Topic Editors

Dr. Susana Pascual
Entomology Group, Plant Protection Department, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA, CSIC), Carretera de La Coruña Km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Dr. Gloria Nombela
Department of Plant Protection Institute for Agricultural Sciences (ICA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Serrano 115 Dpdo., Madrid 28006, Spain
Dr. Francisco J. Beitia
Plant Protection and Biotechnology Centre, Valencian Institute of Agricultural Reseach (IVIA), Valencia, Spain

Integrated Pest Management of Crops

Abstract submission deadline
31 January 2023
Manuscript submission deadline
31 March 2023
Viewed by
9639

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agriculture is undergoing a continuous transformation, which in many countries is leading to an increase in the use of intensive practices in parallel to the abandonment of agriculture by small farmers. Pest control in this context refers to maintaining the dominance of conventional chemical control, despite its disadvantages for human and environmental health.

Integrated pest management (IPM), according to the IOBC’s (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control) definition, is a part of integrated production (IP), a concept of sustainable agriculture focusing on pests, pathogens and weeds based on agro-ecology that aims to contribute to sustainable, resilient, profitable and robust farming systems. IPM was first introduced more than 60 years ago; however, it has not been adopted at the expected pace. The implementation of IPM requires specialized personnel and is associated with a higher cost of labour than conventional control, although economically it is no less profitable and far more environmentally friendly. Therefore, in the current agricultural context, its adoption is urgently needed.

This Topic will publish papers covering any aspect of IPM in plant pathology, entomology and weed science, including the use of resistant varieties, cultural control, biological control, the development of economic thresholds and especially the use of innovative strategies in IPM. Research aiming to highlight the efficacy of IPM in practical case studies and those presenting the results of IPM programmes are especially welcomed.

Dr. Susana Pascual
Dr. Gloria Nombela
Dr. Francisco J. Beitia
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • agroecology
  • biological control
  • cultural control
  • landscape
  • monitoring
  • pathogen
  • pest
  • plant resistance
  • thresholds
  • weed

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.408 3.1 2011 19.8 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Agronomy
agronomy
3.949 3.9 2011 18.7 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Crops
crops
- - 2021 15.0 days * 1000 CHF Submit
Insects
insects
3.139 3.1 2010 16 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Plants
plants
4.658 3.6 2012 13.3 Days 2200 CHF Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2021.

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Article
Combined Effects of Soil Silicon and Host Plant Resistance on Planthoppers, Blast and Bacterial Blight in Tropical Rice
Insects 2022, 13(7), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070604 (registering DOI) - 01 Jul 2022
Abstract
Soil silicon enhances rice defenses against a range of biotic stresses. However, the magnitude of these effects can depend on the nature of the rice variety. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to examine the effects of silicon on planthoppers (Nilaparvata [...] Read more.
Soil silicon enhances rice defenses against a range of biotic stresses. However, the magnitude of these effects can depend on the nature of the rice variety. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to examine the effects of silicon on planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens [BPH] and Sogatella furcifera [WBPH]), a leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens [GLH]), blast disease (Magnaporthe grisea) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) in susceptible and resistant rice. We added powdered silica gel (SiO2) to paddy soil at equivalent to 0.25, 1.0, and 4.0 t ha−1. Added silicon reduced BPH nymph settling, but the effect was negligible under high nitrogen. In a choice experiment, BPH egg-laying was lower than untreated controls under all silicon treatments regardless of nitrogen or variety, whereas, in a no-choice experiment, silicon reduced egg-laying on the susceptible but not the resistant (BPH32 gene) variety. Stronger effects in choice experiments suggest that silicon mainly enhanced antixenosis defenses. We found no effects of silicon on WBPH or GLH. Silicon reduced blast damage to susceptible and resistant (Piz, Piz-5 and Pi9 genes) rice. Silicon reduced damage from a virulent strain of bacterial blight but had little effect on a less virulent strain in susceptible and resistant (Xa4, Xa7 and Xa4 + Xa7 genes) varieties. When combined with resistance, silicon had an additive effect in reducing biomass losses to plants infested with bacterial blight (resistance up to 50%; silicon 20%). We discuss how silicon-containing soil amendments can be combined with host resistance to reduce biotic stresses in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Evaluation of the Egg Predator Blattisocius tarsalis (Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) for the Biological Control of the Potato Tuber Moth Tecia solanivora under Storage Conditions
Agriculture 2022, 12(7), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070920 - 24 Jun 2022
Abstract
Tecia solanivora is the most prevalent pest causing damage to potato crops in fields in the Canary Islands, but even more so in the postharvest storage period. However, currently, there are no authorised chemical insecticides for potato storage facilities. Analysis of the viability [...] Read more.
Tecia solanivora is the most prevalent pest causing damage to potato crops in fields in the Canary Islands, but even more so in the postharvest storage period. However, currently, there are no authorised chemical insecticides for potato storage facilities. Analysis of the viability of the predator mite Blattisocius tarsalis as a biological control agent for this moth was carried out. A study of the temperature effect showed B. tarsalis maintains predatory capacity in the range of 10–27 °C. Though predatory activity increases with temperature, no differences in mortality rates were observed between 10 and 20 °C (33.52 ± 2.44 and 40.14 ± 3.54% efficacy rate, respectively), nor between 25 and 27 °C (59.26 ± 4.59 and 75.19 ± 4.64% efficacy rate, respectively). Under microcosm conditions, at low pest infestation (10 eggs), B. tarsalis achieved the highest mortality of eggs at a density of 5 mites, with an efficacy rate of 91.67 ± 8.33%. At high infestation levels (50 eggs), maximum mortality was achieved with a density of 10 mites and efficacy of 98.52 ± 1.48%. The choice-assay showed no preference of B. tarsalis between T. solanivora and Phthorimaea operculella, suggesting this mite could be useful in mixed infestations of potato moths. The results show B. tarsalis is a very good candidate as a control agent in storage conditions and even in mixed infestations of T. solanivora and P. operculella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Effect of Molasses Application Alone or Combined with Trichoderma asperellum T-34 on Meloidogyne spp. Management and Soil Microbial Activity in Organic Production Systems
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071508 - 23 Jun 2022
Abstract
The effect of molasses alone or combined with Trichoderma asperellum T34 Biocontrol® was assessed on Meloidogyne reproduction, disease severity, and density and activity of soil microorganisms in pot and field experiments. Firstly, molasses application at 1 mL m−2 was assessed in [...] Read more.
The effect of molasses alone or combined with Trichoderma asperellum T34 Biocontrol® was assessed on Meloidogyne reproduction, disease severity, and density and activity of soil microorganisms in pot and field experiments. Firstly, molasses application at 1 mL m−2 was assessed in four different textured soils. Secondly, molasses application at 5, 10, 20, and 40 mL m−2, alone or combined with T34, was assessed in pot and field experiments at 10 mL m−2 in two different textured soils. The application of 1 mL m−2 of molasses was effective in reducing nematode reproduction in the loam textured soil but not in sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or clay loam textured soils. Increasing molasses dosage reduced the tomato dry shoot and fresh root weights, producing phytotoxicity at 40 mL m−2. The disease severity and nematode reproduction were reduced between 23% and 65% and 49% and 99%, respectively. In the field experiment, molasses applied at 10 mL m−2 reduced the disease severity and the nematode reproduction in the loam textured soil. The soil microbial density and activity did not increase in sites where the nematode reproduction and the disease severity were reduced by molasses application, irrespective of T34. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Automatic Crop Pest Detection Oriented Multiscale Feature Fusion Approach
Insects 2022, 13(6), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060554 - 18 Jun 2022
Abstract
Specialized pest control for agriculture is a high-priority agricultural issue. There are multiple categories of tiny pests, which pose significant challenges to monitoring. Previous work mainly relied on manual monitoring of pests, which was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, deep-learning-based pest detection methods have [...] Read more.
Specialized pest control for agriculture is a high-priority agricultural issue. There are multiple categories of tiny pests, which pose significant challenges to monitoring. Previous work mainly relied on manual monitoring of pests, which was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, deep-learning-based pest detection methods have achieved remarkable improvements and can be used for automatic pest monitoring. However, there are two main obstacles in the task of pest detection. (1) Small pests often go undetected because much information is lost during the network training process. (2) The highly similar physical appearances of some categories of pests make it difficult to distinguish the specific categories for networks. To alleviate the above problems, we proposed the multi-category pest detection network (MCPD-net), which includes a multiscale feature pyramid network (MFPN) and a novel adaptive feature region proposal network (AFRPN). MFPN can fuse the pest information in multiscale features, which significantly improves detection accuracy. AFRPN solves the problem of anchor and feature misalignment during RPN iterating, especially for small pest objects. In extensive experiments on the multi-category pests dataset 2021 (MPD2021), the proposed method achieved 67.3% mean average precision (mAP) and 89.3% average recall (AR), outperforming other deep learning-based models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Biological Control Options for the Golden Twin-Spot Moth, Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Banana Crops of the Canary Islands
Insects 2022, 13(6), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060516 - 31 May 2022
Abstract
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a significant pest in banana plantations in the Canary Islands. Field surveys were carried out to identify its naturally occurring parasitoids and estimate their parasitism rates between September 2007 and October 2010. Ch. chalcites was parasitized by [...] Read more.
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a significant pest in banana plantations in the Canary Islands. Field surveys were carried out to identify its naturally occurring parasitoids and estimate their parasitism rates between September 2007 and October 2010. Ch. chalcites was parasitized by six different larval/pupal parasitoid species: Cotesia sp., C. glomerata L. (Hym.: Braconidae), Aplomyia confinis Fallén (Dip.: Tachinidae), Hyposoter rufiventris Perez, Ctenochares bicolorus L. (Hym.: Ichneumonidae) and Aleiodes sp. (Hym.: Braconidae). Among them, Cotesia sp. was the most frequent species, accounting for 8.18% of parasitized larvae. High levels of egg parasitism were detected, with Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) being the most widely distributed egg parasitoid. A greenhouse assay was also carried out on a commercial banana crop with the aim of evaluating the potential of T. achaeae as a biological control agent and compared with a chemical control. Five periodic inundative releases of 35 adults/m2 every 21 days were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (56.25 ± 1.61%). Moreover, there was 15.75% less foliar damage in the biological control plot compared to the chemical control plot. These results indicate that T. achaeae could be a promising biocontrol agent of Ch. chalcites in greenhouse banana crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides against Diadegma insulare, a Parasitoid of the Diamondback Moth
Insects 2022, 13(6), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060514 - 31 May 2022
Abstract
Plutella xylostella is the main pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. To reduce P. xylostella populations, better integration of natural control and chemical control (dominant tactic used) is needed. This work analyzed the compatibility of nine insecticides with the parasitoid Diadegma insulare, outlining [...] Read more.
Plutella xylostella is the main pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. To reduce P. xylostella populations, better integration of natural control and chemical control (dominant tactic used) is needed. This work analyzed the compatibility of nine insecticides with the parasitoid Diadegma insulare, outlining them as complementary tools in an integrated pest management strategy. The acute toxicity of spinosad, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, flonicamid, naled, pyridalyl, emamectin benzoate, and spinetoram against the parasitoid was assessed. Residual activity (persistence) was also evaluated over time; the mortality of the parasitoid in contact with leaf tissue of plants treated with insecticides was analyzed. According to the International Organization of Biological Control, all nine insecticides were toxic to D. insulare; the lowest mortality was recorded with spirotetramat (64%) and pyridalyl (48%), while the rest of the insecticides caused 100% mortality at 72 h after application. In terms of persistence, by days 14, 16, 16, 17, 17, 21, and 22 after application, flonicamid, naled, spirotetramat, spinosad, piridalyl, imidacloprid, and indoxacarb caused mortality of less than 25%, respectively, so they were considered harmless (Category 1). Nonetheless, some insecticide toxicity and residual activity must be regarded within integrated pest management programs for conserving the role of D. insulare field populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
TD-Det: A Tiny Size Dense Aphid Detection Network under In-Field Environment
Insects 2022, 13(6), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060501 - 26 May 2022
Abstract
It is well recognized that aphid infestation severely reduces crop yield and further leads to significant economic loss. Therefore, accurately and efficiently detecting aphids is of vital importance in pest management. However, most existing detection methods suffer from unsatisfactory performance without fully considering [...] Read more.
It is well recognized that aphid infestation severely reduces crop yield and further leads to significant economic loss. Therefore, accurately and efficiently detecting aphids is of vital importance in pest management. However, most existing detection methods suffer from unsatisfactory performance without fully considering the aphid characteristics, including tiny size, dense distribution, and multi-viewpoint data quality. In addition, existing clustered tiny-sized pest detection methods improve performance at the cost of time and do not meet the real-time requirements. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose a robust aphid detection method with two customized core designs: a Transformer feature pyramid network (T-FPN) and a multi-resolution training method (MTM). To be specific, the T-FPN is employed to improve the feature extraction capability by a feature-wise Transformer module (FTM) and a channel-wise feature recalibration module (CFRM), while the MTM aims at purifying the performance and lifting the efficiency simultaneously with a coarse-to-fine training pattern. To fully demonstrate the validity of our methods, abundant experiments are conducted on a densely clustered tiny pest dataset. Our method can achieve an average recall of 46.1% and an average precision of 74.2%, which outperforms other state-of-the-art methods, including ATSS, Cascade R-CNN, FCOS, FoveaBox, and CRA-Net. The efficiency comparison shows that our method can achieve the fastest training speed and obtain 0.045 s per image testing time, meeting the real-time detection. In general, our TD-Det can accurately and efficiently detect in-field aphids and lays a solid foundation for automated aphid detection and ranking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Review
Towards Predictions of Interaction Dynamics between Cereal Aphids and Their Natural Enemies: A Review
Insects 2022, 13(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050479 - 20 May 2022
Abstract
(1) Although most past studies are based on static analyses of the pest regulation drivers, evidence shows that a greater focus on the temporal dynamics of these interactions is urgently required to develop more efficient strategies. (2) Focusing on aphids, we systematically reviewed [...] Read more.
(1) Although most past studies are based on static analyses of the pest regulation drivers, evidence shows that a greater focus on the temporal dynamics of these interactions is urgently required to develop more efficient strategies. (2) Focusing on aphids, we systematically reviewed (i) empirical knowledge on the drivers influencing the dynamics of aphid–natural enemy interactions and (ii) models developed to simulate temporal or spatio-temporal aphid dynamics. (3) Reviewed studies mainly focus on the abundance dynamics of aphids and their natural enemies, and on aphid population growth rates. The dynamics of parasitism and predation are rarely measured empirically, although it is often represented in models. Temperature is mostly positively correlated with aphid population growth rates. Plant phenology and landscape effects are poorly represented in models. (4) We propose a research agenda to progress towards models and empirical knowledge usable to design effective CBC strategies. We claim that crossover works between empirical and modeling community will help design new empirical settings based on simulation results and build more accurate and robust models integrating more key drivers of aphid dynamics. Such models, turned into decision support systems, are urgently needed by farmers and advisors in order to design effective integrated pest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Review
Arthropod Pest Management in Strawberry
Insects 2022, 13(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050475 - 19 May 2022
Abstract
The strawberry crop endures economic losses due to feeding injury from a number of phytophagous arthropod pests. A number of invasive pests have posed challenges to crop protection techniques in the strawberry cropping system recently. It is increasingly evident that sole reliance on [...] Read more.
The strawberry crop endures economic losses due to feeding injury from a number of phytophagous arthropod pests. A number of invasive pests have posed challenges to crop protection techniques in the strawberry cropping system recently. It is increasingly evident that sole reliance on chemical control options is not sustainable. In this review, current challenges and advances in integrated pest management of various strawberry pests are presented. Key pests discussed include thrips, mites, lygus bug, spotted wing drosophila, seed bug, weevils, aphids, whiteflies, and armyworms. Several integrated pest management techniques that include use of intercropping, resistant cultivars, irradiation with gamma rays, use of spectral sensitivity of pests, biological control agents and natural enemies, and biorational pesticides have recently been reported to be useful in managing the various strawberry pests. With the increase in world production of strawberry, several techniques will be necessary to manage the pest complex of strawberry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
Article
Using Autumnal Trap Crops to Manage Tarnished Plant Bugs (Lygus lineolaris)
Insects 2022, 13(5), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050441 - 07 May 2022
Abstract
For insects, surviving winter depends on their capacity to store enough energy and find proper hibernation sites. A common strategy is to minimize movement and hibernate near autumn food sources. We investigated the efficiency of autumnal hosts to act as trap crops where [...] Read more.
For insects, surviving winter depends on their capacity to store enough energy and find proper hibernation sites. A common strategy is to minimize movement and hibernate near autumn food sources. We investigated the efficiency of autumnal hosts to act as trap crops where insects could be exposed to targeted repressive treatments. This approach could reduce the local populations of insect pests in the next production season, reducing the need for insecticides. First, we tested the mullein plant’s attractiveness as an autumn trap crop for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in strawberry fields by comparing peak population density among mullein (Verbascum thapsus), strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and mustard (Sinapis alba). Second, we tested four treatments applied to the autumn trap crops to reduce L. lineolaris winter survivorship: (1) hot water, (2) a pathogen (Beauveria bassiana), (3) insecticide (cypermethrin), and (4) a control. The density of the L. lineolaris population on mullein in autumn and on buckwheat in summer was higher than on strawberry and mustard. Of the overwintering L. lineolaris, 0% survived the winter when treated with the insecticide cypermethrin, while 38.3% survived in the control treatment (without repressive treatment). The B. bassiana and hot water treatments did not differ from the control. The mullein autumn trap crops combined with insecticide treatments could contribute to reducing the overwintering population, hence potentially reducing population during the following growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
The Insecticidal Efficacy and Physiological Action Mechanism of a Novel Agent GC16 against Tetranychus pueraricola (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Insects 2022, 13(5), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050433 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chemical control plays a crucial role in pest management but has to face challenges due to insect resistance. It is important to discover alternatives to traditional pesticides. The spider mite Tetranychus pueraricola (Ehara & Gotoh) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a major agricultural pest that [...] Read more.
Chemical control plays a crucial role in pest management but has to face challenges due to insect resistance. It is important to discover alternatives to traditional pesticides. The spider mite Tetranychus pueraricola (Ehara & Gotoh) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a major agricultural pest that causes severe damage to many crops. GC16 is a new agent that consists of a mixture of Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and lecithin. To explore the acaricidal effects and mode of action of GC16 against T. pueraricola, bioassays, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed. GC16 had lethal effects on the eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults of T. pueraricola, caused the mites to dehydrate and inactivate, and inhibited the development of eggs. GC16 displayed contact toxicity rather than stomach toxicity through the synergistic effects of CaCl2 with lecithin. Cryo-SEM analysis revealed that GC16 damaged T. pueraricola by disordering the array of the cuticle layer crest. Mitochondrial abnormalities were detected by TEM in mites treated by GC16. Overall, GC16 had the controlling efficacy on T. pueraricola by cuticle penetration and mitochondria dysfunction and had no effects on Picromerus lewisi and Harmonia axyridis, indicating that GC16 is likely a new eco-friendly acaricide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Development, Survival and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Fed an Artificial Diet or on Cotton, Castor Bean and Corn Leaves
Insects 2022, 13(5), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050428 - 04 May 2022
Abstract
The polyphagy of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) renders its control difficult because variations in the phenology of host plants grown in different seasons of the year and near each other can facilitate the movement of this pest between crops. The objective of this [...] Read more.
The polyphagy of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) renders its control difficult because variations in the phenology of host plants grown in different seasons of the year and near each other can facilitate the movement of this pest between crops. The objective of this work was to examine certain biological characteristics of S. frugiperda fed on an artificial diet or on cotton, castor bean, or corn leaves. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments represented by S. frugiperda caterpillars fed an artificial diet (T1) or pieces of cotton (T2), castor bean (T3) or corn (T4) leaves with five replications (five caterpillars per replication). The duration and survival of the egg, larva, pre-pupa, pupa and egg-adult period and the reproductive characteristics of this insect were determined. The survival, development and reproduction data of S. frugiperda originated from individuals reared with cotton and castor bean leaves were lower than those fed on corn leaves or an artificial diet. The number of nonviable eggs laid by females originated from caterpillars fed on castor bean leaves was higher than those fed on cotton and corn leaves or an artificial diet. The very higher number of unviable S. frugiperda eggs resulting from castor leaves can reduce outbreaks of this pest in cotton and corn crops after the cultivation of that plant, or by intercropping with this plant, in the main producing regions of Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Temperature Dependence for Survival, Development, and Reproduction of the Cactus Cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell)
Insects 2022, 13(5), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050426 - 30 Apr 2022
Abstract
The effect of temperature on Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) life cycle parameters was evaluated at 20, 23, 26, 32, and 40 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 12 L:8 D. Temperatures ranging from 26 °C to 32 °C were [...] Read more.
The effect of temperature on Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) life cycle parameters was evaluated at 20, 23, 26, 32, and 40 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 12 L:8 D. Temperatures ranging from 26 °C to 32 °C were suitable for survival, development, and reproduction of D. opuntiae. The total developmental time of females ranged from 94.23 d (20 °C) to 43.55 d (40 °C). The average development time of males from egg to death ranged from 26.97 days at 32 °C to 50.75 days at 20 °C. The probability that a newly laid egg would survive to the adult stage was highest at 26 °C and 32 °C (44–60%). The parthenogenesis in females was not observed during our study. The longest oviposition period was observed when the cochineal was reared at 32 °C (17.97 days), and the highest fecundity was observed at 32 °C (355.29 egg/female). The highest proportion of females (0.80) was observed at 40 °C. According to the age-stage-two-sex life table, the highest value of the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was recorded at 32 °C. The lower developmental thresholds for the total pre-adult female and male and adult female and male stages, were 10.15, 12.21, 10.54, and 21.04 °C, respectively. Dactylopius opuntiae females needed a higher thermal constant (769.23 D°) than males (357.14 D°) to achieve their development and reach the mature adult stage. These findings will be useful for the development of an integrated pest management strategy for D. opuntiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Musa Germplasm A and B Genomic Composition Differentially Affects Their Susceptibility to Banana Bunchy Top Virus and Its Aphid Vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091206 - 29 Apr 2022
Abstract
Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus), is the most destructive viral disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The virus is transmitted persistently by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae). [...] Read more.
Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus), is the most destructive viral disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The virus is transmitted persistently by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae). While research efforts have focused on screening Musa genotypes for BBTD resistance, comparatively little work has been carried out to identify resistance to banana aphids. This study assessed 44 Musa germplasm of different A and B genome composition for the performance of banana aphids under semicontrolled environmental screenhouse conditions and in a field trial established in a BBTD endemic location. In the screenhouse, the AA diploid Calcutta 4 had the lowest apterous aphid density per plant (9.7 ± 4.6) compared with AAB triploid Waema, which had the highest aphid densities (395.6 ± 20.8). In the field, the highest apterous aphid density per plant (29.2 ± 6.7) occurred on the AAB triploid Batard and the lowest (0.4 ± 0.2) on the AA diploid Pisang Tongat. The AA diploid Tapo was highly susceptible to BBTD (100% infection) compared with the genotypes Balonkawe (ABB), PITA 21 (AAB), Calcutta 4 (AA), and Balbisiana Los Banos (BB), which remained uninfected. The Musa genotypes with apparent resistance to BBTD and least susceptibility to aphid population growth provide options for considering aphid and BBTD resistance in banana and plantain breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Review
History of Herbicide-Resistant Traits in Cotton in the U.S. and the Importance of Integrated Weed Management for Technology Stewardship
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091189 - 28 Apr 2022
Abstract
This paper reviews the history of herbicide-resistant (HR) traits in U.S. cotton since the beginning, highlighting the shortcomings of each trait over time that has led to the development of their successor and emphasizing the importance of integrated weed management (IWM) going forward [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the history of herbicide-resistant (HR) traits in U.S. cotton since the beginning, highlighting the shortcomings of each trait over time that has led to the development of their successor and emphasizing the importance of integrated weed management (IWM) going forward to ensure their long-term sustainability. Introduction of glyphosate-resistant cropping systems has allowed for expansion of no-till systems more reliant on herbicides, favored less diverse crop rotations, and heavily relied on a single herbicide mode of action (MOA). With repeated applications of glyphosate over the years, biotypes of glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. palmeri and other weeds became economically damaging pests in cotton production systems throughout the U.S. Moreover, the reported cases of weeds resistant to different MOA across various parts of the United States has increased. The dicamba- (XtendFlex®) and 2,4-D-resistant (Enlist®) cotton traits (with stacks of glyphosate and glufosinate resistance) were introduced and have been highly adopted in the U.S. to manage HR weeds. Given the current rate of novel herbicide MOA discovery and increase in new HR weed cases, the future of sustainable weed management relies on an integrated approach that includes non-herbicidal methods with herbicides to ensure long-term success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Feeding dsSerpin1 Enhanced Metarhizium anisopliae Insecticidal Efficiency against Locusta migratoria manilensis
Agriculture 2022, 12(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12040538 - 09 Apr 2022
Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) induces gene silencing in order to participate in immune-related pathways. Previous studies have shown that the LmSerpin1 gene upregulates the immune responses of Locusta migratoria manilensis, and that the infection of locusts with Metarhizium anisopliae can be enhanced through [...] Read more.
RNA interference (RNAi) induces gene silencing in order to participate in immune-related pathways. Previous studies have shown that the LmSerpin1 gene upregulates the immune responses of Locusta migratoria manilensis, and that the infection of locusts with Metarhizium anisopliae can be enhanced through the injection of the interfering dsSerpin1. In this study, dsRNA was synthesized from the Serpin1 gene and fed to the third instars of L. m. manilensis at concentrations of 5 μg, 10 μg, and 20 μg. Feeding dsSerpin1 increased the mortality of L. m. manilensis, and 20 μg dsSerpin1 had the highest lethality, followed by 10 μg dsSerpin1, with the lowest being observed at 5 μg dsSerpin1. Serpin1 silencing and temperature fever induction by feeding with dsSerpin1 had a strong synergistic effect on M. anisopliae, showing a dose-dependent response. When L. m. manilensis were fed on a diet containing 20 μg dsRNA and M. anisopliae (2.5 × 108 spores/g wheat bran), 3-day mortalities significantly increased. The dsSerpin1 plus M. anisopliae treatments resulted in a 6-day mortality of 60%, accelerating insect death. These results indicated that feeding with dsSerpin1 could be an effective way to control pests and that the control effect and dsRNA concentration were dose-dependent within the first seven days. In particular, 20 μg was an effective dosage to enhance the insecticidal efficiency of M. anisopliae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Fitness and Resistance Stability to Diamide and Pyrethroid Insecticides in the United States
Insects 2022, 13(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040365 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the United States, beet armyworm resistance to both chlorantraniliprole and bifenthrin insecticides was first reported in 2020. Here we examined beet armyworm fitness and stability of resistance to chlorantraniliprole and pyrethroid insecticides since knowledge of the stability of resistance is a crucial [...] Read more.
In the United States, beet armyworm resistance to both chlorantraniliprole and bifenthrin insecticides was first reported in 2020. Here we examined beet armyworm fitness and stability of resistance to chlorantraniliprole and pyrethroid insecticides since knowledge of the stability of resistance is a crucial aspect when recommending rotation of insecticides with different mode of action. Concentration-mortality bioassays were performed with field and laboratory susceptible populations. The F2, F13, and F27 generations of the field-derived population, maintained in the laboratory without insecticide, were exposed to commercial formulations of bifenthrin and chlorantraniliprole using the leaf-dip bioassay method (IRAC n. 007). Insects from F27 had the fitness components (survival, body weight, development time) documented and compared by LSM in each insecticide concentration tested. The resistance ratio to chlorantraniliprole reached 629, 80, 15-fold at F2, F13, and F27, respectively. These results contrast with an over 1000-fold resistance ratio to bifenthrin in all generations. The field-derived population had fitness reduced by chlorantraniliprole, but not by bifenthrin. In summary, the resistance of beet armyworm to bifenthrin was stable with no shift in fitness. In contrast, resistance to chlorantraniliprole was not stable through the generations kept in the laboratory without selection pressure, likely due to fitness cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Toxicity and Control Efficacy of an Organosilicone to the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae and Its Crop Hosts
Insects 2022, 13(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040341 - 30 Mar 2022
Abstract
Organosilicone molecules represent important components of surfactants added to pesticides to improve pest control efficiency, but these molecules also have pesticidal properties in their own right. Here, we examined toxicity and control efficacy of Silwet 408, a trisiloxane ethoxylate-based surfactant, to the two-spotted [...] Read more.
Organosilicone molecules represent important components of surfactants added to pesticides to improve pest control efficiency, but these molecules also have pesticidal properties in their own right. Here, we examined toxicity and control efficacy of Silwet 408, a trisiloxane ethoxylate-based surfactant, to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae and its crop hosts. Silwet 408 was toxic to nymphs and adults of TSSM but did not affect eggs. Field trials showed that the control efficacy of 1000 mg/L Silwet 408 aqueous solution reached 96% one day after spraying but declined to 54% 14 days after spraying, comparable to 100 mg/L cyetpyrafen, a novel acaricide. A second spraying of 1000 mg/L Silwet 408 maintained control efficacy at 97% when measured 14 days after spraying. However, Silwet 408 was phytotoxic to eggplant, kidney bean, cucumber, and strawberry plants, although phytotoxicity to strawberry plants was relatively low and declined further seven days after application. Our study showed that while the organosilicone surfactant Silwet 408 could be used to control the TSSM, its phytotoxicity to crops should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Evaluation of the egg predator Blattisocius tarsalis (Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) for the biological control of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora under storage conditions
Authors: Jorge Gavara Vidal; Tomás Cabello; Juan Ramón Gallego; Estrella Hernández Suarez; Ana Piedra-Buena Díaz
Affiliation: Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias (ICIA), Tenerife, Islas Canarias (España)

Title: Biological control possibilities for the golden twin-spot moth, Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in banana crops of the Canary Islands
Authors: Modesto del Pino; Tomás Cabello; Estrella Hernández-Suárez
Affiliation: Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias (ICIA), Tenerife, Islas Canarias (España)

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