Topic Editors

Entomology Group, Plant Protection Department, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA, CSIC), Carretera de La Coruña Km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Plant Protection Institute for Agricultural Sciences (ICA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid, Spain
IVIA-Centre of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, 46113 Moncada, Spain

Integrated Pest Management of Crops

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Viewed by
148242

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agriculture is undergoing a continuous transformation, which in many countries is leading to an increase in the use of intensive practices in parallel to the abandonment of agriculture by small farmers. Pest control in this context refers to maintaining the dominance of conventional chemical control, despite its disadvantages for human and environmental health.

Integrated pest management (IPM), according to the IOBC’s (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control) definition, is a part of integrated production (IP), a concept of sustainable agriculture focusing on pests, pathogens and weeds based on agro-ecology that aims to contribute to sustainable, resilient, profitable and robust farming systems. IPM was first introduced more than 60 years ago; however, it has not been adopted at the expected pace. The implementation of IPM requires specialized personnel and is associated with a higher cost of labour than conventional control, although economically it is no less profitable and far more environmentally friendly. Therefore, in the current agricultural context, its adoption is urgently needed.

This Topic will publish papers covering any aspect of IPM in plant pathology, entomology and weed science, including the use of resistant varieties, cultural control, biological control, the development of economic thresholds and especially the use of innovative strategies in IPM. Research aiming to highlight the efficacy of IPM in practical case studies and those presenting the results of IPM programmes are especially welcomed.

Dr. Susana Pascual
Dr. Gloria Nombela
Dr. Francisco J. Beitia
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • agroecology
  • biological control
  • cultural control
  • landscape
  • monitoring
  • pathogen
  • pest
  • plant resistance
  • thresholds
  • weed

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.3 4.9 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Agronomy
agronomy
3.3 6.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Crops
crops
- - 2021 30.5 Days CHF 1000
Insects
insects
2.7 5.1 2010 17 Days CHF 2600
Plants
plants
4.0 6.5 2012 15.3 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (54 papers)

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12 pages, 4428 KiB  
Article
Precision and Accuracy of Field Versus Laboratory Bioassay Insecticide Efficacy for the Control of Immature Bemisia tabaci
by Paulo S. G. Cremonez, Jermaine D. Perier, Mirela M. Nagaoka, Alvin M. Simmons and David G. Riley
Insects 2023, 14(7), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070645 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Ecotoxicological studies often result in reports on the limitation and sometime failures of biological assay data to predict field response to similar treatments. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that controlled bioassays can better quantify the specific mortality response of a target pest species [...] Read more.
Ecotoxicological studies often result in reports on the limitation and sometime failures of biological assay data to predict field response to similar treatments. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that controlled bioassays can better quantify the specific mortality response of a target pest species to a specific toxin. To quantify the relationship between whitefly bioassay and field response data, we evaluated a controlled laboratory bioassay and a concurrent cucurbit field trial method to assess insecticide efficacy for controlling the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This was based on oviposition and nymphal development. We specifically tested the assumptions that a maximum dose bioassay would more precisely measure insecticide efficacy as compared with a comparable field spray test evaluation, and the response would be equal between the bioassay and the field as a measure of control accuracy for both adult oviposition and development of nymphal stages. To make a direct comparison, we tested the same whitefly population subsamples from 352 plots in eight cucurbit field experiments in Georgia, USA, in 2021 and 2022. The bioassays provide significantly precision for estimating proportional whitefly response. As expected, treatment-specific nonequivalence in immature whitefly counts between the bioassay and field, i.e., a lack of accuracy, only occurred with insecticides that were not highly toxic to all growth stages of whiteflies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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14 pages, 1718 KiB  
Article
Bioclimatic and Landscape Factors drive the Potential Distribution of Philaenus spumarius, Neophilaenus campestris and N. lineatus (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) in Southeastern Iberian Peninsula
by Diego Gallego, Sandra Carol Sabah, José Luísis Lencina and Antonio Félix Carrillo
Insects 2023, 14(7), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070592 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Philaenus spumarius and Neophilaenus campestris are the main vectors of the invasive bacteria Xylella fastidiosa and key threats to European plant health. Previous studies of the potential distribution of P. spumarius reveal that climatic factors are the main drivers of its distribution on [...] Read more.
Philaenus spumarius and Neophilaenus campestris are the main vectors of the invasive bacteria Xylella fastidiosa and key threats to European plant health. Previous studies of the potential distribution of P. spumarius reveal that climatic factors are the main drivers of its distribution on the Mediterranean Basin scale. Other local studies reveal that the landscape could also have a role in the distribution of both species of P. spumarius and N. campestris. Our work is aimed at understanding the role and importance of bioclimatic and landscape environmental factors in the distributions of the vector and potential vector species P. spumarius, N. campestris, N. lineatus and L. coleoptrata on a regional scale across the Autonomous Community of Murcia (SE Spain), a region with relevant environmental gradients of thermality and crop intensity. We used sweeping nets for sampling 100 points during eight months in 2020. Using bioclimatic landscape composition and topographical variables, we carried out habitat suitability models for each species using the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt). Distribution results for P. spumarius, N. campestris and N. lineatus indicate a gradient in habitat suitability, with the optimum in the coldest and wettest areas in landscapes with a high proportion of forest. All three species are absent from the southern third of the study region, the hottest, driest and most intensively cultivated area. These results are useful and should be considered in contingency plans against possible invasions of X. fastidiosa in Mediterranean regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 6674 KiB  
Article
Rapid Assessment of Insect Pest Outbreak Using Drones: A Case Study with Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Soybean Fields
by Yong-Lak Park, Kushal Naharki, Roghaiyeh Karimzadeh, Bo Yoon Seo and Gwan-Seok Lee
Insects 2023, 14(6), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14060555 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Rapid assessment of crop damage is essential for successful management of insect pest outbreaks. In this study, we investigated the use of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and image analyses to assess an outbreak of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), [...] Read more.
Rapid assessment of crop damage is essential for successful management of insect pest outbreaks. In this study, we investigated the use of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and image analyses to assess an outbreak of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that occurred in soybean fields in South Korea. A rotary-wing UAS was deployed to obtain a series of aerial images over 31 soybean blocks. The images were stitched together to generate composite imagery, followed by image analyses to quantify soybean defoliation. An economic analysis was conducted to compare the cost of the aerial survey with that of a conventional ground survey. The results showed that the aerial survey precisely estimated the defoliation compared to the ground survey, with an estimated defoliation of 78.3% and a range of 22.4–99.8% in the 31 blocks. Moreover, the aerial survey followed by image analyses was found to be more economical than the conventional ground survey when the number of target soybean blocks subject to the survey was more than 15 blocks. Our study clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of using an autonomous UAS and image analysis to conduct a low-cost aerial survey of soybean damage caused by S. exigua outbreaks, which can inform decision-making for S. exigua management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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12 pages, 2207 KiB  
Article
Determining Field Insecticide Efficacy on Whiteflies with Maximum Dose Bioassays
by Paulo S. G. Cremonez, Jermaine D. Perier, Alvin M. Simmons and David G. Riley
Insects 2023, 14(6), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14060510 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
We conducted a rapid bioassay method to assess insecticide efficacy for controlling adult sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in squash and cucumber crops before insecticide applications. The study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a 24-hour laboratory bioassay in determining maximum dose insecticide efficacy [...] Read more.
We conducted a rapid bioassay method to assess insecticide efficacy for controlling adult sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in squash and cucumber crops before insecticide applications. The study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a 24-hour laboratory bioassay in determining maximum dose insecticide efficacy in the field. Ten insecticides were evaluated using leaf-dip bioassays, and their effectiveness was tested across eight cucurbit field experiments in Georgia, USA, during the 2021 and 2022 field seasons. The maximum dose, defined as the highest labeled rate of an insecticide diluted in the equivalent of 935 L ha−1 of water, was used for all bioassays. Adult survival observed in the bioassay was compared to adult field count-based survival 24 h after treatment. A low concentration (1/10 rate) was used for imidacloprid, flupyradifurone, pyriproxyfen, and cyantraniliprole to assess insecticide tolerance in the whitefly population. Overall, significant positive correlation between laboratory bioassay and field efficacy was reported, explaining 50–91% of the observed variation. The addition of the low dosage was helpful, indicating that no rate response was consistent with susceptibility to the tested insecticide, while a rate response was associated with a loss of susceptibility between 2021 and 2022. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 1449 KiB  
Article
Trade-Offs between Temperature and Fitness in Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): Implications for Mass Rearing and Field Management
by Ana Paula Frugeri Barrufaldi, Rafael Hayashida, William Wyatt Hoback, Leon G. Higley, Jose Romario de Carvalho and Regiane Cristina de Oliveira
Insects 2023, 14(5), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14050448 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the most abundant soybean stink bug pests in Brazil. Temperature is a key factor that affects its development and reproduction, and fluctuating temperatures may impact the development and reproduction of [...] Read more.
The brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the most abundant soybean stink bug pests in Brazil. Temperature is a key factor that affects its development and reproduction, and fluctuating temperatures may impact the development and reproduction of E. heros differently from those under constant temperatures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of constant and fluctuating temperature on the biological characteristics of E. heros in three successive generations. Treatments consisted of six constant temperatures (19 °C, 22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C, 31 °C and 34 °C) and four fluctuating temperatures (25:21 °C, 28:24 °C, 31:27 °C, and 34:30 °C) evaluated for three successive generations. Second-stage nymphs were evaluated daily, and after they reached the adult stage, they were separated by sex, and the individual weight (mg) and pronotum size (mm) were recorded. After pair formation, eggs were collected to evaluate the pre-oviposition period, total number of eggs, and egg viability. The duration of the nymphal stage was reduced with an increase in both constant and fluctuating temperatures; however, at constant temperatures of 19 °C, 31 °C and 34 °C and fluctuating temperatures of 28:24 °C, there was no reproduction in adults. The base temperature and total degree day requirement for nymphal development were 15.5 °C and 197.4 dd, respectively. Pre-oviposition period (d), number of eggs per female, and viability of eggs (%) were affected by temperature across the generations. The multiple decrement life table analysis revealed that mortality was highest during the molting of the second-stage nymphs. These findings have important implications for E. heros’ laboratory mass-rearing programs and for its management in fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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16 pages, 5037 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effect and Control Efficacy of Picoxystrobin against Neopestalotiopsis clavispora, Causing Vine Tea Leaf Blight
by Zehua Zhou, Yicai Wang, Yabing Duan, Yannan He, Shuang Liu, Yan Chen, Wucheng Deng, Chunping Li, Weijun Hu, Youjun Gu, Yuhui Tang and Tuyong Yi
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051340 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) is a traditional herb widely consumed in southwestern China that possesses paramount potential for human health. In 2021, the outbreak of typical leaf blight disease was observed in almost all vine tea plantations in Zhangjiajie of Hunan [...] Read more.
Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) is a traditional herb widely consumed in southwestern China that possesses paramount potential for human health. In 2021, the outbreak of typical leaf blight disease was observed in almost all vine tea plantations in Zhangjiajie of Hunan province, resulting in significant economic losses of vine tea production. In this study, we identified Neopestalotiopsis clavispora as the causal agent of vine tea leaf blight via its morphological characteristics and molecular identification. The sensitivity distribution of N. clavispora isolates to picoxystrobin were determined based on mycelial growth and spore germination inhibition assays. The EC50 values for mycelial growth ranged from 0.0062 to 0.0658 µg/mL, with a mean of 0.0282 ± 0.0148 µg/mL. The EC50 values for spore germination ranged from 0.0014 to 0.0099 µg/mL, and the mean value was 0.0048 ± 0.0022 µg/mL. Picoxystrobin increased fungal cell membrane permeability, but inhibited fungal ATP biosynthesis. Moreover, picoxystrobin exhibited good in planta control efficacy on vine tea leaves. Three picoxystrobin-resistant mutants were obtained in the current study, but no mutations were detected in the N. clavispora Cytb gene. Competitive ability assays showed that the conidium production and pathogenicity of all picoxystrobin-resistant mutants decreased as compared to their progenitors, indicating that picoxystrobin-resistant mutants suffer fitness penalty. These findings provide important evidence for picoxystrobin in vine tea leaf blight management and increase understanding of the resistance mechanism of picoxystrobin against N. clavispora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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14 pages, 1862 KiB  
Article
Study on Screening and Degradation Effect of Autotoxin-Degrading Bacteria in Muskmelon
by Shuangshuang Tang, Zhaoran Zhang, Xiaodi Liu and Zenggui Gao
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051334 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
The autotoxins of muskmelon are one of the most important reasons for the continuous cropping obstacle of muskmelon, of which the main components are phenolic acids. Phenolic acids can inhibit the growth and development of muskmelon plants. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
The autotoxins of muskmelon are one of the most important reasons for the continuous cropping obstacle of muskmelon, of which the main components are phenolic acids. Phenolic acids can inhibit the growth and development of muskmelon plants. The purpose of this study was to screen the strains that can degrade phenolic acids in soil. Using phenolic acids as the sole carbon source, the strains were isolated and screened by the dilution plate method, which could efficiently degrade various phenolic acids. The abilities of the strains to degrade phenolic acids were measured by HPLC, and the effects of degrading phenolic acids in soil were verified by a pot experiment. After identification, strain T58 was identified as Burkholderia sp., strain T79 was identified as Burkholderia sp., strain H16 was identified as Pseudomonas sp., and strain T15 was identified as Burkholderia sp. The results showed that, after 21 days of culture, the degradation rates of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillin and sinapic acid by strain H16, strain T79, strain T15 and strain T58 were 100%, respectively. Additionally, the degradation rates of gallic acid by the four strains were also 100%. In this study, it was found that the four strains of autotoxin-degrading bacteria had good degradation effects on various phenolic acids, which could not only alleviate the toxic effects of phenolic acids on muskmelon, but also promote the growth of muskmelon seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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17 pages, 2216 KiB  
Review
Review of the Genesis of Plant Pathology and Its Relation to the Phytiatry as a Necessary Element in the Sustainable Development of Agronomy
by José Del Moral de la Vega and Jerónimo Del Moral Martínez
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051285 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
The origin of plant pathology as a scientific discipline can be traced back to botany in the 18th century. In the following century, with the contributions of De Bary and Kühn, this discipline was able to identify the causes of diseases, learn about [...] Read more.
The origin of plant pathology as a scientific discipline can be traced back to botany in the 18th century. In the following century, with the contributions of De Bary and Kühn, this discipline was able to identify the causes of diseases, learn about their development, and propose therapeutic measures, which is why these two researchers are considered to be the fathers of plant pathology. This account of its genesis is the one that appears in the histories currently published about it, but the discoveries of other authors who participated in its origin, whose work had not been taken into account, modify their knowledge. Among these authors are De Candolle and Blanco Fernández. The establishment of plant pathology, with a generalist, multidisciplinary, and integrative sense, as an academic discipline in the nineteenth century, disappeared together with some of the historical figures responsible for it, when other disciplines were born from it, and yet it is coincident with the current concept of phytiatry of the twenty-first century. The power to re-establish the characters and facts responsible for this historical moment allows us to review the current concept of phytiatry so that it fits with the greatest possible precision as a necessary tool for the sustainable development of agronomy as well as food security and is established as an indispensable part of a single global health concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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12 pages, 1221 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Ethanedinitrile as a Potential Fumigant against Plasmodiophora brassicae, the Clubroot Pathogen
by Usha Rani Patar, Marie Manasova, Jonas Hnatek, Jana Wenzlova and Miloslav Zouhar
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13041177 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, is one of the most challenging diseases to control in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crucifers globally. Ethanedinitrile (EDN) is a promising fumigant shown to be effective against various pests and soil-borne pathogens. However, [...] Read more.
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, is one of the most challenging diseases to control in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crucifers globally. Ethanedinitrile (EDN) is a promising fumigant shown to be effective against various pests and soil-borne pathogens. However, its efficacy against P. brassicae is yet to be tested. Therefore, the current study is focused on evaluating the effectiveness of EDN against P. brassicae at different rates, applied for different durations of exposure. Clubroot-susceptible oilseed rape plants, grown in fumigated soil, were evaluated for disease severity and growth parameters in greenhouse conditions. EDN exhibited good efficacy against the pathogen, with 81.39% disease suppression compared to the control. Complete control of the disease was achieved at the rates of 42 g/m3 and 50 g/m3 as well as in the treatment variant of 35 g/m3-48 h. In addition, EDN improved plant health by increasing shoot weight by 58.24%. However, the combination of a prolonged fumigation period and higher rates resulted in a decline in the seedling emergence rate and plant shoot weight, indicating a potential adverse residual effect of higher rates and longer durations of exposure in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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13 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
Oviposition Preference of the American Hoverfly, Eupeodes americanus, between Banker Plants and Target Crops
by Noémie Gonzalez, Arlette Fauteux, Jean-Christophe Louis, Rosemarije Buitenhuis and Eric Lucas
Insects 2023, 14(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030295 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Assessing the oviposition preferences of predatory hoverflies is a key factor in the prediction of the success of these biological control agents against aphids in greenhouses, especially when using banker plant systems or in mixed-crop contexts. In this study, two aspects of the [...] Read more.
Assessing the oviposition preferences of predatory hoverflies is a key factor in the prediction of the success of these biological control agents against aphids in greenhouses, especially when using banker plant systems or in mixed-crop contexts. In this study, two aspects of the oviposition preferences of the American hoverfly, Eupeodes americanus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Syrphidae), were evaluated. Firstly, the preference between the banker plant and the target crop was evaluated for three banker plant species (barley, finger millet, or corn) and two target crops (cucumber or pepper). Secondly, the preference between the same two target crops was assessed. Female oviposition preferences were evaluated via two-choice experiments using different plant/aphid systems. The results showed that, for the cucumber crops, the species of banker plant used drastically influenced the oviposition preference of the hoverfly, with a preference for barley over cucumber, cucumber over finger millet, and no preference between corn and cucumber. Unlike cucumber, when used with pepper, barley engendered a preference for the target crop. We conclude that the barley banker plant could be adequate for aphid control in pepper but not in cucumber crops. In a mixed-crop context, the American hoverfly had no preference between cucumber and pepper, which means it has the potential to protect both crops in a mixed-crop greenhouse context. This study shows that the banker plant system should be carefully chosen according to the crops/aphids present in the greenhouse to optimize the impact of the hoverfly as a biocontrol agent. Further work is required to confirm this choice of banker plant in semifield or field testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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17 pages, 11642 KiB  
Article
Detection of Rice Pests Based on Self-Attention Mechanism and Multi-Scale Feature Fusion
by Yuqi Hu, Xiaoling Deng, Yubin Lan, Xin Chen, Yongbing Long and Cunjia Liu
Insects 2023, 14(3), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030280 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5770
Abstract
In recent years, the occurrence of rice pests has been increasing, which has greatly affected the yield of rice in many parts of the world. The prevention and cure of rice pests is urgent. Aiming at the problems of the small appearance difference [...] Read more.
In recent years, the occurrence of rice pests has been increasing, which has greatly affected the yield of rice in many parts of the world. The prevention and cure of rice pests is urgent. Aiming at the problems of the small appearance difference and large size change of various pests, a deep neural network named YOLO-GBS is proposed in this paper for detecting and classifying pests from digital images. Based on YOLOv5s, one more detection head is added to expand the detection scale range, the global context (GC) attention mechanism is integrated to find targets in complex backgrounds, PANet is replaced by BiFPN network to improve the feature fusion effect, and Swin Transformer is introduced to take full advantage of the self-attention mechanism of global contextual information. Results from experiments on our insect dataset containing Crambidae, Noctuidae, Ephydridae, and Delphacidae showed that the average mAP of the proposed model is up to 79.8%, which is 5.4% higher than that of YOLOv5s, and the detection effect of various complex scenes is significantly improved. In addition, the paper analyzes and discusses the generalization ability of YOLO-GBS model on a larger-scale pest data set. This research provides a more accurate and efficient intelligent detection method for rice pests and others crop pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Orientus ishidae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): Biology, Direct Damage and Preliminary Studies on Apple Proliferation Infection in Apple Orchard
by Giovanni Dalmaso, Claudio Ioriatti, Valeria Gualandri, Livia Zapponi, Valerio Mazzoni, Nicola Mori and Mario Baldessari
Insects 2023, 14(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030246 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
The mosaic leafhopper, Orientus ishidae (Matsumura), is an Asian species widespread in Europe that can cause leaf damage in wild trees and transmit disease phytoplasmas to grapevines. Following an O. ishidae outbreak reported in 2019 in an apple orchard in northern Italy, the [...] Read more.
The mosaic leafhopper, Orientus ishidae (Matsumura), is an Asian species widespread in Europe that can cause leaf damage in wild trees and transmit disease phytoplasmas to grapevines. Following an O. ishidae outbreak reported in 2019 in an apple orchard in northern Italy, the biology and damage caused by this species to apples were investigated during 2020 and 2021. Our studies included observations on the O. ishidae life cycle, leaf symptoms associated to its trophic activity, and its capability to acquire “Candidatus Phytoplasma mali,” a causal agent of Apple Proliferation (AP). The results indicate that O. ishidae can complete the life cycle on apple trees. Nymphs emerged between May and June, and adults were present from early July to late October, with the peak of flight between July and early August. Semi-field observations allowed for an accurate description of leaf symptoms that appeared as a distinct yellowing after a one-day exposure. In field experiments, 23% of the leaves were found damaged. In addition, 16–18% of the collected leafhoppers were found carrying AP phytoplasma. We conclude that O. ishidae has the potential to be a new apple tree pest. However, further studies are required to better understand the economic impact of the infestations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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13 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Within-Plant and Within-Field Distribution Patterns of Asian Bean Thrips and Melon Thrips in Snap Bean
by Rosan Adhikari, Dakshina R. Seal, Bruce Schaffer, Oscar E. Liburd and Rafia A. Khan
Insects 2023, 14(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14020175 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Asian bean thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus Bagnall, are a serious pest of vegetable crops, especially leguminous crops, across the Asian continent. In Florida, it is a new invasive pest of snap beans. In 2019, it was recorded for the first time in the United [...] Read more.
Asian bean thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus Bagnall, are a serious pest of vegetable crops, especially leguminous crops, across the Asian continent. In Florida, it is a new invasive pest of snap beans. In 2019, it was recorded for the first time in the United States in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) fields. Another thrips species, melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, is also a serious pest that affects several vegetable crops. Within-plant and within-field distribution patterns of M. usitatus and T. palmi were determined in snap bean fields in southern Florida. The highest number of both thrips species (Asian bean thrips and melon thrips) in snap beans were in flowers, followed by leaves and pods. Both adults and immatures of these thrips exhibited regular to clumped distribution patterns in bean fields. Several statistical indices showed agreement in the distribution patterns of Asian bean thrips, melon thrips, and larvae, irrespective of sampling units and plot size, in three years of study. In most instances, the distribution of Asian bean thrips and melon thrips was aggregated. This study assessed the optimum sample size to accurately determine the population density of these thrips for management purposes. The results from this study will be useful for implementing targeted management programs against thrips pests, thereby reducing labor costs and time. This information will also help reduce agrochemical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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12 pages, 2530 KiB  
Article
Negative Effects of Phthorimaea absoluta-Resistant Tomato Genotypes on the Zoophytophagous Biocontrol Agent, Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
by Megha Guruswamy, Murugan Marimuthu and Moshe Coll
Insects 2023, 14(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14020160 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Complex interactions between host plant resistance (HPR) and biological control agents, particularly omnivorous predators, can shape the outcome of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such interactions are seldom explored during plant breeding programs. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the [...] Read more.
Complex interactions between host plant resistance (HPR) and biological control agents, particularly omnivorous predators, can shape the outcome of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such interactions are seldom explored during plant breeding programs. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the performance of the omnivorous biological control agent Orius laevigatus on six tomato genotypes with different levels of resistance to the tomato leaf miner Phthorimaea absoluta. We found that the O. laevigatus fitness components (i.e., egg deposition, egg hatching rate, and duration of egg, early nymphal, late nymphal stages, and their survival) were inferior on the wild resistant genotypes (LA 716 and LA 1777) in comparison to the resistant domesticated genotype EC 620343 and the susceptible genotypes (EC 705464 and EC 519819). It appears that the adverse effects of tomato genotypes on O. laevigatus are determined mainly by glandular and non-glandular trichome densities on the leaves. Comparison of O. laevigatus response to the tested tomato cultivars to that of P. absoluta revealed significant positive correlations in duration of the egg stages, development time of early and late larval stages, and overall immature mortality in both species. It appears, therefore, that defensive plant traits operate in a similar way on the pest and its predator in the system. Overall, the present study of the tomato-P. absoluta-O. laevigatus system provides experimental evidence for the need to optimize pest management by employing intermediate levels of crop resistance together with biological control agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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9 pages, 1611 KiB  
Communication
Screening of the Acaricidal Activity of Essential Oils against Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae)
by Yijing Zhu, Taoqi Wu, Yongjian Xie, Yixuan Wu, Jianyu Deng, Lidong Cao, Zhijun Zhang and Qiong Rao
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020397 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is an important pest of citrus in China, where pesticides are commonly used in citrus orchards. In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides against P. citri and the development of resistance, the screening of [...] Read more.
The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is an important pest of citrus in China, where pesticides are commonly used in citrus orchards. In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides against P. citri and the development of resistance, the screening of biological control agents has attracted the attention of students. In this study, seven plant essential oils with high toxicity were selected from 40 plant essential oils by the leaf-dip bioassay, including plant essential oils of lemongrass, patchouli, juniper berry, sage, clove, frankincense, and citrus. The LC50 after 72 h treatment were 3.198 μL/mL, 8.312 μL/mL, 3.244 μL/mL, 6.701 μL/mL, 8.350 μL/mL, 21.953 μL/mL, and 8.788 μL/mL, respectively. According to the LT50, the essential oils’ acute toxicity to P. citri from high to low were lemongrass, juniper berry, patchouli, citrus, sage, vetiver, and frankincense essential oils. In general, lemongrass and juniper berry essential oils have the best acaricidal effect and have high application value for the biological control of P. citri, which provides a basis for the development of botanical acaricides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
Direct and Indirect Competitive Interactions between Ooencyrtus nezarae and Paratelenomus saccharalis Parasitizing Megacopta cribraria Egg Patches
by Sanower Warsi, Ana M. Chicas-Mosier, Rammohan R. Balusu, Alana L. Jacobson and Henry Y. Fadamiro
Insects 2023, 14(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14010035 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
The present study investigated egg parasitoid interspecific interactions between a generalist, Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and a specialist, Paratelenomus saccharalis Dodd (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in a laboratory setting using kudzu bug (Megacopta cribraria Fabricius, (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)) eggs as their shared host. Three [...] Read more.
The present study investigated egg parasitoid interspecific interactions between a generalist, Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and a specialist, Paratelenomus saccharalis Dodd (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in a laboratory setting using kudzu bug (Megacopta cribraria Fabricius, (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)) eggs as their shared host. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the emergence of wasps from parasitized hosts after the simultaneous and sequential release of wasps, monitor aggressive behavior of P. saccharalis, and quantify intraguild predation of O. nezarae larvae on heterospecific P. saccharalis larvae. Results showed that total host egg parasitism was higher when both wasps were released simultaneously than if wasps were released sequentially. Ooencyrtus nezarae produced more total offspring than P. saccharalis in all sequential/simultaneous treatments but produced male offspring in most cases. In the aggressive behavioral experiment, specialist, P. saccharalis used head butting to fight O. nezarae, but no other aggressions were observed. In an experiment examining intraguild predation, O. nezarae was able to develop in host eggs parasitized by P. saccharalis four days earlier, acting as a superior larval competitor. These findings shed light on the potential interspecific interactions between O. nezarae and P. saccharalis, which may determine their relative abundance and influence their compatibility in kudzu bug biological control programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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14 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Two Better Than One? Potential Effects of Intraguild Predation on the Biological Control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by the Parasitoid Aganaspis daci (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and the Predator Pseudoophonus rufipes (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
by Luis de Pedro, Francisco Beitia and José Tormos
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010087 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The use of more than one species to manage a single insect pest is a common practice among biological control programs. However, the beneficial effects of natural enemies are not always additive, which in many cases may be attributed to interspecific interactions such [...] Read more.
The use of more than one species to manage a single insect pest is a common practice among biological control programs. However, the beneficial effects of natural enemies are not always additive, which in many cases may be attributed to interspecific interactions such as intraguild predation (IGP). Herein, we investigated the potential IGP between two relevant natural enemies of the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), the predator Pseudoophonus rufipes and the parasitoid Aganaspis daci, as well as the possible implications of this phenomenon in their efficiency as biocontrol agents. To this end, we assessed their functional responses and different demographic parameters when acting alone and together against C. capitata under laboratory conditions. Coexistence led to a switch in the functional response of both species, from type III to type II in A. daci and the opposite in P. rufipes. Regarding demographic parameters, coexistence resulted in higher parasitoidism and population reduction by A. daci only at low host densities, probably due to competition pressure. In the same circumstances, P. rufipes reduced its predatory activity, rejecting those larvae that were presumably parasitized and causing negligible IGP. At high Medfly densities, A. daci efficiency decreased, and the reduced encounter probability enhanced the predatory activity by P. rufipes. As a result of these trends, Medfly population reduction reached almost 100% at all densities, which suggests an additive effect of both natural enemies and recommends combined releases of these agents as a strategy for the control of the Medfly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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9 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
The Leaf Color and Trichome Density Influence the Whitefly Infestation in Different Cassava Cultivars
by Marcelo A. Pastório, Adriano T. Hoshino, Cíntia S. G. Kitzberger, Orcial C. Bortolotto, Luciano M. de Oliveira, Adevanir Martins dos Santos, Wilmar F. Lima, Ayres de O. Menezes Junior and Humberto G. Androcioli
Insects 2023, 14(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14010004 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
The whitefly species Bemisia tuberculata and Aleurotrixus aepim (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are considered important cassava (Manihot esculenta) pests. Leaf color and other morphological characteristics can influence the pest’s interactions with the host plants. Thus, this study aimed to identify the relationship between [...] Read more.
The whitefly species Bemisia tuberculata and Aleurotrixus aepim (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are considered important cassava (Manihot esculenta) pests. Leaf color and other morphological characteristics can influence the pest’s interactions with the host plants. Thus, this study aimed to identify the relationship between whitefly occurrence and trichome density and leaf color in different cassava cultivars. The study was conducted in the field during the 2014/2015 and 2016/2017 crop seasons. The whitefly occurrence was surveyed in the cultivars, IAPAR 19, IPR Upira, IPR União, IAC 576-70, IAC 14, IAC 90, Catarina Branca, Santa Helena and Baianinha. The whitefly nymph quantification was correlated with non-glandular trichome density, luminosity (L*) and chroma (a* and b*) of the cassava leaves. IAPAR 19 and IAC 14 were less infested by whitefly nymphs when contrasted with IPR União, IPR Upira and Baianinha, which were the most infested. The lowest B. tuberculata infestations were correlated with lesser trichome density, highest light reflection and highest chroma in the sprout and the plant’s superior third portion leaves. Low A. aepim infestation in both crop seasons made it impossible to verify its correlation with the studied cassava plant characteristics. The cultivars IAPAR 19 and IAC 14 could contribute towards B. tuberculata management in regions with a history of whitefly infestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
15 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile, Bioactivity, and Biosafety Evaluations of Essential Oils and Main Terpenes of Two Plant Species against Trogoderma granarium
by Abdulrhman Almadiy and Gomah Nenaah
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3112; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123112 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
In order to search for bio-rational and eco-friendly pest control agents to protect crops from insect infestation, while avoiding the toxic hazards of chemical pesticides, essential oils (EOs) were hydrodistilled from Juniperus procera and Thymus vulgaris and analyzed using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection [...] Read more.
In order to search for bio-rational and eco-friendly pest control agents to protect crops from insect infestation, while avoiding the toxic hazards of chemical pesticides, essential oils (EOs) were hydrodistilled from Juniperus procera and Thymus vulgaris and analyzed using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Eugenol (71.3%), β-caryophyllene (11.8%), and α-pinene (6.1%) were isolated as the major components of J. procera EO, whereas thymol (58.1%), p-cymen (10.3%), and carvacrol (8.3%) were the main terpenes in T. vulgaris EO. The EOs and terpenes exhibited considerable bioactivity against the khapra beetle using the contact and fumigation bioassays, where T. vulgaris EO was superior in bioactivity. Among the terpenes tested, carvacrol and eugenol were superior. Regarding contact toxicity using impregnated filter paper and after 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values ranged between 21.4 and 77.0 µL/cm2 against larvae and between 16.1 and 69.6 µL/cm2 against adults. After 48 h, these values decreased remarkably. Upon fumigation and after 48 h of exposure, the LC50 values ranged between 23.0 and 65.3 µL/L against larvae, and from 14.2 to 56.4 µL/L against adults. The botanicals effectively inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity of the larvae; however, they were safe for the earthworm E. fetida and did not alter the viability of wheat grains. There is a potential for using these botanicals to control T. granarium. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the safety of these phytochemicals before use as grain protectants on a commercial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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16 pages, 1670 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Secondary Metabolites Responsible for the Resistance of Local Tomato Accessions to Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, Gennadius 1889) Hemiptera in Tanzania
by Secilia E. Mrosso, Patrick A. Ndakidemi and Ernest R. Mbega
Crops 2022, 2(4), 445-460; https://doi.org/10.3390/crops2040032 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Plants have developed mechanisms to cope with stresses in their environments as they grow in diverse settings. Such means include releasing plant defense compounds upon attacks by pests or other stressors. Plants with these characteristics are essential as a plant germplasm source for [...] Read more.
Plants have developed mechanisms to cope with stresses in their environments as they grow in diverse settings. Such means include releasing plant defense compounds upon attacks by pests or other stressors. Plants with these characteristics are essential as a plant germplasm source for breeding resistance against herbivores and insect pests. Therefore, this study aimed to screen germplasms for whitefly resistance and characterize the secondary metabolites responsible for this. Thirty local tomato accessions were screened for resistance against whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) in the screen house located at Tanzania Plant Health and Pesticides Authority (PTHPA) between January and April 2021. From this screening, seven local tomato cultivars: TZA3729, TZA5554, TZA5545, TZA5562, TZA5552, TZA3177 and TZA5157, showed resistance, and one accession (TZA5496) that showed susceptibility to whiteflies (negative control) and accession V1030462 that was a standard (positive control) were selected for the subsequent experiments. The experiment was conducted in July–October 2021 in the screen house at TPHPA and repeated in January–April 2022 using a completely randomized block design with three replications. From this experiment, three accessions: TZA3729, TZA5562 and TZA5157, showed resistance against whiteflies. However, accession TZA3729 was more resistant than TZA5562 and TZA5157 when compared to the resistant accession V1030462. Therefore, these accessions were further screened for secondary metabolites responsible for resistance against herbivores and insect pests—in this case, whiteflies. The GS-MS methanol extract results showed accession TZA3729 to possess a wide array of secondary plant metabolites responsible for plant self-defenses, such as diterpenes, Tetraterpenes, alkaloids, carotenoids and fatty acid esters. Therefore, the study recommends accession TZA3729 as a source of tomato plant germplasm for breeding tomatoes resistant to whiteflies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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23 pages, 2754 KiB  
Article
Tephritid Fruit Fly Species Composition, Seasonality, and Fruit Infestations in Two Central African Agro-Ecological Zones
by Samuel Nanga Nanga, Rachid Hanna, Apollin Fotso Kuate, Komi K. M. Fiaboe, Ibrahim Nchoutnji, Michel Ndjab, Désiré Gnanvossou, Samira A. Mohamed, Sunday Ekesi and Champlain Djieto-Lordon
Insects 2022, 13(11), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13111045 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Bactrocera dorsalis and several Africa-native Ceratitis species are serious constraints to fruit production in sub-Saharan Africa. A long-term trapping and fruit collection study was conducted (2011–2016) in two contrasting agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon to determine fruit fly species composition, seasonality, attraction to [...] Read more.
Bactrocera dorsalis and several Africa-native Ceratitis species are serious constraints to fruit production in sub-Saharan Africa. A long-term trapping and fruit collection study was conducted (2011–2016) in two contrasting agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon to determine fruit fly species composition, seasonality, attraction to various lures and baits, and fruit infestation levels. Ten tephritid species from genera Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, and Perilampsis were captured in traps. Bactrocera dorsalis was the most dominant of the trapped species and persisted throughout the year, with peak populations in May–June. Ceratitis spp. were less abundant than B. dorsalis, with Ceratitis anonae dominating in the western highland zone and Ceratitis cosyra in the humid forest zone. Methyl eugenol and terpinyl acetate captured more B. dorsalis and Ceratitis spp., respectively than Torula yeast. The latter was the most effective food bait on all tephritid species compared with BioLure and Mazoferm. Bactrocera dorsalis was the dominant species emerging from incubated fruits, particularly mango, guava, and wild mango. Four plant species—I. wombolu, Dacryodes edulis, Voacanga Africana and Trichoscypha abut—were new host records for B. dorsalis. This study is the first long-duration and comprehensive assessment of frugivorous tephritid species composition, fruit infestations, and seasonality in Central Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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12 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Impact of Planting Date and Insecticide Application Methods on Melanaphis sorghi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation and Forage Type Sorghum Yield
by Osariyekemwen Uyi, Francis P. F. Reay-Jones, Xinzhi Ni, David Buntin, Alana Jacobson, Somashekhar Punnuri and Michael D. Toews
Insects 2022, 13(11), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13111038 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Studies on the management of the invasive Melanaphis sorghi are essential to refining integrated pest management strategies against M. sorghi in forage sorghum in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of planting date (early planting and late [...] Read more.
Studies on the management of the invasive Melanaphis sorghi are essential to refining integrated pest management strategies against M. sorghi in forage sorghum in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of planting date (early planting and late planting) and in-furrow and foliar insecticide application of flupyradifurone, on M. sorghi infestation and forage sorghum yield in Tifton, Georgia and Florence, South Carolina, USA, in 2020 and 2021. Early planted sorghum supported slightly higher aphid density and severity of infestation as evident in the greater cumulative insect days values in the early planted sorghum at both Florence and Tifton in 2020 and 2021. A single foliar application reduced aphid infestations below the threshold level of 50 aphids per leaf. In contrast, in-furrow insecticidal application in selected plots at both locations significantly suppressed M. sorghi density to near-zero levels. Yield results in Florence in 2020 showed that sorghum yield was over 50% greater in early planted plots compared to late planted plots. Both insecticide treatments (foliar and in-furrow) resulted in significantly higher yield than untreated plots. These data indicate that early planting coupled with in-furrow and foliar insecticide applications can suppress M. sorghi infestations and improve silage production in forage sorghum in the USA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 1420 KiB  
Article
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaf Extract Concentration Affects Performance and Oxidative Stress in Green Peach Aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)
by Peter Quandahor, Yuping Gou, Chunyan Lin and Changzhong Liu
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202757 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2273
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the aphicidal effect of a leaf extract of the Atlantic potato cultivar on the performance of green peach aphids. Three concentrations of the leaf extract (100, 75, and 50% potato extract), synthetic pesticide (Beta cypermethrin 4.5%), and [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine the aphicidal effect of a leaf extract of the Atlantic potato cultivar on the performance of green peach aphids. Three concentrations of the leaf extract (100, 75, and 50% potato extract), synthetic pesticide (Beta cypermethrin 4.5%), and distilled water (control) treatments were applied in a greenhouse experiment. The results showed that the synthetic pesticide, which was used as a standard check, caused the maximum aphid mortality, followed by the 100% potato leaf extract. Compared with the other botanical treatments, the 100% extract produced low mean rates of survival, aphids’ average daily reproduction, the number of nymphs per plant, and the number of nymphs per adult. This treatment also increased the accumulation of hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione-s-transferase, mixed-function oxidase, and carboxylesterase content in the green peach aphid. Moreover, the 100% extract also protected the host plants against green peach aphid attacks by demonstrating higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, above-ground fresh weight, and above-ground dry weight of the host plant. This study demonstrates that the highest concentration of potato (Atlantic cultivar) leaf extract (100% extract) could be used as the appropriate dosage for the control of green peach aphids on potatoes, which could greatly reduce the use of synthetic insecticides and promote ecosystem sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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9 pages, 617 KiB  
Article
Baseline Susceptibility and Cross-Resistance of HearNPV in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil
by Dionei Schmidt Muraro, Thaini M. Gonçalves, Douglas Amado, Marcelo F. Lima, Holly J. R. Popham, Paula G. Marçon and Celso Omoto
Insects 2022, 13(9), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090820 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The marked adoption of bioinsecticides in Brazilian agriculture in recent years is, at least partially, explained by the increasingly higher levels of insect pest resistance to synthetic insecticides. In particular, several baculovirus-based products have been registered in the last 5 years, including Helicoverpa [...] Read more.
The marked adoption of bioinsecticides in Brazilian agriculture in recent years is, at least partially, explained by the increasingly higher levels of insect pest resistance to synthetic insecticides. In particular, several baculovirus-based products have been registered in the last 5 years, including Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV: Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus (Armigen®)). Understanding the susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to HearNPV is an important step toward development of robust Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Insect Resistance Management programs (IRM) aimed at managing this serious insect pest. In this study, droplet feeding bioassays were used to characterize the baseline susceptibility to HearNPV (Armigen®) in H. armigera populations collected from major soybean and cotton-growing regions in Brazil. We defined and validated a diagnostic concentration for susceptibility monitoring of H. armigera populations to HearNPV. Additionally, cross-resistance between HearNPV and the insecticides flubendiamide and indoxacarb was evaluated by testing HearNPV in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains of H. armigera to these insecticides. A low interpopulation variation of H. armigera to HearNPV was detected. The LC50 values ranged from 1.5 × 105 to 1.1 × 106 occlusion bodies (OBs) per mL (7.3-fold variation). The mortality rate at the identified diagnostic concentration of 6.3 × 108 OBs/mL, based on the calculated LC99, ranged from 98.6 to 100% in populations of H. armigera collected from 2018 to 2020. No cross-resistance was detected between HearNPV and flubendiamide or indoxacarb. These results suggest that HearNPV (Armigen®) can be an effective tool in IPM and IRM programs to control H. armigera in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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11 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
Development of a Kairomone-Based Attractant as a Monitoring Tool for the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
by Jerome Niogret, Paul E. Kendra, Arni Ekayanti, Aijun Zhang, Jean-Philippe Marelli, Nurhayat Tabanca and Nancy Epsky
Insects 2022, 13(9), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090813 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
The cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, is a major economic pest of cocoa, Theobroma cacao, in Southeast Asia. CPB monitoring programs currently use a costly synthetic pheromone lure attractive to males. Field trapping experiments demonstrating an effective plant-based alternative are [...] Read more.
The cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, is a major economic pest of cocoa, Theobroma cacao, in Southeast Asia. CPB monitoring programs currently use a costly synthetic pheromone lure attractive to males. Field trapping experiments demonstrating an effective plant-based alternative are presented in this study. Five lychee-based products were compared for their attractiveness to CPB males. The organic lychee flavor extract (OLFE), the most attractive product, captured significantly more CPB as a 1 mL vial formulation than unbaited traps, while being competitive with the commercial pheromone lures. Additional experiments show that a 20 mL membrane OLFE lure was most effective, attracting significantly more CPB than the pheromone. When the kairomone and pheromone lures were combined, no additive or synergistic effects were observed. Concentrating the OLFE product (OLFEc) using a rotary evaporator increased the lure attractiveness to field longevity for up to 28 weeks; in contrast, pheromone lures were effective for approximately 4 weeks. The 20 mL concentrated OLFE membrane lures should provide a cheaper and more efficient monitoring tool for CPB than the current commercial pheromone lures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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17 pages, 1560 KiB  
Article
Competitive Plant-Mediated and Intraguild Predation Interactions of the Invasive Spodoptera frugiperda and Resident Stemborers Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus in Maize Cropping Systems in Kenya
by Johnstone Mutiso Mutua, Daniel Munyao Mutyambai, George Ochieng’ Asudi, Fathiya Khamis, Saliou Niassy, Abdul A. Jalloh, Daisy Salifu, Henlay J. O. Magara, Paul-André Calatayud and Sevgan Subramanian
Insects 2022, 13(9), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090790 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Following its recent invasion of African countries, fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), now co-exists with resident stemborers such as Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) causing severe damage to maize crops. Due to niche overlap, interspecific interactions occur [...] Read more.
Following its recent invasion of African countries, fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), now co-exists with resident stemborers such as Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) causing severe damage to maize crops. Due to niche overlap, interspecific interactions occur among the three species, but the mechanisms and degree remain unclear. In this study, we assessed plant-mediated intraspecific and interspecific interactions, predation in laboratory and semi-field settings, and larval field occurrence of S. frugiperda and the two stemborer species. Larval feeding assays to evaluate competitive plant-mediated interactions demonstrated that initial S. frugiperda feeding negatively affected subsequent stemborer larval feeding and survival, suggesting induction of herbivore-induced mechanisms by S. frugiperda, which deters establishment and survival of competing species. Predation assays showed that, at different developmental larval stages, second–sixth instars of S. frugiperda preyed on larvae of both B. fusca and C. partellus. Predation rates of S. frugiperda on stemborers was significantly higher than cannibalism of S. frugiperda and its conspecifics (p < 0.001). Cannibalism of S. frugiperda in the presence of stemborers was significantly lower than in the presence of conspecifics (p = 0.04). Field surveys showed a significantly higher number of S. frugiperda larvae than stemborers across three altitudinally different agroecological zones (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study showed that the invasive S. frugiperda exhibited a clear competitive advantage over resident stemborers within maize cropping systems in Kenya. Our findings reveal some of the possible mechanisms employed by S. frugiperda to outcompete resident stemborers and provide crucial information for developing pest management strategies for these lepidopteran pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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19 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
Development of a Disease and Pest Management Program to Reduce the Use of Pesticides in Sweet-Cherry Orchards
by Manuel González-Núñez, Pilar Sandín-España, Miguelina Mateos-Miranda, Guillermo Cobos, Antonieta De Cal, Ismael Sánchez-Ramos, Jose-Luis Alonso-Prados and Inmaculada Larena
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12091986 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
A protocol for managing the main diseases and pests of sweet cherry in Spain (New IPM) has been implemented in order to reduce the use of pesticides. This New IPM includes nonchemical strategies, such as biological products against diseases and mass trapping of [...] Read more.
A protocol for managing the main diseases and pests of sweet cherry in Spain (New IPM) has been implemented in order to reduce the use of pesticides. This New IPM includes nonchemical strategies, such as biological products against diseases and mass trapping of pests, and adjusts the timing and number of pesticide applications according to damage thresholds and a predictive model of diseases based on climatic factors. The New IPM was compared—in commercial orchards from the main cherry-producing areas in Spain (Aragon and Extremadura)—to the integrated management usually carried out in these areas (Standard IPM). Furthermore, a multiresidue method for the determination of the residues in cherries was developed. The number of applications, active ingredients used, and residue levels in fruit were reduced very significantly with this New IPM without affecting the effectiveness in the control of the main cherry diseases (brown rot, shot-hole, and leaf-spot) and pests (European cherry fly, spotted wing drosophila, and black cherry aphid). Neither significant differences in the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in flowers and fruit nor soil and canopy dwelling arthropods were observed between the two protocols, although some positive effects of this New IPM were seen on some groups of natural enemies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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14 pages, 2313 KiB  
Article
Fruit Fly in a Challenging Environment: Impact of Short-Term Temperature Stress on the Survival, Development, Reproduction, and Trehalose Metabolism of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
by Chun Yu, Runa Zhao, Wei Zhou, Yingna Pan, Hui Tian, Zhengyan Yin and Wenlong Chen
Insects 2022, 13(8), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080753 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2758
Abstract
An understanding of physiological damage and population development caused by uncomfortable temperature plays an important role in pest control. In order to clarify the adaptability of different temperatures and physiological response mechanism of B. dorsalis, we focused on the adaptation ability of [...] Read more.
An understanding of physiological damage and population development caused by uncomfortable temperature plays an important role in pest control. In order to clarify the adaptability of different temperatures and physiological response mechanism of B. dorsalis, we focused on the adaptation ability of this pest to environmental stress from physiological and ecological viewpoints. In this study, we explored the relationship between population parameters and glucose, glycogen, trehalose, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase responses to high and low temperatures. Compared with the control group, temperature stress delayed the development duration of all stages, and the survival rates and longevity decreased gradually as temperature decreased to 0 °C and increased to 36 °C. Furthermore, with low temperature decrease from 10 °C to 0 °C, the average fecundity per female increased at 10 °C but decreased later. Reproduction of the species was negatively affected during high-temperature stresses, reaching the lowest value at 36 °C. In addition to significantly affecting biological characteristics, temperature stress influenced physiological changes of B. dorsalis in cold and heat tolerance. When temperature deviated significantly from the norm, the levels of substances associated with temperature resistance were altered: glucose, trehalose, and TPS levels increased, but glycogen levels decreased. These results suggest that temperature stresses exert a detrimental effect on the populations’ survival, but the metabolism of trehalose and glycogen may enhance the pest’s temperature resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rabbit Urine on the Larval Behavior, Larval Mortality, Egg Hatchability, Adult Emergence and Oviposition Preference of the Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith)
by Diana Kemunto, Evanson R. Omuse, David K. Mfuti, Amanuel Tamiru, Girma Hailu, Ignath Rwiza, Yeneneh T. Belayneh, Sevgan Subramanian and Saliou Niassy
Agriculture 2022, 12(8), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12081282 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 22601
Abstract
The fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) is a major cereal pest threatening food security in Africa. African smallholder farmers apply various indigenous pest management practices, including rabbit urine; however, there is no scientific evidence for its efficacy. The FAW eggs, [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) is a major cereal pest threatening food security in Africa. African smallholder farmers apply various indigenous pest management practices, including rabbit urine; however, there is no scientific evidence for its efficacy. The FAW eggs, first, second and third instar larvae and moths were exposed to rabbit urine-treated maize leaves alongside untreated maize leaves (control). More FAW larvae (46.0–70.0%) remained on the untreated leaves than those (27.0–43.0%) on the rabbit urine-treated leaves. Rabbit urine caused 6.4 and 12.8% damage reduction of the second and third instars, respectively, 24 h post-exposure. Rabbit urine significantly reduced the survival of FAW, had a lethal time (LT50) of 5.0, 7.3 and 8.7 days and a lethal dose (LD50) of 48, 94, and 55% for the first, second and third instars, respectively. Egg hatchability and adult emergence were reduced by 55.0 and 13.3%, respectively. The FAW female moths laid more eggs on the rabbit urine-treated plants (647 ± 153 eggs) than they did on the untreated plants (72 ± 64 eggs). This study confirms farmers’ assertions about using rabbit urine to manage FAW. For successful integration into the FAW IPM package, additional studies on the chemistry of rabbit urine, the behavioral response and the field might be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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25 pages, 2837 KiB  
Article
Interactive Effects of Temperature and Plant Host on the Development Parameters of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
by Rameswor Maharjan, Jeongjoon Ahn and Hwijong Yi
Insects 2022, 13(8), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080747 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 35, and 40 °C) on the development rate of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) eggs, larvae, pupae, and total immatures on plant hosts (soybean, maize, potato, and green pea). The eggs of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 35, and 40 °C) on the development rate of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) eggs, larvae, pupae, and total immatures on plant hosts (soybean, maize, potato, and green pea). The eggs of S. exigua developed successfully at all the tested temperatures, except at 40 °C. The total developmental time (egg-adult) decreased with an increasing temperature from 15 to 35 °C on plant hosts. Stage-specific parameters such as the lower threshold temperature (TH) were determined using linear and nonlinear models (Sharpe-Schoolfield-Ikemoto [SSI]). The lower developmental threshold (LDT) and thermal constant (K) were determined using a linear model. The LDT and K for the total immature stage had respective values of 11.9 °C and 397.27° -day (DD) on soybean, 11.6 °C and 458.34° -day (DD) on maize, 11.2 °C and 446.23° -day (DD) on potato, 10.7 °C and 439.75° -day (DD) on green pea, and 12.2 °C and 355.82° -day (DD) on the artificial diet. The emergence frequency of adult S. exigua over the full range of constant temperatures was simulated using nonlinear developmental rate functions and the Weibull function. This study predicted the spring emergence date in the first to second weeks of June, with approximately five generations for plant hosts. The interaction of temperature and plant host also influenced the development and longevity of the adults. Overall, the findings of this study may be useful for predicting the number of generations, occurrence, population dynamics in crop fields, and management of S. exigua. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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17 pages, 2153 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Acylsugars and Leaf Trichomes: Mediators of Pest Resistance in Tomato
by Renato Barros de Lima Filho, Juliano Tadeu Vilela Resende, João Ronaldo Freitas de Oliveira, Cristiane Nardi, Paulo Roberto Silva, Caroline Rech, Luiz Vitor Barbosa Oliveira, Maurício Ursi Ventura and André Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro Silva
Insects 2022, 13(8), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080738 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Tomato plants are highly susceptible to pests. Among the control methods, genetic improvement with introgression of resistance genes from wild accessions into commercial tomato lines is the best alternative for an integrated pest management (IPM). Thus, the objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Tomato plants are highly susceptible to pests. Among the control methods, genetic improvement with introgression of resistance genes from wild accessions into commercial tomato lines is the best alternative for an integrated pest management (IPM). Thus, the objective of this study was to select tomato genotypes in advanced populations (F2BC3), with higher levels of acylsugar content, greater recurrent parent genome recovery, and resistance to Tetranychus urticae and Bemisia tabaci inherited from Solanum pennellii. For pest resistance, bioassays were assessed: nine high-acylsugar genotypes, four low-acylsugar genotypes, and the parents, Solanum lycopersicum or ‘Redenção’, and Solanum pennellii LA-716. Glandular and non-glandular trichomes were quantified. A negative correlation was measured between acylsugar content in the leaflets and pest behavior. Pest resistance was found in the selected F2BC3 genotypes with high-acylsugar content, indicating that this allelochemical was efficient in controlling the arthropod pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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11 pages, 1854 KiB  
Article
Behavioral Responses of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Cryptic Species to Three Host Plants and Their Volatiles
by Zhe Liu, Wenbin Chen, Shuai Zhang, Han Chen, Honghua Su, Tianxing Jing and Yizhong Yang
Insects 2022, 13(8), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080703 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a worldwide pest that damages over 900 host plant species. The volatile organic compounds (volatiles) of contrasting plants, as well as their growth stage, influence this pest’s infestation behavior. The chemical contents of volatiles isolated from three [...] Read more.
Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a worldwide pest that damages over 900 host plant species. The volatile organic compounds (volatiles) of contrasting plants, as well as their growth stage, influence this pest’s infestation behavior. The chemical contents of volatiles isolated from three plants (Gossypium hirsutum, Abutilon theophrasti, and Ricinus communis) during various growth phases (pre-flowering, fluorescence, and fruiting) were examined, as well as their influence on the behavior of adult B. tabaci. The olfactometer studies demonstrated that growth periods of the three plants affected the preference of B. tabaci. Volatiles of piemarker and cotton plants had dissimilar levels of attraction to adults during all stages. Volatile substances released by the castor at the stage of flowering had repellent effect on B. tabaci. In the plant versus plant combination, piemarker volatiles before and during anthesis were most preferred by adults, followed by cotton and then castor. A total of 24, 24, and 20 compounds were detected from volatiles of piemarker, cotton, and castor, respectively, and proportions among the compounds changed during different stages of plant development. The olfactory responses of B. tabaci to volatile compounds presented that linalool and high concentration of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate had a strong trapping effect on this pest, while nonanal had a significant repellent effect at high concentration. This study indicates that distinct plants and their growth stage affect their attractiveness or repellency to B.tabaci adults, which are mediated by changing plant volatiles. These compounds obtained by analysis screening can be adopted as potential attractants or repellents to control Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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10 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Exploratory Survey of Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Natural Enemies in Morocco
by Nezha Ait Taadaouit, Karim El Fakhouri, Abdelhadi Sabraoui, Latifa Rohi and Mustapha El Bouhssini
Insects 2022, 13(8), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080681 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
The stem borer weevil, Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), causes severe damage to faba beans (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco. A survey was conducted to determine the distribution of L. algirus, its natural enemies, and the severity of damage it causes [...] Read more.
The stem borer weevil, Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), causes severe damage to faba beans (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco. A survey was conducted to determine the distribution of L. algirus, its natural enemies, and the severity of damage it causes to faba beans in Morocco. A total of 16 and 27 stops were randomly selected and surveyed in the major faba bean-growing regions during the years 2017 and 2018, respectively. The Gharb region recorded the highest level of L. algirus infestation at 80% and 71.42% in 2017 and 2018, respectively, followed by the Saïs region at 58.75% and 36% in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Two egg parasitoids (Chlorocytuslixi and Anaphes longicornis), one egg predator (Orius sp.), and a larval parasitoid (Cyanopterobracon) were identified. The ectoparasitoid C. lixi was observed to be the most dominant species, with percentages of parasitism in the regions ranging between 35.75% and 70.49%. The larval parasitoid Cyanopterobracon was the second most abundant species, with percentages of parasitism ranging between 3.03% to 15.96%. Understanding the parasitoid complex of L. algirus in Morocco is necessary for the subsequent development of a biological control program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
19 pages, 7071 KiB  
Article
Identifying Field Crop Diseases Using Transformer-Embedded Convolutional Neural Network
by Weidong Zhu, Jun Sun, Simin Wang, Jifeng Shen, Kaifeng Yang and Xin Zhou
Agriculture 2022, 12(8), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12081083 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
The yield and security of grain are seriously infringed on by crop diseases, which are the critical factor hindering the green and high-quality development of agriculture. The existing crop disease identification models make it difficult to focus on the disease spot area. Additionally, [...] Read more.
The yield and security of grain are seriously infringed on by crop diseases, which are the critical factor hindering the green and high-quality development of agriculture. The existing crop disease identification models make it difficult to focus on the disease spot area. Additionally, crops with similar disease characteristics are easily misidentified. To address the above problems, this paper proposed an accurate and efficient disease identification model, which not only incorporated local and global features of images for feature analysis, but also improved the separability between similar diseases. First, Transformer Encoder was introduced into the improved model as a convolution operation, so as to establish the dependency between long-distance features and extract the global features of the disease images. Then, Centerloss was introduced as a penalty term to optimize the common cross-entropy loss, so as to expand the inter-class difference of crop disease characteristics and narrow their intra-class gap. Finally, according to the characteristics of the datasets, a more appropriate evaluation index was used to carry out experiments on different datasets. The identification accuracy of 99.62% was obtained on Plant Village, and the balanced accuracy of 96.58% was obtained on Dataset1 with a complex background. It showed good generalization ability when facing disease images from different sources. The improved model also balanced the contradiction between identification accuracy and parameter quantity. Compared with pure CNN and Transformer models, the leaf disease identification model proposed in this paper not only focuses more on the disease regions of leaves, but also better distinguishes different diseases with similar characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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16 pages, 300 KiB  
Review
Hot Water Treatment as Seed Disinfection Techniques for Organic and Eco-Friendly Environmental Agricultural Crop Cultivation
by Minjeong Kim, Changki Shim, Jaehyeong Lee and Choeki Wangchuk
Agriculture 2022, 12(8), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12081081 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6184
Abstract
Seed is an essential input to sustain agricultural productivity. The expansion of agricultural areas to meet global food demand contributes to the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that contaminate and infect crop seeds. Conventional technologies in controlling seed-borne diseases are, however, not environmentally sustainable. [...] Read more.
Seed is an essential input to sustain agricultural productivity. The expansion of agricultural areas to meet global food demand contributes to the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that contaminate and infect crop seeds. Conventional technologies in controlling seed-borne diseases are, however, not environmentally sustainable. This inspired the authors to explore existing literature on organic disinfection techniques for crop production. Various integrated seed disinfection techniques for major food crops, including rice, wheat, barley, millet, buckwheat, and sorghum, have been presented in this study. Moreover, the authors explored the potentials of hot water treatment as an alternative treatment method in meeting the ideal seed quality for cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
12 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
Preparation of an Environmentally Friendly Nano-Insecticide through Encapsulation in Polymeric Liposomes and Its Insecticidal Activities against the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
by Xiuqin Chen, Liangmiao Qiu, Qiquan Liu and Yuxian He
Insects 2022, 13(7), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070625 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
The insecticide emamectin benzoate (EB) was formulated with nanoparticles composed of DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 by the co-solvent method to determine its adverse impacts on the environment and to reinforce its dispersion, adhesion, and biocompatibility. A good encapsulation efficiency (70.5 ± 1.5%) of [...] Read more.
The insecticide emamectin benzoate (EB) was formulated with nanoparticles composed of DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 by the co-solvent method to determine its adverse impacts on the environment and to reinforce its dispersion, adhesion, and biocompatibility. A good encapsulation efficiency (70.5 ± 1.5%) of EB loaded in DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 polymeric liposomes was confirmed. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and contact angle meter measurements revealed that the DSPE-EB nanoparticles had a regular distribution, spherical shape, and good leaf wettability. The contact angle on corn leaves was 47.26°, and the maximum retention was higher than that of the reference product. DSPE-EB nanoparticles had strong adhesion on maize foliage and a good, sustained release property. The efficacy trial showed that the DSPE-EB nanoparticles had a strong control effect on S. frugiperda larvae, with the LC50 of 0.046 mg/L against the third-instar S. furgiperda larve after 48 h treatment. All these results indicate that DSPE-EB nanoparticles can serve as an insecticide carrier with lower environmental impact, sustained release property, and effective control of pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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22 pages, 1371 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Soil Silicon and Host Plant Resistance on Planthoppers, Blast and Bacterial Blight in Tropical Rice
by Quynh Vu, Gerbert Sylvestre Dossa, Enrique A. Mundaca, Josef Settele, Eduardo Crisol-Martínez and Finbarr G. Horgan
Insects 2022, 13(7), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070604 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
Soil silicon enhances rice defenses against a range of biotic stresses. However, the magnitude of these effects can depend on the nature of the rice variety. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to examine the effects of silicon on planthoppers (Nilaparvata [...] Read more.
Soil silicon enhances rice defenses against a range of biotic stresses. However, the magnitude of these effects can depend on the nature of the rice variety. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to examine the effects of silicon on planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens [BPH] and Sogatella furcifera [WBPH]), a leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens [GLH]), blast disease (Magnaporthe grisea) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) in susceptible and resistant rice. We added powdered silica gel (SiO2) to paddy soil at equivalent to 0.25, 1.0, and 4.0 t ha−1. Added silicon reduced BPH nymph settling, but the effect was negligible under high nitrogen. In a choice experiment, BPH egg-laying was lower than untreated controls under all silicon treatments regardless of nitrogen or variety, whereas, in a no-choice experiment, silicon reduced egg-laying on the susceptible but not the resistant (BPH32 gene) variety. Stronger effects in choice experiments suggest that silicon mainly enhanced antixenosis defenses. We found no effects of silicon on WBPH or GLH. Silicon reduced blast damage to susceptible and resistant (Piz, Piz-5 and Pi9 genes) rice. Silicon reduced damage from a virulent strain of bacterial blight but had little effect on a less virulent strain in susceptible and resistant (Xa4, Xa7 and Xa4 + Xa7 genes) varieties. When combined with resistance, silicon had an additive effect in reducing biomass losses to plants infested with bacterial blight (resistance up to 50%; silicon 20%). We discuss how silicon-containing soil amendments can be combined with host resistance to reduce biotic stresses in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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14 pages, 794 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Egg Predator Blattisocius tarsalis (Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) for the Biological Control of the Potato Tuber Moth Tecia solanivora under Storage Conditions
by Jorge Gavara, Tomás Cabello, Juan Ramón Gallego, Estrella Hernández-Suarez and Ana Piedra-Buena Díaz
Agriculture 2022, 12(7), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070920 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Tecia solanivora is the most prevalent pest causing damage to potato crops in fields in the Canary Islands, but even more so in the postharvest storage period. However, currently, there are no authorised chemical insecticides for potato storage facilities. Analysis of the viability [...] Read more.
Tecia solanivora is the most prevalent pest causing damage to potato crops in fields in the Canary Islands, but even more so in the postharvest storage period. However, currently, there are no authorised chemical insecticides for potato storage facilities. Analysis of the viability of the predator mite Blattisocius tarsalis as a biological control agent for this moth was carried out. A study of the temperature effect showed B. tarsalis maintains predatory capacity in the range of 10–27 °C. Though predatory activity increases with temperature, no differences in mortality rates were observed between 10 and 20 °C (33.52 ± 2.44 and 40.14 ± 3.54% efficacy rate, respectively), nor between 25 and 27 °C (59.26 ± 4.59 and 75.19 ± 4.64% efficacy rate, respectively). Under microcosm conditions, at low pest infestation (10 eggs), B. tarsalis achieved the highest mortality of eggs at a density of 5 mites, with an efficacy rate of 91.67 ± 8.33%. At high infestation levels (50 eggs), maximum mortality was achieved with a density of 10 mites and efficacy of 98.52 ± 1.48%. The choice-assay showed no preference of B. tarsalis between T. solanivora and Phthorimaea operculella, suggesting this mite could be useful in mixed infestations of potato moths. The results show B. tarsalis is a very good candidate as a control agent in storage conditions and even in mixed infestations of T. solanivora and P. operculella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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11 pages, 2592 KiB  
Article
Effect of Molasses Application Alone or Combined with Trichoderma asperellum T-34 on Meloidogyne spp. Management and Soil Microbial Activity in Organic Production Systems
by Alejandro Expósito, Sergi García, Ariadna Giné, Nuria Escudero, Sandra Herranz, Miriam Pocurull, Albert Lacunza and Francisco Javier Sorribas
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071508 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3418
Abstract
The effect of molasses alone or combined with Trichoderma asperellum T34 Biocontrol® was assessed on Meloidogyne reproduction, disease severity, and density and activity of soil microorganisms in pot and field experiments. Firstly, molasses application at 1 mL m−2 was assessed in [...] Read more.
The effect of molasses alone or combined with Trichoderma asperellum T34 Biocontrol® was assessed on Meloidogyne reproduction, disease severity, and density and activity of soil microorganisms in pot and field experiments. Firstly, molasses application at 1 mL m−2 was assessed in four different textured soils. Secondly, molasses application at 5, 10, 20, and 40 mL m−2, alone or combined with T34, was assessed in pot and field experiments at 10 mL m−2 in two different textured soils. The application of 1 mL m−2 of molasses was effective in reducing nematode reproduction in the loam textured soil but not in sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or clay loam textured soils. Increasing molasses dosage reduced the tomato dry shoot and fresh root weights, producing phytotoxicity at 40 mL m−2. The disease severity and nematode reproduction were reduced between 23% and 65% and 49% and 99%, respectively. In the field experiment, molasses applied at 10 mL m−2 reduced the disease severity and the nematode reproduction in the loam textured soil. The soil microbial density and activity did not increase in sites where the nematode reproduction and the disease severity were reduced by molasses application, irrespective of T34. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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17 pages, 26814 KiB  
Article
Automatic Crop Pest Detection Oriented Multiscale Feature Fusion Approach
by Shifeng Dong, Jianming Du, Lin Jiao, Fenmei Wang, Kang Liu, Yue Teng and Rujing Wang
Insects 2022, 13(6), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060554 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Specialized pest control for agriculture is a high-priority agricultural issue. There are multiple categories of tiny pests, which pose significant challenges to monitoring. Previous work mainly relied on manual monitoring of pests, which was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, deep-learning-based pest detection methods have [...] Read more.
Specialized pest control for agriculture is a high-priority agricultural issue. There are multiple categories of tiny pests, which pose significant challenges to monitoring. Previous work mainly relied on manual monitoring of pests, which was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, deep-learning-based pest detection methods have achieved remarkable improvements and can be used for automatic pest monitoring. However, there are two main obstacles in the task of pest detection. (1) Small pests often go undetected because much information is lost during the network training process. (2) The highly similar physical appearances of some categories of pests make it difficult to distinguish the specific categories for networks. To alleviate the above problems, we proposed the multi-category pest detection network (MCPD-net), which includes a multiscale feature pyramid network (MFPN) and a novel adaptive feature region proposal network (AFRPN). MFPN can fuse the pest information in multiscale features, which significantly improves detection accuracy. AFRPN solves the problem of anchor and feature misalignment during RPN iterating, especially for small pest objects. In extensive experiments on the multi-category pests dataset 2021 (MPD2021), the proposed method achieved 67.3% mean average precision (mAP) and 89.3% average recall (AR), outperforming other deep learning-based models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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17 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Biological Control Options for the Golden Twin-Spot Moth, Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Banana Crops of the Canary Islands
by Modesto del Pino, Tomás Cabello and Estrella Hernández-Suárez
Insects 2022, 13(6), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060516 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a significant pest in banana plantations in the Canary Islands. Field surveys were carried out to identify its naturally occurring parasitoids and estimate their parasitism rates between September 2007 and October 2010. Ch. chalcites was parasitized by [...] Read more.
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a significant pest in banana plantations in the Canary Islands. Field surveys were carried out to identify its naturally occurring parasitoids and estimate their parasitism rates between September 2007 and October 2010. Ch. chalcites was parasitized by six different larval/pupal parasitoid species: Cotesia sp., C. glomerata L. (Hym.: Braconidae), Aplomyia confinis Fallén (Dip.: Tachinidae), Hyposoter rufiventris Perez, Ctenochares bicolorus L. (Hym.: Ichneumonidae) and Aleiodes sp. (Hym.: Braconidae). Among them, Cotesia sp. was the most frequent species, accounting for 8.18% of parasitized larvae. High levels of egg parasitism were detected, with Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) being the most widely distributed egg parasitoid. A greenhouse assay was also carried out on a commercial banana crop with the aim of evaluating the potential of T. achaeae as a biological control agent and compared with a chemical control. Five periodic inundative releases of 35 adults/m2 every 21 days were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (56.25 ± 1.61%). Moreover, there was 15.75% less foliar damage in the biological control plot compared to the chemical control plot. These results indicate that T. achaeae could be a promising biocontrol agent of Ch. chalcites in greenhouse banana crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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11 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides against Diadegma insulare, a Parasitoid of the Diamondback Moth
by Daniel Ramírez-Cerón, Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva, J. Refugio Lomeli-Flores, Lauro Soto-Rojas, Samuel Ramírez-Alarcón and Antonio Segura-Miranda
Insects 2022, 13(6), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060514 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Plutella xylostella is the main pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. To reduce P. xylostella populations, better integration of natural control and chemical control (dominant tactic used) is needed. This work analyzed the compatibility of nine insecticides with the parasitoid Diadegma insulare, outlining [...] Read more.
Plutella xylostella is the main pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. To reduce P. xylostella populations, better integration of natural control and chemical control (dominant tactic used) is needed. This work analyzed the compatibility of nine insecticides with the parasitoid Diadegma insulare, outlining them as complementary tools in an integrated pest management strategy. The acute toxicity of spinosad, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, flonicamid, naled, pyridalyl, emamectin benzoate, and spinetoram against the parasitoid was assessed. Residual activity (persistence) was also evaluated over time; the mortality of the parasitoid in contact with leaf tissue of plants treated with insecticides was analyzed. According to the International Organization of Biological Control, all nine insecticides were toxic to D. insulare; the lowest mortality was recorded with spirotetramat (64%) and pyridalyl (48%), while the rest of the insecticides caused 100% mortality at 72 h after application. In terms of persistence, by days 14, 16, 16, 17, 17, 21, and 22 after application, flonicamid, naled, spirotetramat, spinosad, piridalyl, imidacloprid, and indoxacarb caused mortality of less than 25%, respectively, so they were considered harmless (Category 1). Nonetheless, some insecticide toxicity and residual activity must be regarded within integrated pest management programs for conserving the role of D. insulare field populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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14 pages, 16450 KiB  
Article
TD-Det: A Tiny Size Dense Aphid Detection Network under In-Field Environment
by Yue Teng, Rujing Wang, Jianming Du, Ziliang Huang, Qiong Zhou and Lin Jiao
Insects 2022, 13(6), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060501 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
It is well recognized that aphid infestation severely reduces crop yield and further leads to significant economic loss. Therefore, accurately and efficiently detecting aphids is of vital importance in pest management. However, most existing detection methods suffer from unsatisfactory performance without fully considering [...] Read more.
It is well recognized that aphid infestation severely reduces crop yield and further leads to significant economic loss. Therefore, accurately and efficiently detecting aphids is of vital importance in pest management. However, most existing detection methods suffer from unsatisfactory performance without fully considering the aphid characteristics, including tiny size, dense distribution, and multi-viewpoint data quality. In addition, existing clustered tiny-sized pest detection methods improve performance at the cost of time and do not meet the real-time requirements. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose a robust aphid detection method with two customized core designs: a Transformer feature pyramid network (T-FPN) and a multi-resolution training method (MTM). To be specific, the T-FPN is employed to improve the feature extraction capability by a feature-wise Transformer module (FTM) and a channel-wise feature recalibration module (CFRM), while the MTM aims at purifying the performance and lifting the efficiency simultaneously with a coarse-to-fine training pattern. To fully demonstrate the validity of our methods, abundant experiments are conducted on a densely clustered tiny pest dataset. Our method can achieve an average recall of 46.1% and an average precision of 74.2%, which outperforms other state-of-the-art methods, including ATSS, Cascade R-CNN, FCOS, FoveaBox, and CRA-Net. The efficiency comparison shows that our method can achieve the fastest training speed and obtain 0.045 s per image testing time, meeting the real-time detection. In general, our TD-Det can accurately and efficiently detect in-field aphids and lays a solid foundation for automated aphid detection and ranking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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19 pages, 1309 KiB  
Review
Towards Predictions of Interaction Dynamics between Cereal Aphids and Their Natural Enemies: A Review
by Eric Stell, Helmut Meiss, Françoise Lasserre-Joulin and Olivier Therond
Insects 2022, 13(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050479 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
(1) Although most past studies are based on static analyses of the pest regulation drivers, evidence shows that a greater focus on the temporal dynamics of these interactions is urgently required to develop more efficient strategies. (2) Focusing on aphids, we systematically reviewed [...] Read more.
(1) Although most past studies are based on static analyses of the pest regulation drivers, evidence shows that a greater focus on the temporal dynamics of these interactions is urgently required to develop more efficient strategies. (2) Focusing on aphids, we systematically reviewed (i) empirical knowledge on the drivers influencing the dynamics of aphid–natural enemy interactions and (ii) models developed to simulate temporal or spatio-temporal aphid dynamics. (3) Reviewed studies mainly focus on the abundance dynamics of aphids and their natural enemies, and on aphid population growth rates. The dynamics of parasitism and predation are rarely measured empirically, although it is often represented in models. Temperature is mostly positively correlated with aphid population growth rates. Plant phenology and landscape effects are poorly represented in models. (4) We propose a research agenda to progress towards models and empirical knowledge usable to design effective CBC strategies. We claim that crossover works between empirical and modeling community will help design new empirical settings based on simulation results and build more accurate and robust models integrating more key drivers of aphid dynamics. Such models, turned into decision support systems, are urgently needed by farmers and advisors in order to design effective integrated pest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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15 pages, 326 KiB  
Review
Arthropod Pest Management in Strawberry
by Sriyanka Lahiri, Hugh A. Smith, Midhula Gireesh, Gagandeep Kaur and Joseph D. Montemayor
Insects 2022, 13(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050475 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4371
Abstract
The strawberry crop endures economic losses due to feeding injury from a number of phytophagous arthropod pests. A number of invasive pests have posed challenges to crop protection techniques in the strawberry cropping system recently. It is increasingly evident that sole reliance on [...] Read more.
The strawberry crop endures economic losses due to feeding injury from a number of phytophagous arthropod pests. A number of invasive pests have posed challenges to crop protection techniques in the strawberry cropping system recently. It is increasingly evident that sole reliance on chemical control options is not sustainable. In this review, current challenges and advances in integrated pest management of various strawberry pests are presented. Key pests discussed include thrips, mites, lygus bug, spotted wing drosophila, seed bug, weevils, aphids, whiteflies, and armyworms. Several integrated pest management techniques that include use of intercropping, resistant cultivars, irradiation with gamma rays, use of spectral sensitivity of pests, biological control agents and natural enemies, and biorational pesticides have recently been reported to be useful in managing the various strawberry pests. With the increase in world production of strawberry, several techniques will be necessary to manage the pest complex of strawberry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
10 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Using Autumnal Trap Crops to Manage Tarnished Plant Bugs (Lygus lineolaris)
by François Dumont and Caroline Provost
Insects 2022, 13(5), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050441 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
For insects, surviving winter depends on their capacity to store enough energy and find proper hibernation sites. A common strategy is to minimize movement and hibernate near autumn food sources. We investigated the efficiency of autumnal hosts to act as trap crops where [...] Read more.
For insects, surviving winter depends on their capacity to store enough energy and find proper hibernation sites. A common strategy is to minimize movement and hibernate near autumn food sources. We investigated the efficiency of autumnal hosts to act as trap crops where insects could be exposed to targeted repressive treatments. This approach could reduce the local populations of insect pests in the next production season, reducing the need for insecticides. First, we tested the mullein plant’s attractiveness as an autumn trap crop for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in strawberry fields by comparing peak population density among mullein (Verbascum thapsus), strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and mustard (Sinapis alba). Second, we tested four treatments applied to the autumn trap crops to reduce L. lineolaris winter survivorship: (1) hot water, (2) a pathogen (Beauveria bassiana), (3) insecticide (cypermethrin), and (4) a control. The density of the L. lineolaris population on mullein in autumn and on buckwheat in summer was higher than on strawberry and mustard. Of the overwintering L. lineolaris, 0% survived the winter when treated with the insecticide cypermethrin, while 38.3% survived in the control treatment (without repressive treatment). The B. bassiana and hot water treatments did not differ from the control. The mullein autumn trap crops combined with insecticide treatments could contribute to reducing the overwintering population, hence potentially reducing population during the following growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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18 pages, 21956 KiB  
Article
The Insecticidal Efficacy and Physiological Action Mechanism of a Novel Agent GC16 against Tetranychus pueraricola (Acari: Tetranychidae)
by Yanyan He, Guangzu Du, Shunxia Xie, Xiaoming Long, Ganlin Sun, Shusheng Zhu, Xiahong He, Yixiang Liu, Youyong Zhu and Bin Chen
Insects 2022, 13(5), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050433 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
Chemical control plays a crucial role in pest management but has to face challenges due to insect resistance. It is important to discover alternatives to traditional pesticides. The spider mite Tetranychus pueraricola (Ehara & Gotoh) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a major agricultural pest that [...] Read more.
Chemical control plays a crucial role in pest management but has to face challenges due to insect resistance. It is important to discover alternatives to traditional pesticides. The spider mite Tetranychus pueraricola (Ehara & Gotoh) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a major agricultural pest that causes severe damage to many crops. GC16 is a new agent that consists of a mixture of Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and lecithin. To explore the acaricidal effects and mode of action of GC16 against T. pueraricola, bioassays, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed. GC16 had lethal effects on the eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults of T. pueraricola, caused the mites to dehydrate and inactivate, and inhibited the development of eggs. GC16 displayed contact toxicity rather than stomach toxicity through the synergistic effects of CaCl2 with lecithin. Cryo-SEM analysis revealed that GC16 damaged T. pueraricola by disordering the array of the cuticle layer crest. Mitochondrial abnormalities were detected by TEM in mites treated by GC16. Overall, GC16 had the controlling efficacy on T. pueraricola by cuticle penetration and mitochondria dysfunction and had no effects on Picromerus lewisi and Harmonia axyridis, indicating that GC16 is likely a new eco-friendly acaricide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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12 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Development, Survival and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Fed an Artificial Diet or on Cotton, Castor Bean and Corn Leaves
by Ruth da Silva Ramos, Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva, Tardelly de Andrade Lima, Paulo de Souza Albuquerque Junior, Maria Aparecida Castellani, José Eduardo Serrão and José Cola Zanuncio
Insects 2022, 13(5), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050428 - 4 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2800
Abstract
The polyphagy of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) renders its control difficult because variations in the phenology of host plants grown in different seasons of the year and near each other can facilitate the movement of this pest between crops. The objective of this [...] Read more.
The polyphagy of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) renders its control difficult because variations in the phenology of host plants grown in different seasons of the year and near each other can facilitate the movement of this pest between crops. The objective of this work was to examine certain biological characteristics of S. frugiperda fed on an artificial diet or on cotton, castor bean, or corn leaves. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments represented by S. frugiperda caterpillars fed an artificial diet (T1) or pieces of cotton (T2), castor bean (T3) or corn (T4) leaves with five replications (five caterpillars per replication). The duration and survival of the egg, larva, pre-pupa, pupa and egg-adult period and the reproductive characteristics of this insect were determined. The survival, development and reproduction data of S. frugiperda originated from individuals reared with cotton and castor bean leaves were lower than those fed on corn leaves or an artificial diet. The number of nonviable eggs laid by females originated from caterpillars fed on castor bean leaves was higher than those fed on cotton and corn leaves or an artificial diet. The very higher number of unviable S. frugiperda eggs resulting from castor leaves can reduce outbreaks of this pest in cotton and corn crops after the cultivation of that plant, or by intercropping with this plant, in the main producing regions of Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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16 pages, 1420 KiB  
Article
Temperature Dependence for Survival, Development, and Reproduction of the Cactus Cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell)
by Mohamed El Aalaoui and Mohamed Sbaghi
Insects 2022, 13(5), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050426 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
The effect of temperature on Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) life cycle parameters was evaluated at 20, 23, 26, 32, and 40 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 12 L:8 D. Temperatures ranging from 26 °C to 32 °C were [...] Read more.
The effect of temperature on Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) life cycle parameters was evaluated at 20, 23, 26, 32, and 40 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 12 L:8 D. Temperatures ranging from 26 °C to 32 °C were suitable for survival, development, and reproduction of D. opuntiae. The total developmental time of females ranged from 94.23 d (20 °C) to 43.55 d (40 °C). The average development time of males from egg to death ranged from 26.97 days at 32 °C to 50.75 days at 20 °C. The probability that a newly laid egg would survive to the adult stage was highest at 26 °C and 32 °C (44–60%). The parthenogenesis in females was not observed during our study. The longest oviposition period was observed when the cochineal was reared at 32 °C (17.97 days), and the highest fecundity was observed at 32 °C (355.29 egg/female). The highest proportion of females (0.80) was observed at 40 °C. According to the age-stage-two-sex life table, the highest value of the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was recorded at 32 °C. The lower developmental thresholds for the total pre-adult female and male and adult female and male stages, were 10.15, 12.21, 10.54, and 21.04 °C, respectively. Dactylopius opuntiae females needed a higher thermal constant (769.23 D°) than males (357.14 D°) to achieve their development and reach the mature adult stage. These findings will be useful for the development of an integrated pest management strategy for D. opuntiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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18 pages, 1016 KiB  
Article
Musa Germplasm A and B Genomic Composition Differentially Affects Their Susceptibility to Banana Bunchy Top Virus and Its Aphid Vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa
by Sergine Ngatat, Rachid Hanna, Jules Lienou, Richard T. Ghogomu, Sidonie Prisca K. Nguidang, Aime C. Enoh, Bertrand Ndemba, Sam Korie, Apollin Fotso Kuate, Samuel Nanga Nanga, Komi K. M. Fiaboe and P. Lava Kumar
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091206 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus), is the most destructive viral disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The virus is transmitted persistently by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae). [...] Read more.
Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus), is the most destructive viral disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The virus is transmitted persistently by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae). While research efforts have focused on screening Musa genotypes for BBTD resistance, comparatively little work has been carried out to identify resistance to banana aphids. This study assessed 44 Musa germplasm of different A and B genome composition for the performance of banana aphids under semicontrolled environmental screenhouse conditions and in a field trial established in a BBTD endemic location. In the screenhouse, the AA diploid Calcutta 4 had the lowest apterous aphid density per plant (9.7 ± 4.6) compared with AAB triploid Waema, which had the highest aphid densities (395.6 ± 20.8). In the field, the highest apterous aphid density per plant (29.2 ± 6.7) occurred on the AAB triploid Batard and the lowest (0.4 ± 0.2) on the AA diploid Pisang Tongat. The AA diploid Tapo was highly susceptible to BBTD (100% infection) compared with the genotypes Balonkawe (ABB), PITA 21 (AAB), Calcutta 4 (AA), and Balbisiana Los Banos (BB), which remained uninfected. The Musa genotypes with apparent resistance to BBTD and least susceptibility to aphid population growth provide options for considering aphid and BBTD resistance in banana and plantain breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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19 pages, 2406 KiB  
Review
History of Herbicide-Resistant Traits in Cotton in the U.S. and the Importance of Integrated Weed Management for Technology Stewardship
by Rohith Vulchi, Muthukumar Bagavathiannan and Scott A. Nolte
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091189 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3580
Abstract
This paper reviews the history of herbicide-resistant (HR) traits in U.S. cotton since the beginning, highlighting the shortcomings of each trait over time that has led to the development of their successor and emphasizing the importance of integrated weed management (IWM) going forward [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the history of herbicide-resistant (HR) traits in U.S. cotton since the beginning, highlighting the shortcomings of each trait over time that has led to the development of their successor and emphasizing the importance of integrated weed management (IWM) going forward to ensure their long-term sustainability. Introduction of glyphosate-resistant cropping systems has allowed for expansion of no-till systems more reliant on herbicides, favored less diverse crop rotations, and heavily relied on a single herbicide mode of action (MOA). With repeated applications of glyphosate over the years, biotypes of glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. palmeri and other weeds became economically damaging pests in cotton production systems throughout the U.S. Moreover, the reported cases of weeds resistant to different MOA across various parts of the United States has increased. The dicamba- (XtendFlex®) and 2,4-D-resistant (Enlist®) cotton traits (with stacks of glyphosate and glufosinate resistance) were introduced and have been highly adopted in the U.S. to manage HR weeds. Given the current rate of novel herbicide MOA discovery and increase in new HR weed cases, the future of sustainable weed management relies on an integrated approach that includes non-herbicidal methods with herbicides to ensure long-term success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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9 pages, 1046 KiB  
Article
Feeding dsSerpin1 Enhanced Metarhizium anisopliae Insecticidal Efficiency against Locusta migratoria manilensis
by Junya Wang, Hongmei Li, Yumeng Cheng, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Belinda Luke, Undarmaa Davaasambuu and Guocai Zhang
Agriculture 2022, 12(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12040538 - 9 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2359
Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) induces gene silencing in order to participate in immune-related pathways. Previous studies have shown that the LmSerpin1 gene upregulates the immune responses of Locusta migratoria manilensis, and that the infection of locusts with Metarhizium anisopliae can be enhanced through [...] Read more.
RNA interference (RNAi) induces gene silencing in order to participate in immune-related pathways. Previous studies have shown that the LmSerpin1 gene upregulates the immune responses of Locusta migratoria manilensis, and that the infection of locusts with Metarhizium anisopliae can be enhanced through the injection of the interfering dsSerpin1. In this study, dsRNA was synthesized from the Serpin1 gene and fed to the third instars of L. m. manilensis at concentrations of 5 μg, 10 μg, and 20 μg. Feeding dsSerpin1 increased the mortality of L. m. manilensis, and 20 μg dsSerpin1 had the highest lethality, followed by 10 μg dsSerpin1, with the lowest being observed at 5 μg dsSerpin1. Serpin1 silencing and temperature fever induction by feeding with dsSerpin1 had a strong synergistic effect on M. anisopliae, showing a dose-dependent response. When L. m. manilensis were fed on a diet containing 20 μg dsRNA and M. anisopliae (2.5 × 108 spores/g wheat bran), 3-day mortalities significantly increased. The dsSerpin1 plus M. anisopliae treatments resulted in a 6-day mortality of 60%, accelerating insect death. These results indicated that feeding with dsSerpin1 could be an effective way to control pests and that the control effect and dsRNA concentration were dose-dependent within the first seven days. In particular, 20 μg was an effective dosage to enhance the insecticidal efficiency of M. anisopliae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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12 pages, 925 KiB  
Article
Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Fitness and Resistance Stability to Diamide and Pyrethroid Insecticides in the United States
by Marcelo M. Rabelo, Izailda B. Santos and Silvana V. Paula-Moraes
Insects 2022, 13(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040365 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
In the United States, beet armyworm resistance to both chlorantraniliprole and bifenthrin insecticides was first reported in 2020. Here we examined beet armyworm fitness and stability of resistance to chlorantraniliprole and pyrethroid insecticides since knowledge of the stability of resistance is a crucial [...] Read more.
In the United States, beet armyworm resistance to both chlorantraniliprole and bifenthrin insecticides was first reported in 2020. Here we examined beet armyworm fitness and stability of resistance to chlorantraniliprole and pyrethroid insecticides since knowledge of the stability of resistance is a crucial aspect when recommending rotation of insecticides with different mode of action. Concentration-mortality bioassays were performed with field and laboratory susceptible populations. The F2, F13, and F27 generations of the field-derived population, maintained in the laboratory without insecticide, were exposed to commercial formulations of bifenthrin and chlorantraniliprole using the leaf-dip bioassay method (IRAC n. 007). Insects from F27 had the fitness components (survival, body weight, development time) documented and compared by LSM in each insecticide concentration tested. The resistance ratio to chlorantraniliprole reached 629, 80, 15-fold at F2, F13, and F27, respectively. These results contrast with an over 1000-fold resistance ratio to bifenthrin in all generations. The field-derived population had fitness reduced by chlorantraniliprole, but not by bifenthrin. In summary, the resistance of beet armyworm to bifenthrin was stable with no shift in fitness. In contrast, resistance to chlorantraniliprole was not stable through the generations kept in the laboratory without selection pressure, likely due to fitness cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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11 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Toxicity and Control Efficacy of an Organosilicone to the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae and Its Crop Hosts
by Jin-Cui Chen, Zhong-Zheng Ma, Ya-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Cao, Jia-Xu Wang, Shao-Kun Guo, Ary A. Hoffmann and Shu-Jun Wei
Insects 2022, 13(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040341 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
Organosilicone molecules represent important components of surfactants added to pesticides to improve pest control efficiency, but these molecules also have pesticidal properties in their own right. Here, we examined toxicity and control efficacy of Silwet 408, a trisiloxane ethoxylate-based surfactant, to the two-spotted [...] Read more.
Organosilicone molecules represent important components of surfactants added to pesticides to improve pest control efficiency, but these molecules also have pesticidal properties in their own right. Here, we examined toxicity and control efficacy of Silwet 408, a trisiloxane ethoxylate-based surfactant, to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae and its crop hosts. Silwet 408 was toxic to nymphs and adults of TSSM but did not affect eggs. Field trials showed that the control efficacy of 1000 mg/L Silwet 408 aqueous solution reached 96% one day after spraying but declined to 54% 14 days after spraying, comparable to 100 mg/L cyetpyrafen, a novel acaricide. A second spraying of 1000 mg/L Silwet 408 maintained control efficacy at 97% when measured 14 days after spraying. However, Silwet 408 was phytotoxic to eggplant, kidney bean, cucumber, and strawberry plants, although phytotoxicity to strawberry plants was relatively low and declined further seven days after application. Our study showed that while the organosilicone surfactant Silwet 408 could be used to control the TSSM, its phytotoxicity to crops should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Evaluation of the egg predator Blattisocius tarsalis (Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) for the biological control of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora under storage conditions
Authors: Jorge Gavara Vidal; Tomás Cabello; Juan Ramón Gallego; Estrella Hernández Suarez; Ana Piedra-Buena Díaz
Affiliation: Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias (ICIA), Tenerife, Islas Canarias (España)

Title: Biological control possibilities for the golden twin-spot moth, Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in banana crops of the Canary Islands
Authors: Modesto del Pino; Tomás Cabello; Estrella Hernández-Suárez
Affiliation: Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias (ICIA), Tenerife, Islas Canarias (España)

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