Topic Editors

1. Syreon Research Institute, 1142 Budapest, Hungary
2. Center for Health Technology Assessment and Pharmacoeconomic Research, University of Pecs, 7624 Pecs, Hungary
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Naples, NA, Italy

Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence: Strategies, Technologies and Practices

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Viewed by
28484

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Medication non-adherence in chronic diseases averages only 50%, causing a major clinical and economic burden. Multiple technologies and interventions have been developed to enhance adherence; newertheless, to date, very few of these have been implemented in routine care. In relation to this, there is an evidence gap on the health technology assessment (HTA) and reimbursement of adherence-enhacing technologies and interventions. Additionally, in current clinical practice, healthcare providers are short of knowledge on how to monitor adherence and apply the appropriate interventions, and patients are insufficiently empowered to self-monitor, self-manage, and optimize their drug use.

This Topic aims to collect original research articles and reviews that bring new insights into research and development on drug utilization and medication adherence. Research areas may include (but not be limited to) the following: adherence monitoring and measurement, drug utilization, influencing factors of non-adherence, medication adherence technologies, adherence enhancing interventions, and HTA and health policy aspects of medication adherence.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Tamás Ágh
Prof. Dr. Enrica Menditto
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • medication adherence
  • medication persistence
  • medication adherence enhancing interventions
  • e-health
  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • health technology assessment
  • reimbursement
  • health policy
  • quality of healthcare
  • drug utilization
  • polypharmacy
  • multimorbidity
  • real-world evidence
  • systematic literature review
  • meta-analysis

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 3.5 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700
Journal of Personalized Medicine
jpm
3.4 4.1 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2600
Medicines
medicines
- - 2014 32.6 Days CHF 1400
Pharmacy
pharmacy
2.2 - 2013 24.6 Days CHF 1800
Pharmaceutics
pharmaceutics
5.4 7.9 2009 14.2 Days CHF 2900
Pharmaceuticals
pharmaceuticals
4.6 6.1 2004 14.6 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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10 pages, 1251 KiB  
Article
Improved Outcomes in Eosinophilic Esophagitis with Higher Medication Possession Ratio
by Nathan T. Kolasinski, Eric A. Pasman, Cade M. Nylund, Patrick T. Reeves, Daniel I. Brooks, Katerina G. Lescouflair and Steve B. Min
Medicines 2024, 11(4), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines11040008 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) disease activity can be caused by treatment non-adherence. Medication possession ratio (MPR) is an established metric of medication adherence. A higher MPR correlates with better outcomes in several chronic diseases, but MPR has not been investigated with respect to EoE. [...] Read more.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) disease activity can be caused by treatment non-adherence. Medication possession ratio (MPR) is an established metric of medication adherence. A higher MPR correlates with better outcomes in several chronic diseases, but MPR has not been investigated with respect to EoE. A retrospective cohort study was performed using an established EoE registry for the years 2005 to 2020. Treatment periods were identified, MPRs were calculated, and medical records were assessed for histologic remission (<15 eos/hpf), dysphagia, food impaction, stricture occurrence, and esophageal dilation that corresponded to each treatment period. In total, 275 treatment periods were included for analysis. The MPR in the histologic remission treatment period group was 0.91 (IQR 0.63–1) vs. 0.63 (IQR 0.31–0.95) for the non-remission treatment period group (p < 0.001). The optimal MPR cut-point for histologic remission was 0.7 (Sen 0.66, Spec 0.62, AUC 0.63). With MPRs ≥ 0.7, there were significantly increased odds of histologic remission (odds ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 1.79–5.30) and significantly decreased odds of dysphagia (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15–0.45), food impaction (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11–0.55), stricture occurrence (OR 0.52 95% CI 0.29–0.92), and esophageal dilation (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.54). Assessing MPR before repeating an esophagogastroduodenoscopy may decrease unnecessary procedures in the clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis. Full article
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10 pages, 230 KiB  
Article
Hypertension Medication and Medicare Beneficiaries: Prescription Drug Coverage Satisfaction and Medication Non-Adherence among Older Adults
by Jeong-Hui Park, Kiyoung Kim, Mar Medina, Boon Peng Ng, Matthew Lee Smith, Okeoghene Marcel Edafetanure-Ibeh and Jongwha Chang
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070722 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Hypertension is so prevalent and requires strict adherence to medications to prevent further disease or death, but there is no study examining factors related to prescription drug non-adherence among 65 years old and older. This study aims to assess the likelihood of medication [...] Read more.
Hypertension is so prevalent and requires strict adherence to medications to prevent further disease or death, but there is no study examining factors related to prescription drug non-adherence among 65 years old and older. This study aims to assess the likelihood of medication nonadherence among patients based on factors such as age, race, and socioeconomic status, with the goal of identifying strategies to enhance medication adherence and mitigate associated health risks. Using the 2020 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Public Use File to represent nationwide Medicare beneficiaries (unweighted n = 3917, weighted n = 27,134,782), medication non-adherence was related to multiple independent variables (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, insurance coverage, and satisfaction with insurance). Cross-tabulations and Wald chi-square tests were used to determine how much each variable was related to non-adherence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between medication non-adherence and factors such as prescription drug coverage satisfaction and cost-reducing behavior. Specific trends in medication non-adherence emerged among beneficiaries. Non-adherence was higher in older adults aged 65- to 74-year-olds and those with more chronic conditions (OR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.74–2.89). If patients were dissatisfied with the medications on the insurance formulary or struggled to find a pharmacy that accepted their medication coverage, they had worse adherence (OR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.80–3.84). Formulary and coverage must be expanded to improve adherence to antihypertensive medications in Medicare beneficiaries. Older adults aged 65 to 74 years may be less adherent to their medications because they do not see the seriousness of the disease and could benefit from further counseling. Patients with limited activities of daily living and more comorbidities may struggle with complex treatment regimens and should use adherence assistance tools. Full article
10 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Melatonin Use in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by Sulafa T. Alqutub, Faris A. Alzahrani, Abdulrahman S. Hassan, Abdullah H. Alirbidi, Osama A. Alraddadi, Omar A. AlSadah, Mohammad B. Yamani and Mansour Tobaiqy
Pharmacy 2024, 12(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12020041 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 4105
Abstract
To assess the prevalence of melatonin use and its perceived benefits among university students in different specialties in Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2023. Data about demographics, time of melatonin use, perceived reasons for exogenous melatonin use, [...] Read more.
To assess the prevalence of melatonin use and its perceived benefits among university students in different specialties in Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2023. Data about demographics, time of melatonin use, perceived reasons for exogenous melatonin use, melatonin use in relation to exam periods, perceived safety, and adverse effects was gathered. Of 380 students, ~52% reported using exogenous melatonin for sleep disorders. Most participants reported using melatonin during and after exam periods. Additionally, several (n = 157; 75.4%) believed that its use was safe. The predominant use patterns were daily and as needed, and this study observed a higher rate of use compared with previous studies in Saudi Arabia. The most frequently reported adverse effect was headache (n = 36; 37.5%). A significant number of undergraduate male students in health specialties used melatonin. A high rate of melatonin use was noted during exam periods, which was attributed to sleep deprivation. Additionally, a significant number of students from private universities reported using exogenous melatonin. Melatonin use is common among university students. Future research should use a reliable psychometric measure to test its effect on university students’ sleep quality and quantity. Full article
10 pages, 642 KiB  
Project Report
Pharmacist-Driven Alcohol Use Disorder Screening May Increase Inpatient Utilization of Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Single Center Pilot Study
by Sabrina Snyder, Niyati Butala, Andrew M. Williams and Jamie Kneebusch
Pharmacy 2024, 12(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12010026 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Individuals with mental illness have a high incidence of comorbid substance use, with one of the most prevalent being alcohol use disorder (AUD). Naltrexone, FDA-approved for AUD, decreases reward associated with alcohol-related social cues. This study aimed to determine if a pharmacist-driven screening [...] Read more.
Individuals with mental illness have a high incidence of comorbid substance use, with one of the most prevalent being alcohol use disorder (AUD). Naltrexone, FDA-approved for AUD, decreases reward associated with alcohol-related social cues. This study aimed to determine if a pharmacist-driven screening tool would increase the use of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) in patients with AUD and a comorbid psychiatric condition. Pharmacists screened and recommended XR-NTX for adults admitted to the inpatient psychiatric unit, who had a DSM-5 diagnosis of AUD, a negative urine drug screen for opioids, and were hospitalized for at least 1 day. Endpoints evaluated included the number of XR-NTX doses administered during the screening period to the prescreening period, 30-day readmission rates, recommendation acceptance rates, and reasons for not administering XR-NTX. Pharmacists identified 66 of 641 screened patients who met the inclusion criteria and were candidates for XR-NTX. Compared to the preintervention period, more patients received XR-NTX for AUD (2 vs. 8). Readmission rates were similar between those with AUD who received XR-NTX and those who did not. Pharmacist-driven screening for AUD led to greater administration of XR-NTX when compared to the same 4-month period the year prior to initiating the study. Full article
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14 pages, 523 KiB  
Review
Digital Solutions Available to Be Used by Informal Caregivers, Contributing to Medication Adherence: A Scoping Review
by Margarida Espírito-Santo, Sancha Santos and Maria Dulce Estêvão
Pharmacy 2024, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12010020 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Medication adherence is essential for managing chronic diseases and achieving optimal health outcomes. However, this process is often challenging, particularly for patients with complex care needs. Informal caregivers play a pivotal role in supporting medication management, but they may face resource limitations and [...] Read more.
Medication adherence is essential for managing chronic diseases and achieving optimal health outcomes. However, this process is often challenging, particularly for patients with complex care needs. Informal caregivers play a pivotal role in supporting medication management, but they may face resource limitations and a lack of necessary support. Digital health tools offer a promising avenue to enhance medication adherence by providing reminders, education, and remote monitoring capabilities. This scoping review aimed to identify and evaluate digital solutions available to informal caregivers for improving medication adherence. A systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted using relevant keywords. Four studies were included in the review, examining a variety of digital tools including mobile apps, SMS messaging, and wearable devices. These tools demonstrated efficacy in improving medication adherence, managing disease symptoms, and enhancing quality of life for patients and caregivers. Digital health interventions hold the potential to revolutionize medication adherence among chronic disease patients. By empowering informal caregivers, these tools can bridge the gaps in medication management and contribute to better health outcomes. Further research is warranted to optimize the design, implementation, and evaluation of digital interventions for medication adherence. Full article
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12 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Drug Utilization and Measurement of Medication Adherence: A Real World Study of Psoriasis in Italy
by Sara Mucherino, Concetta Rafaniello, Marianna Serino, Alessia Zinzi, Ugo Trama, Annalisa Capuano, Enrica Menditto and Valentina Orlando
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(12), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15122647 - 21 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Exceptional advances have been made with systemic treatment for psoriasis (PSO). However, that disease still represents a heavy burden in terms of impact on healthcare systems worldwide. This study comprehensively assesses medication adherence in a real world setting in Italy across all phases—initiation, [...] Read more.
Exceptional advances have been made with systemic treatment for psoriasis (PSO). However, that disease still represents a heavy burden in terms of impact on healthcare systems worldwide. This study comprehensively assesses medication adherence in a real world setting in Italy across all phases—initiation, implementation, and persistence—of PSO therapies. By distinguishing between switches and swaps, it provides unique insights into the patient’s own approach to prescribed therapy as well as clinical decision-making processes, enhancing our understanding of medication adherence and discontinuation in a real world daily setting. The study’s refined methodology for assessing persistence, considering variations in refill gaps and complex dosing regimens, shows that anti-interleukin (IL) therapies are associated with longer periods of adherence compared with other available therapeutic strategies. Among the selected drugs, ixekizumab and secukinumab were the ones with higher rate of treatment adherence at the expense of anti-TNF-α and anti-PDE4 agents. Notably, patients who opt for swaps are approximately 2.8 times more likely to discontinue their PSO therapy within one year. These findings carry practical implications for optimizing medication adherence, including tailored patient counseling, monitoring, and therapeutic adjustments, highlighting the need for a comprehensive and patient-centered approach to managing these conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Trajectory Modeling to Assess Adherence to Sacubitril/Valsartan among Patients with Heart Failure
by Sara Mucherino, Alexandra Lelia Dima, Enrico Coscioni, Maria Giovanna Vassallo, Valentina Orlando and Enrica Menditto
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(11), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15112568 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Medication adherence in chronic conditions is a long-term process. Modeling longitudinal trajectories using routinely collected prescription data is a promising method for describing adherence patterns and identifying at-risk groups. The study aimed to characterize distinct long-term sacubitril/valsartan adherence trajectories and factors associated with [...] Read more.
Medication adherence in chronic conditions is a long-term process. Modeling longitudinal trajectories using routinely collected prescription data is a promising method for describing adherence patterns and identifying at-risk groups. The study aimed to characterize distinct long-term sacubitril/valsartan adherence trajectories and factors associated with them in patients with heart failure (HF). Subjects with incident HF starting sac/val in 2017–2018 were identified from the Campania Regional Database for Medication Consumption. We estimated patients’ continuous medication availability (CMA9; R package AdhereR) during a 12-month period. We selected groups with similar CMA9 trajectories (Calinski-Harabasz criterion; R package kml). We performed multinomial regression analysis, assessing the relationship between demographic and clinical factors and adherence trajectory groups. The cohort included 4455 subjects, 70% male. Group-based trajectory modeling identified four distinct adherence trajectories: high adherence (42.6% of subjects; CMA mean 0.91 ± 0.08), partial drop-off (19.6%; CMA 0.63 ± 0.13), moderate adherence (19.3%; CMA 0.54 ± 0.11), and low adherence (18.4%; CMA 0.17 ± 0.12). Polypharmacy was associated with partial drop-off adherence (OR 1.194, 95%CI 1.175–1.214), while the occurrence of ≥1 HF hospitalization (OR 1.165, 95%CI 1.151–1.179) or other hospitalizations (OR 1.481, 95%CI 1.459–1.503) were associated with low adherence. This study found that tailoring patient education, providing support, and ongoing monitoring can boost adherence within different groups, potentially improving health outcomes. Full article
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22 pages, 606 KiB  
Review
Insomnia Medication Use by University Students: A Systematic Review
by Menghan Wang, Richard Cooper and Dan Green
Pharmacy 2023, 11(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11060171 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Problematic sleep or insomnia has been a recognised issue for many individuals in society, and university students can be of particular concern due to unique academic pressures. A systematic review was designed to summarise the current evidence about the extent of insomnia medication [...] Read more.
Problematic sleep or insomnia has been a recognised issue for many individuals in society, and university students can be of particular concern due to unique academic pressures. A systematic review was designed to summarise the current evidence about the extent of insomnia medication used by university students and identify characteristics of those more willing to use medication to manage insomnia. Searches were undertaken using Psych INFO, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, resulting in 25 eligible studies across multiple countries between 1994 and 2020. The prevalence of sleep medication use by students varied widely, from 2% to 41.2%, with an average of 13.1%. Female gender, students experiencing poor sleep, smoking, drinking stimulant beverages, and undertaking fewer physical activities were associated with the use of insomnia medication. Insomnia medication use exists within university student populations but appears to vary considerably worldwide; identifying multiple population characteristics associated with such use would offer opportunities to identify and support those affected. Full article
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27 pages, 2514 KiB  
Perspective
A Guide to Best Practice in Sensory Analysis of Pharmaceutical Formulations
by David Clapham, Emilie Belissa, Sabine Inghelbrecht, Anne-Marie Pensé-Lhéritier, Fabrice Ruiz, Liz Sheehan, Margaret Shine, Thibault Vallet, Jennifer Walsh and Catherine Tuleu
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(9), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15092319 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2947
Abstract
It is well established that treatment regime compliance is linked to the acceptability of a pharmaceutical formulation, and hence also to therapeutic outcomes. To that end, acceptability must be assessed during the development of all pharmaceutical products and especially for those intended for [...] Read more.
It is well established that treatment regime compliance is linked to the acceptability of a pharmaceutical formulation, and hence also to therapeutic outcomes. To that end, acceptability must be assessed during the development of all pharmaceutical products and especially for those intended for paediatric patients. Although acceptability is a multifaceted concept, poor sensory characteristics often contribute to poor patient acceptability. In particular, poor taste is often cited as a major reason for many patients, especially children, to refuse to take their medicine. It is thus important to understand and, as far as possible, optimise the sensory characteristics and, in particular, the taste/flavour/mouthfeel of the formulation throughout the development of the product. Sensory analysis has been widely practiced, providing objective data concerning the sensory aspects of food and cosmetic products. In this paper, we present proposals concerning how the well-established principles of sensory analysis can best be applied to pharmaceutical product development, allowing objective, scientifically valid, sensory data to be obtained safely. We briefly discuss methodologies that may be helpful in reducing the number of samples that may need to be assessed by human volunteers. However, it is only possible to be sure whether or not the sensory characteristics of a pharmaceutical product are non-aversive to potential users by undertaking sensory assessments in human volunteers. Testing is also required during formulation assessment and to ensure that the sensory characteristics remain acceptable throughout the product shelf life. We provide a risk assessment procedure to aid developers to define where studies are low risk, the results of a survey of European regulators on their views concerning such studies, and detailed guidance concerning the types of sensory studies that can be undertaken at each phase of product development, along with guidance about the practicalities of performing such sensory studies. We hope that this guidance will also lead to the development of internationally agreed standards between industry and regulators concerning how these aspects should be measured and assessed throughout the development process and when writing and evaluating regulatory submissions. Finally, we hope that the guidance herein will help formulators as they seek to develop better medicines for all patients and, in particular, paediatric patients. Full article
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11 pages, 904 KiB  
Perspective
Half a Century of Fragmented Research on Deviations from Advised Therapies: Is This a Good Time to Call for Multidisciplinary Medication Adherence Research Centres of Excellence?
by Przemysław Kardas, Tamás Ágh, Alexandra Dima, Catherine Goetzinger, Ines Potočnjak, Björn Wettermark and Job F. M. van Boven
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030933 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Medication adherence is a key precondition of the effectiveness of evidence-based therapies. However, in real-life settings, non-adherence to medication is still very common. This leads to profound health and economic consequences at both individual and public health levels. The problem of non-adherence has [...] Read more.
Medication adherence is a key precondition of the effectiveness of evidence-based therapies. However, in real-life settings, non-adherence to medication is still very common. This leads to profound health and economic consequences at both individual and public health levels. The problem of non-adherence has been extensively studied in the last 50 years. Unfortunately, with more than 130,000 scientific papers published on that subject so far, we are still far from finding an ultimate solution. This is, at least partly, due to fragmented and poor-quality research that has been conducted in this field sometimes. To overcome this deadlock, there is a need to stimulate the adoption of best practices in medication adherence-related research in a systematic way. Therefore, herein we propose the establishment of dedicated medication adherence research Centres of Excellence (CoEs). These Centres could not only conduct research but could also create a profound societal impact, directly serving the needs of patients, healthcare providers, systems and economies. Additionally, they could play a role as local advocates for good practices and education. In this paper, we propose some practical steps that might be taken in order to establish such CoEs. We describe two success stories, i.e., Dutch and Polish Medication Adherence Research CoEs. The COST Action “European Network to Advance Best practices & technoLogy on medication adherencE” (ENABLE) aims to develop a detailed definition of the Medication Adherence Research CoE in the form of a list of minimal requirements regarding their objectives, structure and activities. We hope that it will help to create a critical mass and catalyse the setup of regional and national Medication Adherence Research CoEs in the near future. This, in turn, may not only increase the quality of the research but also raise the awareness of non-adherence and promote the adoption of the best medication adherence-enhancing interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence: Strategies, Technologies and Practices)
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
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14 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Adherence to Acromegaly Treatment and Analysis of the Related Factors—A Real-World Study in Bulgaria
by Maria Kamusheva, Silvia Vandeva, Konstantin Mitov, Alexina Parvanova, Marina Pesheva, Nikolay Ganov, Yanitsa Rusenova, Lyubomir Marinov, Violeta Getova, Atanaska Elenkova and Guenka Petrova
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020438 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
The purpose was to assess the level of medication adherence (MA) and related factors among individuals with acromegaly. The secondary goal was to assess the quality of life of patients and whether and how it correlates with the level of adherence. A prospective [...] Read more.
The purpose was to assess the level of medication adherence (MA) and related factors among individuals with acromegaly. The secondary goal was to assess the quality of life of patients and whether and how it correlates with the level of adherence. A prospective one-year study was conducted among patients with acromegaly diagnosed, treated, and monitored in the reference center for rare endocrine diseases in Bulgaria in 2021. Clinical data, patients reported outcomes, and health economics data were collected to define the predictors of non-adherence to medicines. Medication adherence level was assessed through a free Morisky–Green 4-item questionnaire. A total of 179 patients with acromegaly were observed. Approximately 62% were female, 50% were between 41 and 60 years, and the mean age at diagnosis was 40.4 years. The response rate to the questionnaires was 53% (n = 95; mean age 53.5 years, 73% female and 26% male). Patients with high levels of MA reported higher median values for the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in comparison with those with low levels: 65.5 vs. 48.5 (p = 0.017). Similar results for EQ-5D-3L (3-level EuroQol 5D version) values and the level of MA were found: 0.656 vs. 0.796 (p = 0.0123). A low level of adherence was revealed in 34.7% of the patients, with no difference among different age groups. A significant positive determinant for adherence was years lived with acromegaly (OR = 5.625, 95% CI 1.7401–18.1832, p = 0.0039), as shorter duration was related to higher odds for high level of adherence. The current study demonstrates the importance of MA assessment for patients with acromegaly in Bulgaria. The medication adherence to the prescribed therapy among the observed group of patients with acromegaly varied as the percentage of adherent patients was around 65%. Still, there are low-adherent patients, and the responsible factors should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence: Strategies, Technologies and Practices)
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
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14 pages, 940 KiB  
Article
Non-Adherence to Antidepressant Treatment and Related Factors in a Region of Spain: A Population-Based Registry Study
by M. Aránzazu Pedrosa-Naudín, Eduardo Gutiérrez-Abejón, Francisco Herrera-Gómez, Diego Fernández-Lázaro and F. Javier Álvarez
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2696; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122696 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Antidepressants are a commonly prescribed psychotropic medication, and their use has increased in recent years. Medication non-adherence in patients with mental disorders is associated with worse health outcomes. A population-based registry study to assess antidepressant non-adherence during 2021 has been carried out. An [...] Read more.
Antidepressants are a commonly prescribed psychotropic medication, and their use has increased in recent years. Medication non-adherence in patients with mental disorders is associated with worse health outcomes. A population-based registry study to assess antidepressant non-adherence during 2021 has been carried out. An indirect method based on the medication possession ratio (MPR) has been utilized. Patients with a MPR under 80% were classified as non-adherent. A multivariate logistic regression to identify non-adherence predictors has been used, considering sociodemographic (age, sex, institutionalization and urbanicity) and health related variables (diagnostics, antidepressant class, multiple prescribers, and polypharmacy). In 2021, 10.6% of the Castile and Leon population used antidepressants. These patients were institutionalized (7.29%), living in urban areas (63.44%), polymedicated with multiple prescribers (57.07%), and using serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (54.77%), other antidepressants (46.82%) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (13.76%). Antidepressants were prescribed mainly for depression (36.73%) and anxiety (29.24%). Non-adherence to antidepressants was more frequent in men (20.56%) than in woman (19.59%) and decreased with increasing age (32% up to 17 years old vs. 13.76% over 80 years old). TCAs were associated with the highest prevalence of non-adherence (23.99%), followed by SSRIs (20.19%) and other antidepressants (18.5%). Predictors of non-adherence in patients on antidepressants were: living in urban areas, using TCAs, and pain occurrence. Non-adherence to antidepressants decreases with aging. Being female, institutionalization, being polymedicated and having depression/anxiety alongside another psychiatric diagnosis are protective factors against non-adherence. The MPR is a robust indicator for the clinician to identify non-adherent patients for monitoring, and adopt any necessary corrective actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence: Strategies, Technologies and Practices)
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
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17 pages, 335 KiB  
Review
Interventions Designed to Improve Adherence to Growth Hormone Treatment for Pediatric Patients and Their Families: A Narrative Review
by Selina Graham, Sophia Quirke-McFarlane, Vivian Auyeung and John Weinman
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112373 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Even though growth hormone (GH) treatment is still the only active treatment option to correct growth failure and increase stature for patients with GH deficiencies, evidence has shown that non-adherence remains high. The aim of this review was to identify and review the [...] Read more.
Even though growth hormone (GH) treatment is still the only active treatment option to correct growth failure and increase stature for patients with GH deficiencies, evidence has shown that non-adherence remains high. The aim of this review was to identify and review the existing interventional strategies that have been designed to address and improve adherence to GH treatment for pediatric patients and their families. An extensive search of several electronic databases was undertaken to identify relevant interventional studies, published in English, between 1985 and 2021. Additional search strategies included hand-searching topic review articles to identify eligible studies. Articles were screened against the inclusion eligibility criteria and data on sample characteristics, intervention features, and key findings was extracted. A total of fifteen interventional studies were included in the review. The interventions identified were divided into two broad categories: novel injection devices, and patient choice of device. In conclusions, this review acknowledges that there is a lack of evidence-based, theory-driven intervention strategies, designed with the purpose of optimizing treatment adherence and improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence: Strategies, Technologies and Practices)
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
9 pages, 235 KiB  
Article
Medication Non-Adherence among Patients with Chronic Diseases in Makkah Region
by Majed A. Algarni, Meznah S. Althobiti, Sarah A. Alghamdi, Huriyyah A. Alotaibi, Ohoud S. Almalki, Adnan Alharbi and Mohammad S. Alzahrani
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102010 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Background: The Makkah region is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia. Studying medication adherence levels may help to improve general health outcomes and decrease overall health care expenditures. Methods: We used the ARMS scale to assess medication adherence. Bivariable analysis of medication [...] Read more.
Background: The Makkah region is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia. Studying medication adherence levels may help to improve general health outcomes and decrease overall health care expenditures. Methods: We used the ARMS scale to assess medication adherence. Bivariable analysis of medication non-adherence was performed. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with medication non-adherence. Results: Participants from the Makkah region were more than two times more likely to be non-adherent to their medications compared to other regions (adjusted OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.49–4.46). Patients who dispensed their prescriptions at their own expense were two times more likely to be non-adherents (adjusted OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.11–4.98). Patients who had a monthly income ≤6000 SR were almost two times more likely to be non-adherents (unadjusted OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05–2.84). Conclusion: Medication adherence is one of the most important factors to help managing the disease. We found that Makkah chronic patients are more likely to be non-adherent with their medications compared to other regions’ patients. Moreover, we found that lower monthly incomes and paying for medications out-of-pocket were significant predictors of medication non-adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence: Strategies, Technologies and Practices)
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
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