated surface water and groundwater reach the standard of drinking purpose in the lower reaches of the Yarlung-Zangbo River. The hydrochemical type varied regularly along the Yarlung-Zangbo River. The dissolution of carbonate rocks and local silicate weather and evaporate dissolution are the primary hydrochemical process along the Yarlung-Zangbo River. This study would provide a preliminary insight for hydrochemical process in the Yarlung-Zangbo River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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11 pages, 13378 KiB  
Article
Performance and Enhancement of Various Fillers Guiding Vanadium (V) Bioremediation
by Liting Hao, Lin Li, Bangyan Wang, Xinli Wang, Jinkai Shi, Chen Shi and Xiaodi Hao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214926 - 13 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Bioremediation of vanadium (V) pollution in groundwater is an emerging topic. However, knowledge of V in a biogeochemical process is limited and long-term effective removal methods are lacking. V(V) remediation processes by various kinds of auxiliary fillers (maifanite-1, maifanite-2, volcanic rock, green zeolite [...] Read more.
Bioremediation of vanadium (V) pollution in groundwater is an emerging topic. However, knowledge of V in a biogeochemical process is limited and long-term effective removal methods are lacking. V(V) remediation processes by various kinds of auxiliary fillers (maifanite-1, maifanite-2, volcanic rock, green zeolite and ceramsite), agricultural biomass and microbial enhancing were explored in this study. In tests without inocula, the V(V) removal efficiencies of ceramsite (inert filler) and maifanite-2 (active filler) were 84.9% and 60.5%, respectively. When inoculated with anaerobic sludge, 99.9% of V(V) could be removed with the synergistic performance of straw and maifanite-2. TOC (Total Organic Carbon), trace elements and three-dimensional fluorescence analyses confirmed that maifanite-2 was the most suitable among various fillers in biological V(V) removal systems with straw. This study provides a collaborative method (adsorption–biology) by using straw with maifanite-2 in V(V)-contaminated groundwater. The knowledge gained in this study will help develop permeable reactive barrier technology to repair polluted groundwater to put forward a reasonable, effective and sustainable environmental treatment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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18 pages, 7709 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Spatiotemporal Variation of Groundwater Arsenic Due to Salt-Leaching Irrigation and Saline-Alkali Land
by Shuhui Yin, Yuan Tian, Linsheng Yang, Qiqian Wen and Binggan Wei
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5586; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215586 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Determining the link between the evolution of salt-leaching irrigation, saline-alkali land, and groundwater arsenic (As) is essential to prevent groundwater arsenic pollution and implement appropriate soil salinization control projects. The objectives of our study were to explore the spatiotemporal correlation of saline-alkali land [...] Read more.
Determining the link between the evolution of salt-leaching irrigation, saline-alkali land, and groundwater arsenic (As) is essential to prevent groundwater arsenic pollution and implement appropriate soil salinization control projects. The objectives of our study were to explore the spatiotemporal correlation of saline-alkali land and salt-leaching irrigation with groundwater As in the Hetao Plain. Therefore, groundwater As concentrations during Period I (2006–2010) and Period II (2016–2020) were collected by historical data and chemical measurements. Salt-leaching irrigation area and saline-alkali land area in Period I and Period II were extracted through remote sensing data. With the increase of the salt-leaching irrigation area level (SLIAL) and saline-alkali land area level (SALAL), the variation trend in groundwater As concentration slightly fluctuated, with an increase in the SLIAL at the low SALAL, which may be because short-term flooding may not considerably enhance As mobilization. Lower groundwater As concentrations appeared in regions with higher SLIAL and lower SALAL. A larger saline-alkali land area (higher SALAL) increased the groundwater As concentration. The path analysis model confirmed that salt-leaching irrigation may increase groundwater salinity to affect groundwater As levels and to decrease the saline-alkali land area. From Periods I to II, the difference in path analysis results may imply that the decrease in the saline-alkali land area may have influenced As mobilization due to competitive adsorption caused by the increase in total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater. Our results provide new insights for the impacts of saline-alkali land and salt-leaching irrigation both on groundwater As concentration and the geochemical processes of As enrichment in arid and semi-arid areas with more serious salinization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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19 pages, 4208 KiB  
Article
In Situ Pumping–Injection Remediation of Strong Acid–High Salt Groundwater: Displacement–Neutralization Mechanism and Influence of Pore Blocking
by Fang Yuan, Jia Zhang, Jian Chen, Honghan Chen and Samuel Barnie
Water 2022, 14(17), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172720 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Acid-polluted groundwater may cause many environmental problems due to its corrosivity. Pumping and injection technology is a commonly used remediation technology, and its main principles are displacement and neutralization. However, due to the high salinity in groundwater, blockage easily occurs and reduces the [...] Read more.
Acid-polluted groundwater may cause many environmental problems due to its corrosivity. Pumping and injection technology is a commonly used remediation technology, and its main principles are displacement and neutralization. However, due to the high salinity in groundwater, blockage easily occurs and reduces the efficiency. The mechanism of pumping and remediation of strong acid–high salinity groundwater is unclear, and the mechanism and effect of pore blocking are unknown. In this paper, based on an actual polluted site, a field pumping test was carried out. Through groundwater monitoring and drilling core sampling, the process and mechanism of acid groundwater pumping–injection remediation were clarified, and the principle and impact of pore blockage are revealed. The results showed that increasing the injection pressure can effectively improve the repairing efficiency. When the pressure increased from 0.2 MPa to 0.3 MPa, the water injection efficiency per unit time was increased by more than 20%. The principle of pumping–injection remediation of acidic groundwater was mainly displacement, accounting for more than 93%, while neutralization only contributed less than 0.1%. Although the neutralization contribution was small, the neutralization interface of injected alkaline water and acidic groundwater was the main place for precipitation. The precipitation was mainly formed around the injection well, the amount of which decreases greatly with the increase in displacement distance. This was because the formation of precipitation required both an appropriate concentration of Fe and high pH (5.63). Affected by neutralization and dispersion, the pH of the acid–base water interface decreased and the necessary conditions for the formation of precipitation were not met. Therefore, in the actual pumping–injection restoration project, optimization can be carried out from two perspectives of appropriately increasing the injected water pressure and reducing the injected water pH. This study has important reference value for the control and remediation of such acid-polluted groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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