Topic Editors

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3004-531 Coimbra, Portugal
Prof. Dr. Luís Pires Neves
Departamento de Engenharia Electrotécnica, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, 2411-901 Leiria, Portugal
Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering of Coimbra (INESCC), Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal

Electricity Demand-Side Management

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 April 2023)
Viewed by
72702

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite submissions to this Topic on the subject of Electricity Demand-Side Management.

Demand-side management (DSM) is a critical instrument to deal with contemporary utility business risks. At the same time, it is also part of the portfolio of options of energy and environmental policies in the context of climate change. The electricity industry is unbundled in many parts of the world, as in many others, it still is vertically integrated. DSM plays similar roles in both cases. Consolidated management instruments may be used in the case of vertically integrated utilities, where the impacts of acting on the demand side are perceptible across the value chain. In the case of liberalized markets of electricity, new approaches have to be used, as there is a much larger number of relevant economic agents whose interests are not coincident. New insights and methods have to be used for assessing the economic and societal interest of DSM programs and measures.

Together with distributed energy resources, DSM is a part of a larger picture where demand flexibility is key to a sustainable energy future, where renewable electricity, energy storage, demand response, electric mobility and smart grids are all inextricably connected.

We look forward to your submissions with new insights into the contemporary and future roles of DSM.

Prof. Dr. António Gomes Martins
Prof. Dr. Luís Pires Neves
Prof. Dr. José Luís Sousa
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • demand-side management
  • demand response
  • energy efficiency
  • cost–benefit analysis
  • distributed energy resources
  • flexibility management
  • flexible demand in smart buildings
  • behind-the-meter storage control
  • consumer behavior

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400
Electricity
electricity
- - 2020 20.3 Days CHF 1000
Clean Technologies
cleantechnol
3.8 4.5 2019 26.6 Days CHF 1600
Smart Cities
smartcities
6.4 8.5 2018 20.2 Days CHF 2000

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (27 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
3 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
Electricity Demand Side Management
by António Gomes Martins, Luís Pires Neves and José Luís Sousa
Energies 2023, 16(16), 6014; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16166014 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
Demand-side management is a resilient concept [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
33 pages, 2032 KiB  
Review
Optimization Approaches for Demand-Side Management in the Smart Grid: A Systematic Mapping Study
by Safaa Mimi, Yann Ben Maissa and Ahmed Tamtaoui
Smart Cities 2023, 6(4), 1630-1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6040077 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Demand-side management in the smart grid often consists of optimizing energy-related objective functions, with respect to variables, in the presence of constraints expressing electrical consumption habits. These functions are often related to the user’s electricity invoice (cost) or to the peak energy consumption [...] Read more.
Demand-side management in the smart grid often consists of optimizing energy-related objective functions, with respect to variables, in the presence of constraints expressing electrical consumption habits. These functions are often related to the user’s electricity invoice (cost) or to the peak energy consumption (peak-to-average energy ratio), which can cause electrical network failure on a large scale. However, the growth in energy demand, especially in emerging countries, is causing a serious energy crisis. This is why several studies focus on these optimization approaches. To our knowledge, no article aims to collect and analyze the results of research on peak-to-average energy consumption ratio and cost optimization using a systematic reproducible method. Our goal is to fill this gap by presenting a systematic mapping study on the subject, spanning the last decade (2013–2022). The methodology used first consisted of searching digital libraries according to a specific search string (104 relevant studies out of 684). The next step relied on an analysis of the works (classified using 13 criteria) according to 5 research questions linked to algorithmic trends, energy source, building type, optimization objectives and pricing schemes. Some main results are the predominance of the genetic algorithms heuristics, an insufficient focus on renewable energy and storage systems, a bias in favor of residential buildings and a preference for real-time pricing schemes. The main conclusions are related to the promising hybridization between the genetic algorithms and swarm optimization approaches, as well as a greater integration of user preferences in the optimization. Moreover, there is a need for accurate renewable and storage models, as well as for broadening the optimization scope to other objectives such as CO2 emissions or communications load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 4282 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Regression Prediction Models for Customer Specific Electricity Consumption
by Fatlinda Shaqiri, Ralf Korn and Hong-Phuc Truong
Electricity 2023, 4(2), 185-215; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4020012 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
We have developed a conventional benchmark model for the prediction of two days of electricity consumption for industrial and institutional customers of an electricity provider. This task of predicting 96 values of 15 min of electricity consumption per day in one shot is [...] Read more.
We have developed a conventional benchmark model for the prediction of two days of electricity consumption for industrial and institutional customers of an electricity provider. This task of predicting 96 values of 15 min of electricity consumption per day in one shot is successfully dealt with by a dynamic regression model that uses the Seasonal and Trend decomposition method (STL) for the estimation of the trend and the seasonal components based on (approximately) three years of real data. With the help of suitable R packages, our concept can also be applied to comparable problems in electricity consumption prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2015 KiB  
Article
Modelling Energy Data in a Generalized Additive Model—A Case Study of Colombia
by Lina Berbesi and Geoffrey Pritchard
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041929 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Energy demand modelling is essential for reliable informing and framing energy policy decisions. More accurate modelling betters ensuring availability of energy and energy quality. Energy availability is related to energy access across the country and defines important economic measures such as energy poverty, [...] Read more.
Energy demand modelling is essential for reliable informing and framing energy policy decisions. More accurate modelling betters ensuring availability of energy and energy quality. Energy availability is related to energy access across the country and defines important economic measures such as energy poverty, which plays a critical role in developing countries. Energy quality is related to the reliability of the supply for correctly estimating energy needs. To incorporate spatial and temporal components of energy in a way that availability and quality are accurately assessed, this article discussed a number of suitable task methods for this (Second-generation GAMs with one-dimensional smoothers: Cyclic/Non-Cyclic Cubic Splines and two-dimensional smoothers: Markov Random Fields/Tensor Splines Interactions). The results showed that the complete consideration of both temporal and spatial aspects leads to a better fitted model which explains more of the data variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 2587 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Learning-Based Pricing and Incentive Strategy for Demand Response in Smart Grids
by Eduardo J. Salazar, Mauro Jurado and Mauricio E. Samper
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031466 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
International agreements support the modernization of electricity networks and renewable energy resources (RES). However, these RES affect market prices due to resource variability (e.g., solar). Among the alternatives, Demand Response (DR) is presented as a tool to improve the balance between electricity supply [...] Read more.
International agreements support the modernization of electricity networks and renewable energy resources (RES). However, these RES affect market prices due to resource variability (e.g., solar). Among the alternatives, Demand Response (DR) is presented as a tool to improve the balance between electricity supply and demand by adapting consumption to available production. In this sense, this work focuses on developing a DR model that combines price and incentive-based demand response models (P-B and I-B) to efficiently manage consumer demand with data from a real San Juan—Argentina distribution network. In addition, a price scheme is proposed in real time and by the time of use in relation to the consumers’ influence in the peak demand of the system. The proposed schemes increase load factor and improve demand displacement compared to a demand response reference model. In addition, the proposed reinforcement learning model improves short-term and long-term price search. Finally, a description and formulation of the market where the work was implemented is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2686 KiB  
Article
Understanding Energy Behavioral Changes Due to COVID-19 in the Residents of Dubai Using Electricity Consumption Data and Their Impacts
by Prajowal Manandhar, Hasan Rafiq, Edwin Rodriguez-Ubinas, Juan David Barbosa, Omer Ahmed Qureshi, Mahmoud Tarek and Sgouris Sgouridis
Energies 2023, 16(1), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010285 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
The building sector consumes as much as 80% of generated electricity in the UAE; during the COVID-19 pandemic, the energy consumption of two sub-sectors, i.e., commercial (50%) and residential (30%), was significantly impacted. The residential sector was impacted the most due to an [...] Read more.
The building sector consumes as much as 80% of generated electricity in the UAE; during the COVID-19 pandemic, the energy consumption of two sub-sectors, i.e., commercial (50%) and residential (30%), was significantly impacted. The residential sector was impacted the most due to an increase in the average occupancy during the lockdown period. This increment continued even after the lockdown due to the fear of infection. The COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown measures can be considered experimental setups, allowing for a better understanding of how users shift their consumption under new conditions. The emergency health measures and new social dynamics shaped the residential sector’s energy behavior and its increase in electricity consumption. This article presents and analyzes the identified issues concerning residential electricity consumers and how their behaviors change based on the electricity consumption data during the COVID-19 period. The Dubai Electricity and Water Authority conducted a voluntary survey to define the profiles of its residential customers. A sample of 439 consumers participated in this survey and four years of smart meter records. The analysis focused on understanding behavioral changes in consumers during the COVID-19 period. At this time, the dwellings were occupied for longer than usual, increasing their domestic energy consumption and altering the daily peak hours for the comparable period before, during, and after the lockdown. This work addressed COVID-19 and the lockdown as an atypical case. The authors used a machine learning model and the consumption data for 2018 to predict the consumption for each year afterward, observing the COVID-19 years (2020 and 2021), and compared them with the so-called typical 2019 predictions. Four years of fifteen-minute resolution data and the detailed profiles of the customers led to a better understanding of the impacts of COVID-19 on residential energy use, irrespective of changes caused by seasonal variations. The findings include the reasons for the changes in consumption and the effects of the pandemic. There was a 12% increase in the annual consumption for the sample residents considered in 2020 (the COVID-19-affected year) as compared to 2019, and the total consumption remained similar with only a 0.2% decrease in 2021. The article also reports that machine learning models created in only one year, 2018, performed better by 10% in prediction compared with the deep learning models due to the limited training data available. The article implies the need for exploring approaches/features that could model the previously unseen COVID-19-like scenarios to improve the performance in case of such an event in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

36 pages, 4261 KiB  
Review
The Load Shifting Potential of Domestic Refrigerators in Smart Grids: A Comprehensive Review
by Luís Sousa Rodrigues, Daniel Lemos Marques, Jorge Augusto Ferreira, Vítor António Ferreira Costa, Nelson Dias Martins and Fernando José Neto Da Silva
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7666; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207666 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4178
Abstract
Domestic refrigeration and freezing appliances can be used for electrical load shifting from peak to off-peak demand periods, thus allowing greater penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) and significantly contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The full realization of this potential [...] Read more.
Domestic refrigeration and freezing appliances can be used for electrical load shifting from peak to off-peak demand periods, thus allowing greater penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) and significantly contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The full realization of this potential can be achieved with the synergistic combination of smart grid (SG) technologies and the application of phase-change materials (PCMs). Being permanently online, these ubiquitous appliances are available for the most advanced strategies of demand-side load management (DSLM), including real-time demand response (DR) and direct load control (DLC). PCMs are a very cost-effective means of significantly augmenting their cold storage capacity and, hence, their load-shifting capabilities. Yet, currently, refrigerators and freezers equipped with PCMs for DSLM are still absent in the market and research works focusing on the synergy of these technologies are still scarce. Intended for a multidisciplinary audience, this broad-scoped review surveys the literature to evaluate the technological feasibility, economic viability and global impact of this combination. The state-of-the-art of SG-enabling technologies is investigated—e.g., smart meters, Internet-of-Things (IoT)—as well as current and future standards and norms. The literature on the use of PCMs for latent heat/cold storage (LHCS) is also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 13546 KiB  
Article
Prediction and Evaluation of Electricity Price in Restructured Power Systems Using Gaussian Process Time Series Modeling
by Abdolmajid Dejamkhooy and Ali Ahmadpour
Smart Cities 2022, 5(3), 889-923; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5030045 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
The electricity market is particularly complex due to the different arrangements and structures of its participants. If the energy price in this market presents in a conceptual and well-known way, the complexity of the market will be greatly reduced. Drastic changes in the [...] Read more.
The electricity market is particularly complex due to the different arrangements and structures of its participants. If the energy price in this market presents in a conceptual and well-known way, the complexity of the market will be greatly reduced. Drastic changes in the supply and demand markets are a challenge for electricity prices (EPs), which necessitates the short-term forecasting of EPs. In this study, two restructured power systems are considered, and the EPs of these systems are entirely and accurately predicted using a Gaussian process (GP) model that is adapted for time series predictions. In this modeling, various models of the GP, including dynamic, static, direct, and indirect, as well as their mixture models, are used and investigated. The effectiveness and accuracy of these models are compared using appropriate evaluation indicators. The results show that the combinations of the GP models have lower errors than individual models, and the dynamic indirect GP was chosen as the best model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Community Flexible Load Dispatching Model Based on Herd Mentality
by Qi Huang, Aihua Jiang, Yu Zeng and Jianan Xu
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134546 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
In the context of smart electricity consumption, demand response is an important way to solve the problem of power supply and demand balance. Users participate in grid dispatching to obtain additional benefits, which realises a win-win situation between the grid and users. However, [...] Read more.
In the context of smart electricity consumption, demand response is an important way to solve the problem of power supply and demand balance. Users participate in grid dispatching to obtain additional benefits, which realises a win-win situation between the grid and users. However, in actual dispatching, community users’ strong willingness to use energy leads to low enthusiasm of users to participate in demand response. Psychological research shows a direct connection between users’ herd mentality (HM) and their decision-making behavior. An optimal dispatching strategy based on user herd mentality is proposed to give full play to the active response-ability of community flexible load to participate in power grid dispatching. Considering that herd mentality is generated by the information interaction between users, by calling on some users to share the experience of successfully participating in demand response in the community information center and using the Nash social welfare function to model herd mentality to explore the impact of the user. The analysis of an example shows that the proposed strategy gives full play to the potential of community flexible loads to participate in demand response. When users have similar electricity consumption behavior, the herd mentality can effectively improve users’ enthusiasm to participate in demand response, and the user response effect meets managers’ expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6655 KiB  
Article
Load Frequency Robust Control Considering Intermittent Characteristics of Demand-Side Resources
by Guoxin Ming, Jian Geng, Jiantao Liu, Yiyuan Chen, Kun Yuan and Kaifeng Zhang
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4370; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124370 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Renewable energy has the characteristics of low carbon and environmental protection compared to traditional water and thermal power, but it also has the intermittency and uncertainty that traditional water and thermal power does not have. These characteristics make the inertia of the power [...] Read more.
Renewable energy has the characteristics of low carbon and environmental protection compared to traditional water and thermal power, but it also has the intermittency and uncertainty that traditional water and thermal power does not have. These characteristics make the inertia of the power system increase, which greatly affects the frequency stability of the grid. To solve such problems, the participation of demand-side resources (DSRs) in the dispatch of power systems has become a viable solution.However, unlike generation-side resources, DSRs have their own unique characteristics. In this paper, by taking into account a load frequency control system (LFC) with intermittent demand-side resources, the robust H load frequency control problem are discussed in detail.A robust controller to coordinate the load side with the resource side is introduced. A critical stability criterion and robust performance evaluation of the new LFC system was carried out. Finally, simulation results based on the new LFC system are provided to demonstrate that the proposed control strategy can effectively improve the stability and robustness of the grid under large disturbances, thus allowing the grid frequency to return to the reference value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Modeling of Demand Response as a Dispatchable Resource in Day-Ahead Hydrothermal Unit Commitment Problems: The Brazilian Case
by Rosane Santos, André Luiz Diniz and Bruno Borba
Energies 2022, 15(11), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15113928 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Modern power systems have experienced large increases in intermittent and non-dispatchable sources and a progressive reduction in the size of hydro reservoirs for inflow regularization. One method to mitigate the high uncertainty and intermittency of the net load is by Demand Response (DR) [...] Read more.
Modern power systems have experienced large increases in intermittent and non-dispatchable sources and a progressive reduction in the size of hydro reservoirs for inflow regularization. One method to mitigate the high uncertainty and intermittency of the net load is by Demand Response (DR) mechanisms, to allow a secure and reliable system dispatch. This work applied a mixed integer linear programming formulation to model DR as a dispatchable resource in the day-ahead hydrothermal scheduling problem, taking into account minimum load curtailment constraints, minimum up/down load deduction times, as well as piecewise linear bid curves for load shedding in eligible loads. The methodology was implemented in the official model used in Brazil and tested in large-scale problems to obtain the optimal daily dispatch and hourly pricing. The results show the positive impact of dispatchable DR loads in cost reduction and in mitigating peak values of energy prices, even for predominantly hydro systems, helping to preserve the reservoir levels and increasing the security of the supply in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3321 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Computational Burden and Accuracy Maximization in Short-Term Load Forecasting
by Alfredo Candela Esclapez, Miguel López García, Sergio Valero Verdú and Carolina Senabre Blanes
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103670 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Electrical energy is consumed at the same time as it is generated, since its storage is unfeasible. Therefore, short-term load forecasting is needed to manage energy operations. Due to better energy management, precise load forecasting indirectly saves money and CO2 emissions. In [...] Read more.
Electrical energy is consumed at the same time as it is generated, since its storage is unfeasible. Therefore, short-term load forecasting is needed to manage energy operations. Due to better energy management, precise load forecasting indirectly saves money and CO2 emissions. In Europe, owing to directives and new technologies, prediction systems will be on a quarter-hour basis, which will reduce computation time and increase the computational burden. Therefore, a predictive system may not dispose of sufficient time to compute all future forecasts. Prediction systems perform calculations throughout the day, calculating the same forecasts repeatedly as the predicted time approaches. However, there are forecasts that are no more accurate than others that have already been made. If previous forecasts are used preferentially over these, then computational burden will be saved while accuracy increases. In this way, it will be possible to optimize the schedule of future quarter-hour systems and fulfill the execution time limits. This paper offers an algorithm to estimate which forecasts provide greater accuracy than previous ones, and then make a forecasting schedule. The algorithm has been applied to the forecasting system of the Spanish electricity operator, obtaining a calculation schedule that achieves better accuracy and involves less computational burden. This new algorithm could be applied to other forecasting systems in order to speed up computation times and to reduce forecasting errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
Simulation Modeling for Energy-Flexible Manufacturing: Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them
by Jana Köberlein, Lukas Bank, Stefan Roth, Ekrem Köse, Timm Kuhlmann, Bastian Prell, Maximilian Stange, Marc Münnich, Dominik Flum, Daniel Moog, Steffen Ihlenfeldt, Alexander Sauer, Matthias Weigold and Johannes Schilp
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103593 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
Due to the high share of industry in total electricity consumption, industrial demand-side management can make a relevant contribution to the stability of power systems. At the same time, companies get the opportunity to reduce their electricity procurement costs by taking advantage of [...] Read more.
Due to the high share of industry in total electricity consumption, industrial demand-side management can make a relevant contribution to the stability of power systems. At the same time, companies get the opportunity to reduce their electricity procurement costs by taking advantage of increasingly fluctuating prices on short-term electricity markets, the provision of system services on balancing power markets, or by increasing the share of their own consumption from on-site generated renewable energy. Demand-side management requires the ability to react flexibly to the power supply situation without negatively affecting production targets. It also means that the management and operation of production must consider not only production-related parameters but also parameters of energy availability, which further increase the complexity of decision-making. Although simulation studies are a recognized tool for supporting decision-making processes in production and logistics, the simultaneous simulation of material and energy flows has so far been limited mainly to issues of energy efficiency as opposed to energy flexibility, where application-oriented experience is still limited. We assume that the consideration of energy flexibility in the simulation of manufacturing systems will amplify already known pitfalls in conducting simulation studies. Based on five representative industrial use cases, this article provides practitioners with application-oriented experiences of the coupling of energy and material flows in simulation modeling of energy-flexible manufacturing, identifies challenges in the simulation of energy-flexible production systems, and proposes approaches to face these challenges. Seven pitfalls that pose a particular challenge in simulating energy-flexible manufacturing have been identified, and possible solutions and measures for avoiding them are shown. It has been found that, among other things, consistent management of all parties involved, early clarification of energy-related, logistical, and resulting technical requirements for models and software, as well as the application of suitable methods for validation and verification are central to avoiding these pitfalls. The identification and characterization of challenges and the derivation of recommendations for coping with them can raise awareness of typical pitfalls. This paper thus helps to ensure that simulation studies of energy-flexible production systems can be carried out more efficiently in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
Coordinated Voltage Control Strategy by Optimizing the Limited Regulation Capacity of Air Conditioners
by Yongzhu Hua, Qiangqiang Xie, Liang Zheng, Jiadong Cui, Lihuan Shao and Weiwei Hu
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3225; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093225 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
The high penetration of distributed renewable energy and the popularization of electric vehicles has led to voltage quality problems in distribution networks. Voltage problems, such as over-voltage, under-voltage, and voltage fluctuations, are increasingly becoming severe. Voltage regulation services play an essential role in [...] Read more.
The high penetration of distributed renewable energy and the popularization of electric vehicles has led to voltage quality problems in distribution networks. Voltage problems, such as over-voltage, under-voltage, and voltage fluctuations, are increasingly becoming severe. Voltage regulation services play an essential role in improving the power supply quality of the distribution network. The development of information and communication technologies has promoted the upgrading of remote control technology. Air conditioners (ACs) can be easily remote controlled to change the power consumption for voltage regulation services. This study proposes a voltage control strategy by optimizing the limited regulation capacity of ACs. Firstly, a detailed thermal model is developed to analyze the room temperature and the regulation capacity of the ACs. Secondly, a successive voltage regulation algorithm is proposed to solve the voltage problems of the limited regulation capacity of ACs. In addition, the control strategy is developed to exploit the potential of voltage regulation. The control strategy formulates the participation priority of the ACs according to room temperature, which makes the ACs have a long regulation time and prevent the ACs switching working states in the process of voltage regulation. The case studies show that the proposed coordinated voltage regulation strategy can make node voltage restore to a permissible range and make full use of the limited regulation capacity of ACs for voltage control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1 pages, 165 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Talei et al. Smart Building Energy Inefficiencies Detection through Time Series Analysis and Unsupervised Machine Learning. Energies 2021, 14, 6042
by Hanaa Talei, Driss Benhaddou, Carlos Gamarra, Houda Benbrahim and Mohamed Essaaidi
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093191 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
16 pages, 5126 KiB  
Article
Research and Application of Power Grid Maintenance Scheduling Strategy under the Interactive Mode of New Energy and Electrolytic Aluminum Load
by Bin Zhang, Hongchun Shu, Dajun Si, Wenyun Li, Jinding He and Wenlin Yan
Processes 2022, 10(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030606 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Formulating a reasonable and feasible unit maintenance scheme is a promising way to eliminate potential risks and improve the reliability of power systems. However, the uncertainty and volatility of new energy outputs, such as wind power, increase the difficulty of scheme formulation. To [...] Read more.
Formulating a reasonable and feasible unit maintenance scheme is a promising way to eliminate potential risks and improve the reliability of power systems. However, the uncertainty and volatility of new energy outputs, such as wind power, increase the difficulty of scheme formulation. To overcome the complexity of uncertainty, a robust unit maintenance scheme considering the uncertainty of new energy output and electrolytic aluminum load is established in this paper. Considering the significant time-series characteristics of new energy, this paper first introduces the definition and mathematical model of information granulation (IG), through which the initial new energy output data can be transformed into fuzzy particles used for prediction and analysis. Moreover, a support-vector machine (SVM) regression prediction model is adopted, and a corresponding progressive search algorithm is designed to determine SVM parameters efficiently. Then, a robust unit maintenance model is established considering the upper and lower predicted error. In addition, electrolytic aluminum loads are allowed to participate in power system dispatch. Finally, the modified reliability test system–Grid Modernization Lab Consortium (RTS–GMLC test system) and an actual power grid in Southwest China are used to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 5447 KiB  
Article
Orderly Charging Strategy Based on Optimal Time of Use Price Demand Response of Electric Vehicles in Distribution Network
by Hui Hwang Goh, Lian Zong, Dongdong Zhang, Wei Dai, Chee Shen Lim, Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan and Kai Chen Goh
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051869 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
In order to manage electric vehicles (EVs) connected to charging grids, this paper presents an orderly charging approach based on the EVs’ optimal time-of-use pricing (OTOUP) demand response. Firstly, the Monte Carlo approach is employed to anticipate charging power by developing a probability [...] Read more.
In order to manage electric vehicles (EVs) connected to charging grids, this paper presents an orderly charging approach based on the EVs’ optimal time-of-use pricing (OTOUP) demand response. Firstly, the Monte Carlo approach is employed to anticipate charging power by developing a probability distribution model of the charging behavior of EVs. Secondly, a scientific classification of the load period is performed using the fuzzy clustering approach. Then, a matrix of demand price elasticity is developed to measure the link between EV charging demand and charging price. Finally, the charging scheme is optimized by an adaptive genetic algorithm from the distribution network and EV user viewpoints. This paper describes how to implement the method presented in this paper in an IEEE-33-bus distribution network. The simulation results reveal that, when compared to fixed price and common time-of-use pricing (CTOUP), the OTOUP charging strategy bears a stronger impact on reducing peak–valley disparities, boosting operating voltage, and decreasing charging cost. Additionally, this paper studies the effect of varied degrees of responsiveness on charging strategies for EVs. The data imply that increased responsiveness enhances the likelihood of new load peak, and that additional countermeasures are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 1491 KiB  
Article
Survey-Based Assessment of the Preferences in Residential Demand Response on the Island of Mayotte
by Nikolas Schöne, Kathrin Greilmeier and Boris Heinz
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041338 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
As on many other European islands, the energy system of Mayotte suffers from low reliability of supply, low share of renewable energies, and high costs of supply. Residential Demand Response (DR) schemes can significantly increase the flexibility of the inherent weak power grid, [...] Read more.
As on many other European islands, the energy system of Mayotte suffers from low reliability of supply, low share of renewable energies, and high costs of supply. Residential Demand Response (DR) schemes can significantly increase the flexibility of the inherent weak power grid, increasing the potential for renewable energy integration. Given that active involvement of the population is required to unlock the potential of DR, pre-assessing the population’s preferences in DR is vital to tailor favorable schemes and assure long-term uptake of the solution. As a fundamental study, this paper assesses the population’s preferences on direct load control (DLC), electricity tariffs, major motivation, and remuneration goods by processing findings from a survey of 146 residents on Mayotte. Advanced k-means cluster analysis, multinomial logistic regression, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were applied to the survey responses to identify socio-demographic influencers. The results indicate four distinct groups of people concerning their interest in DR schemes, with increasing age being a significant predictor for higher interest. Interest in DLC varies with the device/appliance controlled and socio-demographic characteristics. The preferred tariffs correspond to the results of previous literature. Financial incentives play a subordinate role in the main motivation for participation compared to social and environmental attractions as well as non-monetary remuneration goods, supporting the impression of a high sense of community and suitability of islands as laboratories for energy innovations. Follow-up studies must reflect on the ability/willingness to pay as well as the current state of awareness and knowledge of electricity supply to validate speculations on underlying reasons for DR preferences and flag constraints for the DR scheme implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 24416 KiB  
Review
Potential of Demand Response for Power Reallocation, a Literature Review
by Emmanuel Binyet, Ming-Chuan Chiu, Hsin-Wei Hsu, Meng-Ying Lee and Chih-Yuan Wen
Energies 2022, 15(3), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030863 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4067
Abstract
The power demand on the electric grid varies according to the time of the day following users’ needs and so does the cost of electricity supply because the electricity mix is formed using different generators of varying capacities. Demand response (DR) is the [...] Read more.
The power demand on the electric grid varies according to the time of the day following users’ needs and so does the cost of electricity supply because the electricity mix is formed using different generators of varying capacities. Demand response (DR) is the modification of the consumption load curve following a signal from the electricity provider; it is mostly used for peak clipping. By reducing the short-term mismatch between generation and consumption, it helps to integrate intermittent renewables and new low-carbon technologies such as energy storage, electric vehicles, and power-to-gas. The present work is a literature survey based on the following keywords: demand response, demand technology, potential, power, and power dispatch, which aims to provide a summary of the state of the art regarding the potential for demand response implementation. Literature is either related to potential assessment or to implementation; less focus is given on non-dispatchable DR than on dispatchable DR. There is a great untapped potential for power demand reallocation in all sectors. Incentivizing users to participate in demand response programs is crucial, as well as education campaigns and smart meters penetration. The barriers to demand response are mostly the investment costs in the absence of an adequate pricing scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Demand Response Program Participation: Contingent Valuation Evidence from a Smart Thermostat Program
by Jesse Kaczmarski, Benjamin Jones and Janie Chermak
Energies 2022, 15(2), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020590 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
As renewable electricity generation continues to increase in the United States (US), considerable effort goes into matching heterogeneous supply to demand at a subhour time-step. As a result, some electric providers offer incentive-based programs for residential consumers that aim to reduce electric demand [...] Read more.
As renewable electricity generation continues to increase in the United States (US), considerable effort goes into matching heterogeneous supply to demand at a subhour time-step. As a result, some electric providers offer incentive-based programs for residential consumers that aim to reduce electric demand during high-demand periods. There is little research into determinants of consumer response to incentive-based programs beyond typical sociodemographic characteristics. To add to this body of literature, this paper presents the findings of a dichotomous choice contingent valuation (CV) survey targeting US ratepayers’ participation in a direct-load-control scheme utilizing a smart thermostat designed to reallocate consumer electricity demand on summer days when grid stress is high. Our results show approximately 50% of respondents are willing to participate at a median willingness-to-accept (WTA) figure of USD 9.50 (95% CI: 3.74, 15.25) per month that lasts for one summer (June through August)—or slightly less than USD 30 per annum. Participation is significantly affected by a respondent’s attitudes and preferences surrounding various environmental and institutional perspectives, but not by sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest utilities designing direct-load-control programs may improve participation by designing incentives specific to customers’ attitudes and preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
24 pages, 4330 KiB  
Article
Scenarios Analysis on Electric Power Planning Based on Multi-Scale Forecast: A Case Study of Taoussa, Mali from 2020 to 2035
by Moussa Kanté, Yang Li and Shuai Deng
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8515; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248515 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
The increase in electricity demand is caused by population density, gross domestic product growth and technological conditions. A long-term forecast study on the electricity demand could be a promising alternative to the investment planning of power systems and distribution. In this study, the [...] Read more.
The increase in electricity demand is caused by population density, gross domestic product growth and technological conditions. A long-term forecast study on the electricity demand could be a promising alternative to the investment planning of power systems and distribution. In this study, the main aim is to forecast and understand the long-term electricity demand of the Taoussa area for the sustainable development of the regions of northern Mali, by using the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) from the International Atomic Energy Agency. To fill such a knowledge gap, the long-term evolution of electricity demand is calculated separately for four consumption sectors: industry, transportation, service and household from 2020 to 2035. The demand for each end-use category of electricity is driven by one or several socioeconomic and technological parameters development of the country, which are given as part of the reference scenario (RS) and two alternative scenarios (Low and High). These scenarios were developed based on four groups of coherent hypotheses concerning demographic evolution, economic development, lifestyle change and technological change. The results showed that the annual growth rate of electricity demand in Taoussa area in all scenarios is expected to increase by only 8.13% (LS), 10.31% (RS) and 12.56% (HS). According to the seasonal variations of electricity demand, dry season electricity demand was higher than the demand in cool season during the study period. Such a conclusion demonstrates that the proposed long-term method and related results could provide powerful sustainable solutions to the electricity development challenges of Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Findings from Measurements of the Electric Power Demand of Air Compressors
by Ulf Hummel, Peter Radgen, Sercan Ülker and Ralph Schelle
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8395; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248395 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3332
Abstract
The compressed air electric ratio (CAER) describes the ratio of the real electric power demand to the nominal mechanical power of an air compressor. The CAER is an important indicator as the electric power demand of air compressors varies throughout its operation dependent [...] Read more.
The compressed air electric ratio (CAER) describes the ratio of the real electric power demand to the nominal mechanical power of an air compressor. The CAER is an important indicator as the electric power demand of air compressors varies throughout its operation dependent on compressor technology, pressure ratio, and free air delivery. The nameplate power of the compressor drive motor is not sufficient for evaluating the electric power demand; therefore, the CAER plays an important role in assessing the electric operating power demand. In this paper, results from measurements of fixed speed and variable speed (VFD) compressors are presented with the analysis of key influencing factors of the CAER. The data show that the pressure ratio of operating pressure to the maximum design outlet pressure has the largest impact on the CAER. For VFD compressors, the CAER is represented as a linear function dependent on the respective load. Fixed and variable speed compressors’ CAERs are always dependent on the load condition. In idle condition, the CAER was measured to be 0.2. In full load condition with a pressure ratio of 0.6, the CAER averages at a value of 0.87, meaning a 90 kW compressor at 0.6 pressure ratio draws 78.3 kW electric power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2003 KiB  
Article
Nontargeted vs. Targeted vs. Smart Load Shifting Using Heat Pump Water Heaters
by Manasseh Obi, Cheryn Metzger, Ebony Mayhorn, Travis Ashley and Walter Hunt
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7574; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227574 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Deployment of CTA-2045–enabled devices is increasing in the U.S. market. These devices allow utilities or third-party aggregators to control appliance energy use in homes, and could also be applied to end uses in small commercial buildings. This study focuses on a field study [...] Read more.
Deployment of CTA-2045–enabled devices is increasing in the U.S. market. These devices allow utilities or third-party aggregators to control appliance energy use in homes, and could also be applied to end uses in small commercial buildings. This study focuses on a field study using CTA-2045–enabled water heaters to shift electric load off the peak and toward periods when renewable resources are more prevalent (e.g., near noon for solar resources and near midnight for wind resources). The following load shifting strategies were compared to understand effects on the aggregate load-shifting capabilities of Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) and on consumer hot water supply: non-targeted (traditional), targeted (grouped, with different shifting schedules) and “smart” (adaptive control commands). The results of this study show that targeted and smart control strategies yield significantly more load-shifting potential from a population of water heaters than the non-targeted approach without sacrificing hot water supply to occupants. However, as control commands become more aggressive, aggregators may face challenges in meeting consumer hot water demand. The findings and lessons learned can benefit electric utilities and inform updates to manufacturer controls and communications standards. The data collected may also be useful for developing and validating HPWH models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 5223 KiB  
Article
Method for Determining the Optimal Capacity of Energy Storage Systems with a Long-Term Forecast of Power Consumption
by Nikita Dmitrievich Senchilo and Denis Anatolievich Ustinov
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7098; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217098 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
The unevenness of the electricity consumption schedule at enterprises leads to a peak power increase, which leads to an increase in the cost of electricity supply. Energy storage devices can optimize the energy schedule by compensating the planned schedule deviations, as well as [...] Read more.
The unevenness of the electricity consumption schedule at enterprises leads to a peak power increase, which leads to an increase in the cost of electricity supply. Energy storage devices can optimize the energy schedule by compensating the planned schedule deviations, as well as reducing consumption from the external network when participating in a demand response. However, during the day, there may be several peaks in consumption, which lead to a complete discharge of the battery to one of the peaks; as a result, total peak power consumption does not decrease. To optimize the operation of storage devices, a day-ahead forecast is often used, which allows to determine the total number of peaks. However, the power of the storage system may not be sufficient for optimal peak compensation. In this study, a long-term forecast of power consumption based on the use of exogenous parameters in the decision tree model is used. Based on the forecast, a novel algorithm for determining the optimal storage capacity for a specific consumer is developed, which optimizes the costs of leveling the load schedule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3240 KiB  
Article
Increasing Block Rate Electricity Pricing and Propensity to Purchase Electrical Appliances: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Russia
by Salim Turdaliev
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6954; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216954 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
This paper provides empirical evidence on the relationship between the increasing-block-rate (IBR) pricing of electricity and the propensity of households to buy major electrical appliances. I use a variation from a natural experiment in Russia that introduced IBR pricing for residential electricity in [...] Read more.
This paper provides empirical evidence on the relationship between the increasing-block-rate (IBR) pricing of electricity and the propensity of households to buy major electrical appliances. I use a variation from a natural experiment in Russia that introduced IBR pricing for residential electricity in a number of experimental regions in 2013. The study employs household-level panel data, which records, among others, whether the household has purchased any major electrical appliances during the last three months. Using a difference-in-differences specification, I show that the purchase of major electrical appliances in the regions with IBR pricing has increased by more than 20% (or more than two percentage points). The findings suggest that price-based energy policies may be an effective tool in shaping the behaviour of households. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 796 KiB  
Review
The Contribution of Bottom-Up Energy Models to Support Policy Design of Electricity End-Use Efficiency for Residential Buildings and the Residential Sector: A Systematic Review
by Marlene Ofelia Sanchez-Escobar, Julieta Noguez, Jose Martin Molina-Espinosa, Rafael Lozano-Espinosa and Genoveva Vargas-Solar
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6466; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206466 - 10 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Bottom-up energy models are considered essential tools to support policy design of electricity end-use efficiency. However, in the literature, no study analyzes their contribution to support policy design of electricity end-use efficiency, the modeling techniques used to build them, and the policy instruments [...] Read more.
Bottom-up energy models are considered essential tools to support policy design of electricity end-use efficiency. However, in the literature, no study analyzes their contribution to support policy design of electricity end-use efficiency, the modeling techniques used to build them, and the policy instruments supported by them. This systematic review fills that gap by identifying the current capability of bottom-up energy models to support specific policy instruments. In the research, we review 192 publications from January 2015 to June 2020 to finally select 20 for further examination. The articles are analyzed quantitatively in terms of techniques, model characteristics, and applied policies. The findings of the study reveal that: (1) bottom-up energy models contribute to the support of policy design of electricity end-use efficiency with the application of specific best practices (2) bottom-up energy models do not provide a portfolio of analytical methods which constraint their capability to support policy design (3) bottom-up energy models for residential buildings have limited policy support and (4) bottom-up energy models’ design reveals a lack of inclusion of key energy efficiency metrics to support decision-making. This study’s findings can help researchers and energy modelers address these limitations and create new models following best practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

21 pages, 5051 KiB  
Article
Smart Building Energy Inefficiencies Detection through Time Series Analysis and Unsupervised Machine Learning
by Hanaa Talei, Driss Benhaddou, Carlos Gamarra, Houda Benbrahim and Mohamed Essaaidi
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6042; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196042 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2631 | Correction
Abstract
The climate of Houston, classified as a humid subtropical climate with tropical influences, makes the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems the largest electricity consumers in buildings. HVAC systems in commercial buildings are usually operated by a centralized control system and/or an [...] Read more.
The climate of Houston, classified as a humid subtropical climate with tropical influences, makes the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems the largest electricity consumers in buildings. HVAC systems in commercial buildings are usually operated by a centralized control system and/or an energy management system based on a fixed schedule and scheduled control of a zone setpoint, which is not appropriate for many buildings with changing occupancy rates. Lately, as part of energy efficiency analysis, attention has focused on collecting and analyzing smart meters and building-related data, as well as applying supervised learning techniques, to propose new strategies to operate HVAC systems and reduce energy consumption. On the other hand, unsupervised learning techniques have been used to study the consumption information and profile characterization of different buildings after cluster analysis is performed. This paper adopts a different approach by revealing the power of unsupervised learning to cluster data and unveiling hidden patterns. In this study, we also identify energy inefficiencies after exploring the cluster results of a single building’s HVAC consumption data and building usage data as part of the energy efficiency analysis. Time series analysis and the K-means clustering algorithm are successfully applied to identify new energy-saving opportunities in a highly efficient office building located in the Houston area (TX, USA). The paper uses 1-year data from a highly efficient Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED)-, Energy Star-, and Net Zero-certified building, showing a potential energy savings of 6% using the K-means algorithm. The results show that clustering is instrumental in helping building managers identify potential additional energy savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electricity Demand-Side Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop