Topic Editors

Dr. Oliver Faust
College of Business, Technology & Engineering , Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
Prof. Dr. U Rajendra Acharya
Ngee Ann Polytechnic, SUSS University, Singapore 599489, Singapore

Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 May 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 July 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human body constantly gives out physiological signals, such as heat, electrical impulses from muscles, brain, and other organs. Since the dawn of modern medicine, these signals have been used to assess and, in some cases, determine the cause of health crisis. From these ancient roots, modern medicine has grown and diversified. However, the idea of crisis is still preserved. Like Hippocrates of Kos, modern medicine springs into action when a health crisis occurs. This event-driven setup is very resource efficient because health services are only used if there is reason to do so. However, sometimes a disease might have progressed beyond a point where effective treatment is available before symptoms trigger a diagnosis. In the past, resource efficiency by far outweighed the potential benefits of continuous physiological signal monitoring. However, in recent years, technological advances have meant that communication, storage, and processing resources have become almost omnipresent at a competitive price point. Having recognized the transformative nature of this technology, for this topic, entitled “Long-Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals”, we seek answers to the question: How can we use physiological signal measurements to translate the resource abundance into improved outcomes for patients? We invite papers that recognize the potential of gathering and analysing big physiological data for possible publication in one of the three journals: Diagnostics, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, or Signals. A possible application area is the creation of disease-specific solutions where physiological signals are analysed with advanced artificial intelligence algorithms. Examples include atrial fibrillation detection and sleep monitoring in the home environment. Another area of interest is long-term physiological signal analysis for rehabilitation tracking and geriatric care.

Dr. Oliver Faust
Prof. Dr. U Rajendra Acharya
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • physiological signals
  • internet of medical things
  • mobile health
  • long term monitoring
  • artificial intelligence
  • hybrid medical decision support
  • rehabilitation
  • geriatric care

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.992 2.4 2011 17.5 Days 1800 CHF
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
4.614 4.5 2004 22.5 Days 2500 CHF
Signals
signals
- - 2020 13.6 Days 1000 CHF

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Published Papers (27 papers)

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Article
Benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care on the Physiological Stress Parameters of Preterm Infants and Mothers in Neonatal Intensive Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127183 - 11 Jun 2022
Abstract
It is well documented that the stress of separation of mother and baby can lead to short-term physiological instability as well as neurological, sociological or psychological consequences that may last a lifetime. Objective: The goal was to estimate the effect of kangaroo mother [...] Read more.
It is well documented that the stress of separation of mother and baby can lead to short-term physiological instability as well as neurological, sociological or psychological consequences that may last a lifetime. Objective: The goal was to estimate the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC) on physiological and biochemical parameters of preterm infant stress and maternal stress in neonatal intensive care. Methods: The investigation involved 112 preterm infants. Two groups were compared according to the mean duration of KMC during 12 days of study: the KMC group (mean duration more than 90 min daily) and the control group (less than 90 min). Results: Kangaroo mother care for more than 90 min on average per day in preterm infants is associated 12 days after the intervention with lower mean cortisol levels (p = 0.02), greater weight gain and less need for parenteral nutrition in preterm infants, as well as less postpartum depression (p = 0.02) and lower cortisol levels (p = 0.002) in the mothers of preterm infants. Conclusions: This study suggests that KMC can be used to improve the stress of preterm infants and their mothers, and that the greater weight gain observed in these preterm infants could contribute to a shorter average hospital stay and lower healthcare expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
Article
An Investigation of Customer Psychological Perceptions of Green Consciousness in a Green Hotel Context: Applying a Extended Theory of Planned Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116795 - 02 Jun 2022
Abstract
We investigated the relationship between green consciousness and green behavior, and the relationship between psychological state, attitude, and behavior of green hotel customers by applying variables suitable for an expanded theory of planned behavior. The purpose of the study was to predict green [...] Read more.
We investigated the relationship between green consciousness and green behavior, and the relationship between psychological state, attitude, and behavior of green hotel customers by applying variables suitable for an expanded theory of planned behavior. The purpose of the study was to predict green behavior based on the theory of planned behavior. Together with preceding research including the correlation between customers’ image perception of green corporate social responsibility (CSR), green psychological benefit, and green consciousness, we added willingness to sacrifice for the environment to define the relationship with green consciousness and green behavior. A survey was conducted with 410 customers of green hotels in Seoul, Korea more than twice over a period of over 6~12 months. Vague and insincere answers were removed. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 20.0 were used to conduct factor and SEM data analysis. Our theory was verified and adopted following validation from our analysis. The results have important theoretical and practical implications for the environment by providing primary data on customers’ perceptions of eco friendliness to support the establishment of corporate management strategies. Moreover, they may encourage green hotels to participate in preventing environmental problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Associations between Sleep Quality and Heart Rate Variability: Implications for a Biological Model of Stress Detection Using Wearable Technology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095770 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Introduction: The autonomic nervous system plays a vital role in the modulation of many vital bodily functions, one of which is sleep and wakefulness. Many studies have investigated the link between autonomic dysfunction and sleep cycles; however, few studies have investigated the links [...] Read more.
Introduction: The autonomic nervous system plays a vital role in the modulation of many vital bodily functions, one of which is sleep and wakefulness. Many studies have investigated the link between autonomic dysfunction and sleep cycles; however, few studies have investigated the links between short-term sleep health, as determined by the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI), such as subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction, and autonomic functioning in healthy individuals. Aim: In this cross-sectional study, the aim was to investigate the links between short-term sleep quality and duration, and heart rate variability in 60 healthy individuals, in order to provide useful information about the effects of stress and sleep on heart rate variability (HRV) indices, which in turn could be integrated into biological models for wearable devices. Methods: Sleep parameters were collected from participants on commencement of the study, and HRV was derived using an electrocardiogram (ECG) during a resting and stress task (Trier Stress Test). Result: Low-frequency to high-frequency (LF:HF) ratio was significantly higher during the stress task than during the baseline resting phase, and very-low-frequency and high-frequency HRV were inversely related to impaired sleep during stress tasks. Conclusion: Given the ubiquitous nature of wearable technologies for monitoring health states, in particular HRV, it is important to consider the impacts of sleep states when using these technologies to interpret data. Very-low-frequency HRV during the stress task was found to be inversely related to three negative sleep indices: sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, and global sleep score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Stressor-Induced Temporal Cortisol Deficiency as a Primary Trigger for Adaptation to Stress
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095633 - 05 May 2022
Abstract
Background: Inconsistencies in measurements of cortisol response to stress have caused disagreements in the direction of the change in cortisol concentrations immediately after the onset of stress. Researchers typically observe increased cortisol levels in response to a stressor, perceiving occasional decreases as a [...] Read more.
Background: Inconsistencies in measurements of cortisol response to stress have caused disagreements in the direction of the change in cortisol concentrations immediately after the onset of stress. Researchers typically observe increased cortisol levels in response to a stressor, perceiving occasional decreases as a sign of possible disorders. Reports indicate the relative ease of standardizing a physical stressor compared with a mental stressor, and cross-stressor adaptation is observable only in elite athletes. Methods: We investigated the cortisol response to top-intensity physical exertion by analyzing the course of the cortisol response, the changes in this response resulting from adaptation to intense exercise, and the possible convergence between the cortisol changes and body fat content. We examined 16 male athletes, members of the Polish National Rowing Team, competing in the World Rowing Championships, in top form, of an average training experience of seven years. The measurements were performed before and after the training camp preparatory to the Championships. We performed the measurements before and after the training camp preparatory to the Championships. Results: Before the camp, the athletes consistently reacted to the exertion test with a decrease in cortisol concentration and elevated cortisol levels after rest compared with baseline. After the camp, the post-exertion cortisol decrease as well as the post-rest cortisol elevation was much smaller and less consistent. Conclusions: The transient decrease in cortisol concentration at the onset of stress thus represents a physiological reaction, and the stress response counteracts the resulting cortisol deficiency to support cortisol availability during stress. Adaptation to stress enhanced this counteracting effect by (1) increasing the baseline cortisol concentration and (2) speeding up the response to its decline. This enhanced effect was boosted by adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Frequency of Breakfast Eating and Obesity Prevalence in Primary School Teachers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095331 - 27 Apr 2022
Abstract
There is a lack of research using objective measures about teachers’ physical characteristics and lifestyle. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between frequency of breakfast consumption and body size, body composition, blood pressure and lifestyle factors in teachers from [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research using objective measures about teachers’ physical characteristics and lifestyle. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between frequency of breakfast consumption and body size, body composition, blood pressure and lifestyle factors in teachers from Hungary. The study analyzed data collected from 99 female primary school teachers (50.6 ± 6.6 year) before the COVID-19 pandemic. Anthropometric and resting blood pressure measurements were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to assess lifestyle factors (i.e., physical activity level, smoking status and eating breakfast). The frequency of eating breakfast was classified as rarely or never (0–2 days), some days (3–5 days) and regularly (6–7 days). Sixty-five percent of female teachers consumed breakfast 6–7 days/week, and this regular eating habit was positively associated with a lower risk of obesity (OR 0.29; CI: 0.10–0.80). In our sample, a higher frequency of breakfast consumption was not significantly associated with smoking (OR 2.65; CI: 0.17–1.37), hypertension (OR 0.61; CI: 0.23–1.65) and inactivity (OR 2.80; CI: 0.26–1.84). A beneficial effect of eating breakfast regularly was found on body composition in female teachers. Further studies should focus on the health behaviors of teachers and their relationship with physical activity or diagnosed diseases in urban and rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
Review
The Role of Anti-PLA2R and Anti-THSD7A Antibodies in the Pathogenesis and Diagnostics of Primary Membranous Nephropathy: A Review of Current Knowledge for Clinical Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095301 - 27 Apr 2022
Abstract
Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is considered a major cause of nephrotic syndrome. The discovery of circulating autoantibodies directed against glomerular podocytes helped to classify them as autoimmune diseases. Over the past years, there has been an increasing significance of anti-Phospholipase A2 Receptor (anti-PLA [...] Read more.
Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is considered a major cause of nephrotic syndrome. The discovery of circulating autoantibodies directed against glomerular podocytes helped to classify them as autoimmune diseases. Over the past years, there has been an increasing significance of anti-Phospholipase A2 Receptor (anti-PLA2R), which has been detected in 70–80% of PMN cases, and relevance of anti-Thrombospondin type I domain-containing 7A (anti-THSD7A) even though they are present in 2–5% of patients. The results of clinical and experimental studies indicate that these antibodies are pathogenic. It radically changed the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Measurement of antibody titers in the serum seems to be a valuable tool for identifying PMN and for the assessment of disease activity. By monitoring pathogenic antibodies levels rather than proteinuria or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as an indicator of glomerular disease, physicians would easier divide patients into those with active and inactive PMN disease and decide about their therapy. The aim of this review is to evaluate scientific evidence about the role of autoantibodies, namely anti-PLA2R and anti-THSD7A, as PMN biomarkers. The present manuscript focuses on PMN pathogenesis and key data of diagnosis, monitoring of the disease, and treatment strategies that are currently being used in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
Article
Rotaviruses and Noroviruses as Etiological Agents of Acute Intestinal Diseases of Ukrainian Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084660 - 12 Apr 2022
Abstract
(1) Background: Rotavirus and norovirus infections are the primary viral causes of childhood diarrhea. In Ukraine, the diarrhea-linked infant mortality rate is low, but the number of children infected is quite high. This study examined the rates of rotavirus and norovirus infections throughout [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Rotavirus and norovirus infections are the primary viral causes of childhood diarrhea. In Ukraine, the diarrhea-linked infant mortality rate is low, but the number of children infected is quite high. This study examined the rates of rotavirus and norovirus infections throughout Ukraine. (2) Methods: Fecal samples for children admitted to hospitals in six Ukrainian cities (Kyiv, Lviv, Sumy, Odesa, Kharkiv, and Uman) were tested for the presence of rotavirus and norovirus. (3) Results: The overall rate of hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea with confirmed presence of rotavirus or norovirus in fecal samples was significant (20.67% and 27.94%, respectively). Samples obtained from children from Lviv had significantly higher rates of the viruses, and Kyiv and Uman had significantly lower rotavirus or norovirus detection levels than expected. (4) Conclusion: Childhood diarrhea impacts Ukraine significantly. The economic and societal effects of the failure to address this public health issue are indicated by the hospitalization rate of children with preventable illnesses. The geographical disparities in Ukraine for child hospitalizations caused by rotavirus and norovirus infections could result from environmental (sanitary factors or water purity issues) or social factors. Further research is needed to completely characterize infant viral infections in Ukraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Nightmares’ Pattern and Predictors among a Saudi University Students during COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031776 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
Purpose: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic quarantine, university students were under various types of stressors, including the exams period, which might have affected their quality and quantity of sleep, and consequently, their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Purpose: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic quarantine, university students were under various types of stressors, including the exams period, which might have affected their quality and quantity of sleep, and consequently, their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the pattern and predictors of nightmares among university students and coinvestigate the presence of other types of sleep disturbances, mental disorders, and quarantine-related stressors. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 368 university students who answered a self-completed questionnaire covering their sociodemographic features, nightmare indicators, and associated quarantine stressors. Additionally, sleep disturbances were measured using the Generalized Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS), anxiety using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2 scale, and depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Results: The participants’ mean age was 20.4 ± 1.6 years, and male participants represented 35.9% of the sample. Nightmares were experienced by 117 (31.8%) of the participants, of whom 44.4% had new-onset nightmares. The mean GSDS was 45.0 ± 14.9 (min. = 12, max. = 130). This value is associated with elevated odds of the following outcomes: the presence of nightmares (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; confidence interval [CI] 95% = 1.1–3.0); new-onset nightmares at the time of pandemic (OR = 2.6; CI 95% = 1.3–5.5); and anxiety (OR = 1.74; CI 95% = 1.0–2.9). The presence of nightmares elevated the score of GSDS by 11.3 points (S.E. = 1.6, p < 0.001), elevated the odds of anxiety by 4.1 (CI 95% = 2.5–6.8), and depression by 2.1 (CI 95% = 1.3–3.4). Conclusions: Stressors resulting from both the exams period and the fact that it was conducted during COVID-19 quarantine increased the rate and affected the pattern of nightmares. These stressors also led to other sleep disturbances and mental disorders that were significantly more prevalent among females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Relationship of Quantitative Measures of Jumping Performance with Gross Motor Development in Typically Developed Preschool Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031661 - 31 Jan 2022
Abstract
Jumping is a key movement developing in the preschool period, but limited studies have reported the determinants of jumping performance and its relationship with gross motor development. This study aimed to determine the correlations among jumping performance, quantitative parameters of jumping, and gross [...] Read more.
Jumping is a key movement developing in the preschool period, but limited studies have reported the determinants of jumping performance and its relationship with gross motor development. This study aimed to determine the correlations among jumping performance, quantitative parameters of jumping, and gross motor development in preschool children. Twenty-one preschool children were recruited from one kindergarten, and fifteen of them with complete data were further analyzed. The quantitative parameters of standing long jump (SLJ) and standing vertical jump (SVJ) were measured using a video-based motion capture system. The gross motor development was measured using the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ). The Spearman’s rho value and a linear regression model were used to determine the relationships among the jumping performance, the quantitative measures, and the total PGMQ scores. The results indicate that the jumping performances were significantly correlated with the takeoff velocity, which was predicted by trunk inclination before takeoff in SLJ and by the ranges of trunk inclination during jumping in SVJ. Regression analysis showed that the preschool children with higher normalized jump height had better gross motor development, and that the jump performance and the gross motor development were directly or indirectly predicted by the slope of the hip-to-ankle angle plot during pre-takeoff. In conclusion, this study identifies key components of jumping in jumping performance and gross motor development in preschool children for physical education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Dynamic of Glucose Homeostasis in Virtual Patients: A Comparison between Different Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020716 - 09 Jan 2022
Abstract
This work presents a mathematical model of homeostasis dynamics in healthy individuals, focusing on the generation of conductive data on glucose homeostasis throughout the day under dietary and physical activity factors. Two case studies on glucose dynamics for populations under conditions of physical [...] Read more.
This work presents a mathematical model of homeostasis dynamics in healthy individuals, focusing on the generation of conductive data on glucose homeostasis throughout the day under dietary and physical activity factors. Two case studies on glucose dynamics for populations under conditions of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle were developed. For this purpose, two types of virtual populations were generated, the first population was developed according to the data of a total of 89 physical persons between 20 and 75 years old and the second was developed using the Monte Carlo approach, obtaining a total of 200 virtual patients. In both populations, each participant was classified as an active or sedentary person depending on the physical activity performed. The results obtained demonstrate the capacity of virtual populations in the generation of in-silico approximations similar to those obtained from in-vivo studies. Obtaining information that is only achievable through specific in-vivo experiments. Being a tool that generates information for the approach of alternatives in the prevention of the development of type 2 Diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Comparison of the Cardiovascular Effects of Extreme Psychological and Physical Stress Tests in Male Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020715 - 09 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: The purpose of our study was to compare the physiological effects of extreme physical and psychological stress tests in male soccer players, since these two types of stress apply to athletes with high performance requirements. Methods: A total of 63 healthy male [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of our study was to compare the physiological effects of extreme physical and psychological stress tests in male soccer players, since these two types of stress apply to athletes with high performance requirements. Methods: A total of 63 healthy male soccer players participated in this study, all of whom underwent both of the tests. A physical stress test was carried out in an exercise physiology laboratory, where subjects completed an incremental treadmill running test to full exhaustion, and a psychological test was performed in a military tactical room, where subjects met a street offence situation. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded directly before, immediately after, and 30 min after the stress tests. Results: The majority of HRV indices changed significantly in both stress protocols. Inverse, significant changes (positive for the physical test, negative for the psychological test, p < 0.001) were found when comparing the alterations of HRV indices between the tests. Significant differences were found in the changes in systolic (p = 0.003) and diastolic (p < 0.001) BP between the test protocols, and also between the baseline and post-test measurements (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both HRV and BP are sensitive physiological parameters to measure the impact of extreme physical and/or psychological stress Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Epidemiological Study of Return to Work and Mortality in Lung Cancer Survivors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010309 - 28 Dec 2021
Abstract
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Return to work (RTW) plays an important role for lung cancer survivors. Few studies focus solely on the relationship among possible variables and the RTW of lung [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Return to work (RTW) plays an important role for lung cancer survivors. Few studies focus solely on the relationship among possible variables and the RTW of lung cancer patients. The aim of our study was to examine sociodemographic, disease-related and work-related factors associated with RTW among lung cancer survivors in Taiwan. A total of 2206 employees who had been diagnosed with lung cancer at the Labor Insurance Database (LID), Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR) and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) during the period 2004–2015, were included in the study. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to investigate the associations between sociodemographic, disease-related and work-related factors on one hand and RTW on the other hand. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for analyzing the survival probability. Patients with an early cancer stage and those who underwent surgery had a higher likelihood of RTW. Factors including older age, male, higher monthly income and receipt of radiotherapy were inversely correlated with RTW. For lung cancer patients, RTW was a predictor of a lower risk of all-cause mortality in both the unadjusted and fully adjusted model. A better survival rate was found in stage III and IV lung cancer patients who had RTW. Sociodemographic and clinical-related variables had an impact on RTW among employees with lung cancer. RTW was correlated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and better lung cancer survival. Our study showed the influence of RTW and independent confounding factors in lung cancer survivorship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Review
The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Older Adults’ Decision-Making Related to Health, and Health and Social Care Services in Daily Life—A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010151 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Information and communication technology (ICT) can potentially support older adults in making decisions and increase their involvement in decision-making processes. Although the range of technical products has expanded in various areas of society, knowledge is lacking on the influence that ICT has on [...] Read more.
Information and communication technology (ICT) can potentially support older adults in making decisions and increase their involvement in decision-making processes. Although the range of technical products has expanded in various areas of society, knowledge is lacking on the influence that ICT has on older adults’ decision-making in everyday situations. Based on the literature, we aimed to provide an overview of the role of ICT in home-dwelling older adults’ decision-making in relation to health, and health and social care services. A scoping review of articles published between 2010 and 2020 was undertaken by searching five electronic databases. Finally, 12 articles using qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs were included. The articles were published in journals representing biology and medicine, nursing, informatics, and computer science. A majority of the articles were published in the last five years, and most articles came from European countries. The results are presented in three categories: (i) form and function of ICT for decision-making, (ii) perceived value and effect of ICT for decision-making, and (iii) factors influencing ICT use for decision-making. According to our findings, ICT for decision-making in relation to health, and health and social care services was more implicitly described than explicitly described, and we conclude that more research on this topic is needed. Future research should engage older adults and health professionals in developing technology based on their needs. Further, factors that influence older adults’ use of ICT should be evaluated to ensure that it is successfully integrated into their daily lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Comparison of Effects of N95 Respirators and Surgical Masks to Physiological and Psychological Health among Healthcare Workers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413308 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, wearing facemasks has become more important for healthcare workers. This study aimed to investigate and compare the influence of wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks for 8 h on physiological and psychological health. Sixty-eight [...] Read more.
Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, wearing facemasks has become more important for healthcare workers. This study aimed to investigate and compare the influence of wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks for 8 h on physiological and psychological health. Sixty-eight healthcare workers were randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or surgical mask groups. Physiological parameters of participants were measured by Tensor Tip MTX at baseline and at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th h of wearing the facemasks. The symptoms after wearing facemasks were also determined via the questionnaire. There were no significant changes in physiological parameters at most time checkpoints in both groups. Significant differences were observed in terms of heart rate at the 8th h, time trends (adjusted difference of least squares means were −8.53 and −2.01), and interaction of time and mask type between the two groups (p-value for interaction was 0.0146). The values of these physiological parameters were within normal ranges. The N95 respirator group had significantly higher incidences of shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, difficulty talking and fatigue that spontaneously resolved. In conclusion, healthcare workers who wore either N95 respirators or surgical masks during an 8 h shift had no obvious harmful effects on physiological and psychological health. Additionally, the N95 respirator group did not show a higher risk than the surgical mask group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Global Trends in Atherosclerosis Research in the Epigenetics Field: Bibliometric and Visualization Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413154 - 13 Dec 2021
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a pathological vascular state caused by the interaction of environmental and hereditary factors. Epigenetic modifications may be the bridge connecting environmental factors and genetic factors. A search for publications on the Web of Science database in the field of atherosclerosis related [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is a pathological vascular state caused by the interaction of environmental and hereditary factors. Epigenetic modifications may be the bridge connecting environmental factors and genetic factors. A search for publications on the Web of Science database in the field of atherosclerosis related to epigenetics was conducted from the earliest mention to 31 December 2020. Data on total and annual publications, citations, impact factors, Hirsch (H)-index, citation times, most prolific authors, and frequently published journals were collected for quantitative and qualitative comparison. A total of 1848 publications related to epigenetics and atherosclerosis were found. The major contributing countries were the China (522, 28.23%), United States (485, 26.23%), and Germany (119, 6.44%). The greatest number of retrieved publications were published in the journal, “Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology” (62, 3.66%). The publication “Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Complications” was cited 2370 times. The most frequent keywords were “DNA methylation” and “LncRNA”. Publications on epigenetic research in the atherosclerosis field have increased significantly every year, indicating that the study of epigenetic modifications plays an increasingly important role in understanding the pathology of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Glucose Concentrations from Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices Compared to Those from Blood Plasma during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Healthy Young Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412994 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Continuous glucose monitoring devices measure glucose in interstitial fluid. The devices are effective when used by patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes but are increasingly being used by researchers who are interested in the effects of various behaviours of glucose concentrations in [...] Read more.
Continuous glucose monitoring devices measure glucose in interstitial fluid. The devices are effective when used by patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes but are increasingly being used by researchers who are interested in the effects of various behaviours of glucose concentrations in healthy participants. Despite their more frequent application in this setting, the devices have not yet been validated for use under such conditions. A total of 124 healthy participants were recruited to a ten-day laboratory study. Each participant underwent four oral glucose tolerance tests, and a total of 3315 out of a possible 4960 paired samples were included in the final analysis. Bland–Altman plots and mean absolute relative differences were used to determine the agreement between the two methods. Bland–Altman analyses revealed that the continuous glucose monitoring devices had proportional bias (R = 0.028, p < 0.001) and a mean bias of −0.048 mmol/L, and device measurements were more variable as glucose concentrations increased. Ninety-nine per cent of paired values were in Zones A and B of the Parkes Error Grid plot, and there was an overall mean absolute relative difference of 16.2% (±15.8%). There was variability in the continuous glucose monitoring devices, and this variability was higher when glucose concentrations were higher. If researchers were to use continuous glucose monitoring devices to measure glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy participants, this variability would need to be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Microbiological Status of Venous Leg Ulcers and Its Predictors: A Single-Center Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412965 - 08 Dec 2021
Abstract
Venous leg ulcers are frequently colonized by microbes. This can be particularly devastating if the ulcer is infected with alert pathogens, i.e., highly virulent microorganisms with well-developed mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. We analyzed the microbiological status of venous leg ulcers and identified the [...] Read more.
Venous leg ulcers are frequently colonized by microbes. This can be particularly devastating if the ulcer is infected with alert pathogens, i.e., highly virulent microorganisms with well-developed mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. We analyzed the microbiological status of venous leg ulcers and identified the clinicodemographic predictors of culture-positive ulcers, especially in ulcers with colonization by alert pathogens. Methods: This study included 754 patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. Material for microbiological analysis was collected by swabbing only from patients who did not receive any antibiotic treatment. Results: A total of 636 (84.3%) patients presented with culture-positive ulcers. Alert pathogens, primarily Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were detected in 28.6% of the positive cultures. In a logistic regression model, culture-positive ulcers were predicted independently by age > 65 years, current ulcer duration > 12 months, and ulceration area greater than 8.25 cm2. Two of these factors, duration of current ulcer > 12 months and ulceration area > 8.25 cm2, were also identified as the independent predictors of colonization by alert pathogens. Conclusions: Colonization/infection is particularly likely in older persons with chronic and/or large ulcers. Concomitant atherosclerosis was an independent predictor of culture-negative ulcers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
Article
Effect of Six-Minute Walk Test and Incremental Exercise on Inspiratory Capacity, Ventilatory Constraints, Breathlessness and Exercise Performance in Sedentary Male Smokers without Airway Obstruction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312665 - 01 Dec 2021
Abstract
We investigated physiological responses and exercise capacity in sedentary young smokers during sub-maximal and maximal test and its impact on dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Fifty sedentary male smokers and non-smokers (age: 24 ± 1 years., weight: 71 ± 9 kg, height: 177.3 ± [...] Read more.
We investigated physiological responses and exercise capacity in sedentary young smokers during sub-maximal and maximal test and its impact on dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Fifty sedentary male smokers and non-smokers (age: 24 ± 1 years., weight: 71 ± 9 kg, height: 177.3 ± 4.8 cm, body mass index: 22.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2) underwent two visits with pulmonary function tests, breathing pattern, and inspiratory capacity measurement at rest and during sub-maximal and maximal exercise. Smokers show reduced exercise capacity during six minutes walk test (6-MWT) with decreased walked distance (p < 0.001) and inspiratory capacity (p < 0.05). During cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), smokers had higher minute ventilation VE for a given submaximal intensity (p < 0.05) and lower minute ventilation at maximal exercise (p < 0.001). End expiratory lung volume was significantly lower in sedentary smokers at rest (p < 0.05), at ventilatory threshold during exercise (p < 0.05), but not during peak exercise. End inspiratory lung volume was significantly lower in smokers at rest (p < 0.05) and ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05). Cigarette smoking alters lung function during submaximal and maximal exercise. This alteration is manifested by the development of dynamic hyperinflation contributing to exercise capacity limitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Review
Effects of Caffeine and Caffeinated Beverages in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: Short Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312389 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The prevalence of ED consumption has increased over the past 10–15 years. Studies describing the effects of caffeine and caffeinated beverages show confusing results, so it seems important to regularly summarize the available facts, and in more detail. By a thorough analysis of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of ED consumption has increased over the past 10–15 years. Studies describing the effects of caffeine and caffeinated beverages show confusing results, so it seems important to regularly summarize the available facts, and in more detail. By a thorough analysis of more than 156 scientific papers, the authors describe the molecular background of absorption, as well as the positive and negative effects of different dosages of caffeine, just like its effects in physical activity and performance. ED and EDwA consumption is a regular habit of not only adults, but nowadays even of children and adolescents. There are no safe dosages described of caffeine or ED consumption for children. There are no positive short- or long-term effects of these compounds/products concerning developing brain functions, psycho-motor functions, or social development. Instead, there are many unpleasant side effects, and symptoms of regular or higher-dose ED consumption, especially at younger ages. This mini review describes many details of these unpleasant side effects, their severity, and motivations for consuming these compounds/products. In a quantitative research in Hungary (10–26 years, mean age: 15.6 ± 3.8 y, 1459 subjects, randomly chosen population), a survey based on a questionnaire asking people about their ED consumption habits was conducted. According to the data, 81.8% of the participants consumed EDs at least once, and 63.3% tried several products of the kind. A positive correlation was found between age and consumption (p < 0.001). The results show that a high proportion of this group often consumed EDwA, in many cases leading to harmful side-effects of caffeine overdose. In a sample of Hungarian high school and college students (17–26 years), ED consumption matched the international data, and only 19.7% of respondents did not use EDs at all (had never tasted an ED in their life). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Automated COVID-19 and Heart Failure Detection Using DNA Pattern Technique with Cough Sounds
Diagnostics 2021, 11(11), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11111962 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
COVID-19 and heart failure (HF) are common disorders and although they share some similar symptoms, they require different treatments. Accurate diagnosis of these disorders is crucial for disease management, including patient isolation to curb infection spread of COVID-19. In this work, we aim [...] Read more.
COVID-19 and heart failure (HF) are common disorders and although they share some similar symptoms, they require different treatments. Accurate diagnosis of these disorders is crucial for disease management, including patient isolation to curb infection spread of COVID-19. In this work, we aim to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system that can accurately differentiate these three classes (normal, COVID-19 and HF) using cough sounds. A novel handcrafted model was used to classify COVID-19 vs. healthy (Case 1), HF vs. healthy (Case 2) and COVID-19 vs. HF vs. healthy (Case 3) automatically using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) patterns. The model was developed using the cough sounds collected from 241 COVID-19 patients, 244 HF patients, and 247 healthy subjects using a hand phone. To the best our knowledge, this is the first work to automatically classify healthy subjects, HF and COVID-19 patients using cough sounds signals. Our proposed model comprises a graph-based local feature generator (DNA pattern), an iterative maximum relevance minimum redundancy (ImRMR) iterative feature selector, with classification using the k-nearest neighbor classifier. Our proposed model attained an accuracy of 100.0%, 99.38%, and 99.49% for Case 1, Case 2, and Case 3, respectively. The developed system is completely automated and economical, and can be utilized to accurately detect COVID-19 versus HF using cough sounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Effect of Flexibility Training Associated with Multicomponent Training on Posture and Quality of Movement in Physically Inactive Older Women: A Randomized Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010709 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Multicomponent training has considerable adherence among older populations, but there is a lack of literature on the benefits of this training on older people’s posture. Literature also lacks stretching protocols that work the body in an integrated/unified way and respect the principle [...] Read more.
Background: Multicomponent training has considerable adherence among older populations, but there is a lack of literature on the benefits of this training on older people’s posture. Literature also lacks stretching protocols that work the body in an integrated/unified way and respect the principle of individuality in exercise training. We evaluated the effect of a multicomponent training protocol combined or not with flexibility training in improving the posture and quality of movement in physically inactive older women, according to a score lower than 9.11 in the Modified Baecke Questionnaire for the Elderly (MBQE). Methods: 142 participants were evaluated and randomized in three training groups: multicomponent training (MT = 52), multicomponent and flexibility training (MFT = 43), and a control group (CG = 47). We evaluated joint amplitude using goniometry, flexibility with sit and reach and hands behind the back tests, quality of movement with the functional movement screen, and posture using biophotogammetry. Results: The MFT group had 15 parameters—flexibility and posture—with a very large effect size (ES > 1.30) and nine with average ES (0.50–0.79). MT presented two variables with large ES (0.80–1.25) and seven with average ES. CG presented three variables with high ES and five with average ES. Both interventions improved the quality of movement. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that 14 weeks of multicomponent and flexibility training in a group intervention can improve flexibility and posture levels in physically inactive older women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Complex Multimorbidity and Incidence of Long-Term Care Needs in Japan: A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910523 - 07 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Complex multimorbidity (CMM) has been proposed as a more nuanced concept of multimorbidity (MM). We sought to quantify the association of CMM and MM on the incidence of long-term care (LTC) needs in a cohort of older Japanese people. Our follow-up was based [...] Read more.
Complex multimorbidity (CMM) has been proposed as a more nuanced concept of multimorbidity (MM). We sought to quantify the association of CMM and MM on the incidence of long-term care (LTC) needs in a cohort of older Japanese people. Our follow-up was based on a nationwide longitudinal cohort study of people aged over 65 years who were functionally dependent at baseline. Our outcome was incident LTC needs, based on certification under the Japanese LTC insurance scheme. We used both propensity score matching and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) to compare individuals with and without MM versus CMM. A total of 38,889 older adults were included: 20,233 (52.0%) and 7565 (19.5%) adults with MM and CMM, respectively. In propensity-matched analyses, both MM (n = 15,666 pairs) and CMM (n = 7524 pairs) were statistically significantly associated with the six-year LTC insurance certification rate (MM, hazard ratio (HR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.02–1.12; CMM, HR 1.10, 95%CI 1.04–1.16). Both MM and CMM were associated with a modest but statistically significantly higher rate of LTC insurance certification. These findings support the inclusion of multimorbidity in the assessment of LTC insurance needs, although the Japanese government currently has not adopted this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
The Development and Application of Drama-Combined Nursing Educational Content for Cancer Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189891 - 20 Sep 2021
Abstract
With the recent increase in the number of cancer patients, it is important to educate nursing students using pedagogical techniques that nurture understanding and empathy for cancer patients. This study examined nursing students’ experiences caring for cancer patients after receiving drama-combined nursing education [...] Read more.
With the recent increase in the number of cancer patients, it is important to educate nursing students using pedagogical techniques that nurture understanding and empathy for cancer patients. This study examined nursing students’ experiences caring for cancer patients after receiving drama-combined nursing education for cancer care (DCC), which consisted of three elements: lectures, dramatic scenarios, and debriefing. The lectures dealt with cancer statistics, diseases, and nursing, and the dramatic scenarios depicted both breast cancer patients and lung cancer patients. Sixty-seven junior-year nursing students attended a 90 min DCC session developed by the authors. Focus group interviews were conducted to explore students’ educational experiences, and the following three themes were derived using the thematic analysis method: ‘understanding the lives of patients with severe diseases and their families’, ‘seeing a nursing role model provide patient-centered care’, and ‘projecting an image of oneself as a future nurse’. Using drama in nursing education for cancer patients provided an opportunity for students to imagine the clinical experiences of cancer patients, helping them to understand patients’ points of view and reflect on their self-images as future nurses. The DCC developed for nursing students in this study is a promising way to deliver distinctive and meaningful learning experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Physiological and Psychological Responses to a Maximal Swimming Exercise Test in Adolescent Elite Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179270 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Continuously rising performances in elite adolescent athletes requires increasing training loads. This training overload without professional monitoring, could lead to overtraining in these adolescents. Methods: 31 elite adolescent athletes (boys: n = 19, 16 yrs; girls: n = 12, 15 yrs) participated [...] Read more.
Background: Continuously rising performances in elite adolescent athletes requires increasing training loads. This training overload without professional monitoring, could lead to overtraining in these adolescents. Methods: 31 elite adolescent athletes (boys: n = 19, 16 yrs; girls: n = 12, 15 yrs) participated in a field-test which contained a unified warm-up and a 200 m maximal freestyle swimming test. Saliva samples for testosterone (T) in boys, estradiol (E) in girls and cortisol (C) in both genders were collected pre-, post- and 30 min post-exercise. Lactate levels were obtained pre- and post-exercise. Brunel Mood Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and psychosomatic symptoms questionnaires were filled out post-exercise. Results: Lactate levels differed between genders (boys: pre: 1.01 ± 0.26; post: 8.19 ± 3.24; girls: pre: 0.74 ± 0.23; post: 5.83 ± 2.48 mmol/L). C levels increased significantly in boys: pre- vs. post- (p = 0.009), pre- vs. 30 min post-exercise (p = 0.003). The T level (p = 0.0164) and T/C ratio (p = 0.0004) decreased after field test which draws attention to the possibility of overtraining. Maximal and resting heart rates did not differ between genders; however, heart rate recovery did (boys: 29.22 ± 7.4; girls: 40.58 ± 14.50 beats/min; p = 0.008). Conclusions: Our models can be used to explain the hormonal ratio changes (37.5–89.8%). Based on the results this method can induce hormonal response in elite adolescent athletes and can be used to notice irregularities with repeated measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Immunoexpression in Fallopian Tubes among Postmenopausal Women Based on Time since the Last Menstrual Period
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179195 - 31 Aug 2021
Abstract
Existing data on the expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in fallopian tubes in postmenopausal women are mostly inconclusive. Therefore, we assessed ERα and PR immunoexpression in the oviducts of these women. One hundred postmenopausal women were divided into three [...] Read more.
Existing data on the expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in fallopian tubes in postmenopausal women are mostly inconclusive. Therefore, we assessed ERα and PR immunoexpression in the oviducts of these women. One hundred postmenopausal women were divided into three groups based on time elapsed since the last menstrual period: (A) 1–5 years, (B) 6–10 years, and (C) ≥11 years. In all groups, both in the glandular epithelium and stroma of the ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct, immunolocalization of ERα and PR were noted. The glandular epithelium of the ampulla showed a higher percentage of PR-positive cells than the isthmus in each group. Regarding ERα, there were no significant differences. In the glandular epithelium in both the ampulla and isthmus, the percentage of ERα- and PR-positive cells was significantly higher than that in the stroma in each study group and higher in the A group than in the C group. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women, time elapsed since the last menstrual period in the fallopian tubes was positively correlated with the following: (1) the epithelium showed vacuolation of cytoplasm with greater frequency, (2) the proportion of ciliated cells decreased, and (3) the percentage of ERα- and PR-positive cells also decreased. The obtained results indicate a significant decrease in ERα and PR expression depending on the time that has elapsed since the last menstruation, which is undoubtedly related to the loss of the reproductive function of the patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Case Report
Focal Myocarditis after Mild COVID-19 Infection in Athletes
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081519 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
COVID-19 infection in athletes usually has a milder course, but in the case of complications, myocarditis and even sudden cardiac death may occur. We examined an athlete who felt symptoms upon returning to training after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Physical, laboratory, and echocardiography findings [...] Read more.
COVID-19 infection in athletes usually has a milder course, but in the case of complications, myocarditis and even sudden cardiac death may occur. We examined an athlete who felt symptoms upon returning to training after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Physical, laboratory, and echocardiography findings were normal. The cardiopulmonary exercise test was interrupted at submaximal effort due to severe dyspnea in the presence of reduced functional capacity in comparison to previous tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detected the focal myocarditis. After three months of recovery, CMR still revealed the presence of focal myocarditis and the persistence of decreased functional capacity. This case raises the question of screening athletes even after asymptomatic forms of COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Article
Automated Arrhythmia Detection Based on RR Intervals
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081446 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
Abnormal heart rhythms, also known as arrhythmias, can be life-threatening. AFIB and AFL are examples of arrhythmia that affect a growing number of patients. This paper describes a method that can support clinicians during arrhythmia diagnosis. We propose a deep learning algorithm to [...] Read more.
Abnormal heart rhythms, also known as arrhythmias, can be life-threatening. AFIB and AFL are examples of arrhythmia that affect a growing number of patients. This paper describes a method that can support clinicians during arrhythmia diagnosis. We propose a deep learning algorithm to discriminate AFIB, AFL, and NSR RR interval signals. The algorithm was designed with data from 4051 subjects. With 10-fold cross-validation, the algorithm achieved the following results: ACC = 99.98%, SEN = 100.00%, and SPE = 99.94%. These results are significant because they show that it is possible to automate arrhythmia detection in RR interval signals. Such a detection method makes economic sense because RR interval signals are cost-effective to measure, communicate, and process. Having such a cost-effective solution might lead to widespread long-term monitoring, which can help detecting arrhythmia earlier. Detection can lead to treatment, which improves outcomes for patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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