Topic Editors

Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Sonora, Mexico
Dr. Janice Reis Ciacci-Zanella
EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation), Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia 89.715-899, SC, Brazil

Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 December 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (1 March 2023)
Viewed by
12303

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Zoonotic pathogens represent a severe threat to human health, and in there is a greater risk for humans to acquire emerging infectious diseases transmitted from wild and domesticated animals. Zoonotic pathogens include various viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. In addition, zoonotic pathogens have one or several reservoir hosts and other susceptible hosts. Pathogens can be transmitted to humans in both cases, including infected animals, ticks, mosquitoes, and aerosols. The human conquest of untouched areas of the native environment and globalization with the ability to travel and spread pathogens quickly are some reasons for the emergence of new zoonotic pathogens. Studying the immune response of zoonotic pathogens on their natural host, susceptible host, and other animal models can help us to understand the immunopathology and mechanisms involved in controlling these pathogens. This information can offer vital knowledge to design vaccines, treatments, or preventive immunotherapies that contain the effects of these zoonotic pathogens on humans. This Topic aims to publish high-quality papers on the immune response against zoonotic pathogens. Thus, we invite you to submit your recent findings to this Topic as original research or review articles and communication focusing on immunity and immunopathogenesis of zoonotic pathogens.

Dr. Jesús Hernández
Dr. Janice Reis Ciacci-Zanella
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • zoonosis
  • disease
  • antimicrobial
  • emerging zoonosis
  • viruses
  • bacterial
  • parasite
  • fungi
  • immunity
  • immunopathogenesis

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400
Microbiology Research
microbiolres
1.5 1.3 2010 16.6 Days CHF 1600
Parasitologia
parasitologia
- - 2021 19.8 Days CHF 1000
Pathogens
pathogens
3.7 5.1 2012 16.4 Days CHF 2700
Zoonotic Diseases
zoonoticdis
- - 2021 27.6 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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11 pages, 1176 KiB  
Article
Neutralizing Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral Strain and Omicron BA.1 Subvariant in Dogs and Cats in Mexico
by Freddy Dehesa-Canseco, Roxana Pastrana-Unzueta, Nadia Carrillo-Guzmán, Francisco Liljehult-Fuentes, Juan Diego Pérez-De la Rosa, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, Jose Guillermo Estrada-Franco, Roberto Navarro-López, Jesús Hernández and Mario Solís-Hernández
Pathogens 2023, 12(6), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12060835 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects humans; however, it is important to monitor the infection of companion and wild animals as possible reservoirs of this virus. In this sense, seroprevalence studies in companion animals, such as dogs and cats, provide important information about the epidemiology of [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects humans; however, it is important to monitor the infection of companion and wild animals as possible reservoirs of this virus. In this sense, seroprevalence studies in companion animals, such as dogs and cats, provide important information about the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the ancestral strain and the Omicron BA.1 subvariant in dogs and cats in Mexico. Six hundred and two samples were obtained from dogs (n = 574) and cats (n = 28). These samples were collected from the end of 2020 to December 2021 from different regions of Mexico. The presence of nAbs was evaluated using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and microneutralization (MN) assays. The results showed that 14.2% of cats and 1.5% of dogs presented nAbs against the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2. The analysis of nAbs against Omicron BA.1 in cats showed the same percentage of positive animals but a reduced titer. In dogs, 1.2% showed nAbs against Omicron BA.1. These results indicate that nAbs were more frequent in cats than in dogs and that these nAbs have a lower capacity to neutralize the subvariant Omicron BA.1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens)
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13 pages, 945 KiB  
Review
Immunopathological Mechanisms Underlying Cardiac Damage in Chagas Disease
by Mariana Citlalli De Alba-Alvarado, Elia Torres-Gutiérrez, Olivia Alicia Reynoso-Ducoing, Edgar Zenteno-Galindo, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo, Yolanda Guevara-Gómez, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Norma Rivera-Fernández and Martha Irene Bucio-Torres
Pathogens 2023, 12(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12020335 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
In Chagas disease, the mechanisms involved in cardiac damage are an active field of study. The factors underlying the evolution of lesions following infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and, in some cases, the persistence of its antigens and the host response, with the ensuing [...] Read more.
In Chagas disease, the mechanisms involved in cardiac damage are an active field of study. The factors underlying the evolution of lesions following infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and, in some cases, the persistence of its antigens and the host response, with the ensuing development of clinically observable cardiac damage, are analyzed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens)
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12 pages, 2585 KiB  
Article
Expression Profile of miRNA from High, Middle, and Low Stress-Responding Sheep during Bacterial Endotoxin Challenge
by Umesh K. Shandilya, Ankita Sharma, Danielle Naylor, Angela Canovas, Bonnie Mallard and Niel A. Karrow
Animals 2023, 13(3), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030508 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Animals respond to stress by activating a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses that are collectively referred to as the stress response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play key roles in the regulation of homeostasis. There are many reports demonstrating [...] Read more.
Animals respond to stress by activating a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses that are collectively referred to as the stress response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play key roles in the regulation of homeostasis. There are many reports demonstrating examples of stress-induced miRNA expression profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the circulatory miRNA profile of variable stress-responding lambs (n = 112) categorized based on their cortisol levels as high (HSR, 336.2 ± 27.9 nmol/L), middle (MSR, 147.3 ±9.5 nmol/L), and low (LSR, 32.1 ± 10.4 nmol/L) stress responders post-LPS challenge (400 ng/kg iv). Blood was collected from the jugular vein at 0 (T0) and 4 h (T4) post-LPS challenge, and miRNAs were isolated from four animals from each group. An array of 84 miRNAs and 6 individual miRNAs were evaluated using qPCR. Among 90 miRNAs, there were 48 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs (log fold change (FC) > 2 < log FC) in the HSR group, 46 in the MSR group, and 49 in the LSR group compared with T0 (control) samples. In the HSR group, three miRNAs, miR-485-5p, miR-1193-5p, and miR-3957-5p were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated, while seven miRNAs, miR-376b-3p, miR-376c-3p, miR-411b-5p, miR-376a-3p, miR-376b-3p, miR-376c-3p, and miR-381-3p, were downregulated (p < 0.05) as compared to the LSR and MSR groups. Functional analysis of DE miRNAs revealed their roles in Ras and MAPK signaling, cytokine signaling, the adaptive immune system, and transcription pathways in the HSR phenotype, implicating a hyper-induced acute-phase response. In contrast, in the LSR group, enriched pathways included glucagon signaling metabolic regulation, the transportation of amino acids and ions, and the integration of energy metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate variation in the acute-phase response to an immune stress challenge, and these miRNAs are implicated in regulating responses within cortisol-based phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens)
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16 pages, 515 KiB  
Review
Animal Models to Test SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Which Ones Are in Use and Future Expectations
by Gabrielle Gimenes Lima, Amanda Izeli Portilho and Elizabeth De Gaspari
Pathogens 2023, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12010020 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Since late 2019 and early 2020, with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists are rushing to develop treatment and prevention methods to combat SARS-CoV-2. Among these are vaccines. In view of this, the use of animals as experimental models, both to investigate [...] Read more.
Since late 2019 and early 2020, with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists are rushing to develop treatment and prevention methods to combat SARS-CoV-2. Among these are vaccines. In view of this, the use of animals as experimental models, both to investigate the immunopathology of the disease and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines, is mandatory. This work aims to describe, through recent scientific articles found in reliable databases, the animal models used for the in vivo testing of COVID-19 vaccines, demonstrating some possibilities of more advantageous/gold-standard models for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The majority of the studies use rodents and primates. Meanwhile, the most adequate model to be used as the gold standard for in vivo tests of COVID-19 vaccines is not yet conclusive. Promising options are being discussed as new tests are being carried out and new SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens)
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11 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dexamethasone on the Expression of the α2,3 and α2,6 Sialic Acids in Epithelial Cell Lines
by Onasis Vicente-Fermín, Edgar Zenteno, Ivan Ramos-Martínez, Clara Espitia, José Ivan Sánchez-Betancourt and Leonor Huerta
Pathogens 2022, 11(12), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11121518 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
N-acetylneuraminic acid linked to galactose by α2,6 and α2,3 linkages (Siaα2,6 and Siaα2,3) is expressed on glycoconjugates of animal tissues, where it performs multiple biological functions. In addition, these types of sialic acid residues are the main targets for the binding and [...] Read more.
N-acetylneuraminic acid linked to galactose by α2,6 and α2,3 linkages (Siaα2,6 and Siaα2,3) is expressed on glycoconjugates of animal tissues, where it performs multiple biological functions. In addition, these types of sialic acid residues are the main targets for the binding and entry of influenza viruses. Here we used fluorochrome-conjugated Sambuccus nigra, Maackia amurensis, and peanut lectins for the simultaneous detection of Siaα2,3 and Siaα2,6 and galactosyl residues by two-color flow cytometry on A549 cells, a human pneumocyte cell line used for in vitro studies of the infection by influenza viruses, as well as on Vero and MDCK cell lines. The dexamethasone (DEX) glucocorticoid (GC), a widely used anti-inflammatory compound, completely abrogated the expression of Siaα2,3 in A549 cells and decreased its expression in Vero and MDCK cells; in contrast, the expression of Siaα2,6 was increased in the three cell lines. These observations indicate that DEX can be used for the study of the mechanism of sialylation of cell membrane molecules. Importantly, DEX may change the tropism of avian and human/pig influenza viruses and other infectious agents to animal and human epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens)
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15 pages, 8013 KiB  
Article
Immunoprotective Analysis of the NFA49590 Protein from Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152 Demonstrates Its Potential as a Vaccine Candidate
by Lichao Han, Xingzhao Ji, Caixin Yang, Shuo Zhao, Shihong Fan, Lijun Zhao, Xiaotong Qiu, Jiang Yao, Xueping Liu, Fang Li and Zhenjun Li
Pathogens 2022, 11(12), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11121488 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Nocardia is emerging as a serious and easily neglected pathogen in clinical practice with multidrug resistance that extends the treatment period for months or even years. This has led to the investigation of a vaccine approach to prevent Nocardia infections. However, studies on [...] Read more.
Nocardia is emerging as a serious and easily neglected pathogen in clinical practice with multidrug resistance that extends the treatment period for months or even years. This has led to the investigation of a vaccine approach to prevent Nocardia infections. However, studies on the protective proteins of Nocardia have not yet been carried out. In the present work, over 500 proteins in the supernatant of N. farcinica IFM10152 were identified by LC–MS/MS. In silico analysis of these proteins with a high content (score > 2000) predicted that NFA49590 was one of the conserved proteins in N. farcinica strains with potential antigenicity. After the rNFA49590 protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli (DE3) and purified using a Ni-NTA column, its good antigenicity was confirmed with sera from mice immunized with different Nocardia species by Western blot. Then we confirmed its ability to activate innate immunity by examining the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and p65 and the cytokine levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10. Finally, we evaluated its immunoprotective effect in BALB/c mice, and we found that mice immunized with rNFA49590 protein exhibited high antibody titers, enhanced bacterial clearance ability, and generated robust protective effects from the N. farcinica challenge. These results offer strong support for the use of NFA49590 protein as a vaccine candidate and open the possibilities for the exploration of a large array of immunoprotective proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Immune Response to Zoonotic Pathogens)
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