Next Article in Journal
Diagnostic Accuracy of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Gamified Dual-Task Training for Individuals with Parkinson Disease: An Exploratory Study on Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy
 
 
Review

Effects of Caffeine and Caffeinated Beverages in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: Short Review

1
Doctoral School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, H-7621 Pécs, Hungary
2
Institute of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Faculty of Science, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312389
Received: 4 November 2021 / Revised: 20 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
The prevalence of ED consumption has increased over the past 10–15 years. Studies describing the effects of caffeine and caffeinated beverages show confusing results, so it seems important to regularly summarize the available facts, and in more detail. By a thorough analysis of more than 156 scientific papers, the authors describe the molecular background of absorption, as well as the positive and negative effects of different dosages of caffeine, just like its effects in physical activity and performance. ED and EDwA consumption is a regular habit of not only adults, but nowadays even of children and adolescents. There are no safe dosages described of caffeine or ED consumption for children. There are no positive short- or long-term effects of these compounds/products concerning developing brain functions, psycho-motor functions, or social development. Instead, there are many unpleasant side effects, and symptoms of regular or higher-dose ED consumption, especially at younger ages. This mini review describes many details of these unpleasant side effects, their severity, and motivations for consuming these compounds/products. In a quantitative research in Hungary (10–26 years, mean age: 15.6 ± 3.8 y, 1459 subjects, randomly chosen population), a survey based on a questionnaire asking people about their ED consumption habits was conducted. According to the data, 81.8% of the participants consumed EDs at least once, and 63.3% tried several products of the kind. A positive correlation was found between age and consumption (p < 0.001). The results show that a high proportion of this group often consumed EDwA, in many cases leading to harmful side-effects of caffeine overdose. In a sample of Hungarian high school and college students (17–26 years), ED consumption matched the international data, and only 19.7% of respondents did not use EDs at all (had never tasted an ED in their life). View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; energy drink; alcohol; children; young adults; side effects caffeine; energy drink; alcohol; children; young adults; side effects
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Soós, R.; Gyebrovszki, Á.; Tóth, Á.; Jeges, S.; Wilhelm, M. Effects of Caffeine and Caffeinated Beverages in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: Short Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12389. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312389

AMA Style

Soós R, Gyebrovszki Á, Tóth Á, Jeges S, Wilhelm M. Effects of Caffeine and Caffeinated Beverages in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: Short Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(23):12389. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312389

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soós, Rita, Ádám Gyebrovszki, Ákos Tóth, Sára Jeges, and Márta Wilhelm. 2021. "Effects of Caffeine and Caffeinated Beverages in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: Short Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 23: 12389. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312389

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop