Special Issue "Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2022) | Viewed by 9369

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Waste compounds released from industries can be highly carcinogenic and significantly cause problems for aquatic photosynthetic plants and algae. Due to the constant demand for various products in the market, waste production has increased significantly. The textile industry uses approximately 10,000 different dyes and pigments with a yield of more than 7 x 105 tons per year. Removing color components from wastewater is an important issue in the textile industry as about 15% of the dye is released to industrial wastewater during processing and manufacturing.

Various physicochemical and electrolytic techniques such as coagulation, adsorption, oxidation, photochemical, and photocatalytic have often been carried out for the bleaching of textile wastewater. These conventional methods are costly, energy-efficient, and cannot completely eliminate azo dyes and their organic metabolites, eventually leading to secondary dye pollution.

Due to the shortcomings of conventional methods described above, researchers have turned to biological methods to pollutants from wastewater using microorganisms because of the low process cost and environmental friendliness.

Adsorption is an attractive and effective method for dye removal from wastewater, especially if the adsorbent is cheap and widely available. Different adsorbents have been recommended for the adsorption of dyes, such as modified alumina, activated clay, activated carbon, and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs). In wastewater treatment, NPs have been used for the removal of pesticides, organic dyes, and heavy metals and for the degradation of complex organic pollutants. Various monometallic and bimetallic NPs, such as Pt, Au, Cu, Fe–Ni, Cu–Ag, Fe–Zn, Mn–Zn, and Pd–Fe, have been used for adsorption. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the most important and widely studied of all electrochemical reactions. Heteroatoms (such as N, S, B, and P) with dual or ternary-doped materials made of carbon are applied as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to their low cost as well as good durability in acid/alkaline environments. N and S co-doped carbon materials are able to afford high catalytic sites and exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for ORR, and they can be used for heteroatom doping. Such properties are challenging considering heteroatom co-doping of carbon electrodes as nonmetallic catalysts to perform ORR.

Dr. Ivar Zekker
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • coagulation
  • adsorption
  • dye
  • wastewater
  • oxygen reduction
  • electrocatalysis
  • nanoparticles

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial to Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants
Water 2022, 14(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060995 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 644 | Correction
Abstract
Several industries produce products and release waste compounds that can be very carcinogenic, and furthermore, can cause trouble for water organisms, such as algae and plants which rely on photosynthesis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)

Research

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Article
Adsorption Kinetics and Isotherm Study of Basic Red 5 on Synthesized Silica Monolith Particles
Water 2021, 13(20), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202803 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
The Silica monolith particles (SMP) were prepared from Tetra-Methyl-Ortho-Silicate (TMOS) and characterized by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and surface area analyzer. FTIR analysis showed the Si−O stretching confirming SMP formation. SEM analysis provided information [...] Read more.
The Silica monolith particles (SMP) were prepared from Tetra-Methyl-Ortho-Silicate (TMOS) and characterized by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and surface area analyzer. FTIR analysis showed the Si−O stretching confirming SMP formation. SEM analysis provided information about the mean diameter of SMP (1−5 µm). EDX confirmed the presence of silicon and oxygen in the SMP. Moreover, the calculated surface area for SMP was found to be around 367 m2/g, whereas BJH pore size distributed particles were 87.15 along with the total pore volume and pore radius of 0.073 cm3/g and 16.627 Å, respectively. Besides, the removal efficiency was found to be about 96%. Various kinetic equations were used to calculate the adsorption parameters. Overall, the results show that the most appropriate model for the kinetics data was the pseudo-second order kinetics model while the mechanism of adsorption was best explained by the Langmuir isotherm. The highest removal of Basic Red 5 dye after 120 min at 298 K was 576 mg/g. Moreover, the thermodynamics parameters (Enthalpy, Gibb’s energy, and Entropy) were also estimated. The ΔH° (0.995 kJ/mol) value depicted the endothermic nature of the process. The non-spontaneous aspect of the process was evident from the ΔG° values which were 60.431, 328.93, and 339.5 kJ/mol at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively. From the high removal efficiency value, it can be concluded that the prepared adsorbent can be a potential adsorbent in the reclamation of dyes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
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Article
Levels and Potential Health Hazards of Chlorinated Pesticides in Surface Water Samples of Charsadda Area of Pakistan Using SPME-GC-ECD Technique
Water 2021, 13(18), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182468 - 08 Sep 2021
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Abstract
In the present study, we determined the levels of chlorinated pesticide residues in surface water samples collected from the Charsadda district (KPK, Pakistan). SPME-GC-ECD with COMBI PAL CTC autosampler was used for extraction and analysis of 20 organochlorine pesticides in the collected water [...] Read more.
In the present study, we determined the levels of chlorinated pesticide residues in surface water samples collected from the Charsadda district (KPK, Pakistan). SPME-GC-ECD with COMBI PAL CTC autosampler was used for extraction and analysis of 20 organochlorine pesticides in the collected water samples. For maximum efficiency of the SPME procedure, several parameters were studied, including the extraction and desorption time of the fiber, solution pH, agitation of samples, and stirring speed, etc. This method showed good liner response, with R2 values in the range of 0.9887 to 0.9999 for all pesticides. This method also provided good percent recoveries at 1 µg L−1 (87.5 to 106.0%) and at 2 µg L−1 (88.5 to 109.2%). Lower limits of detection for all 20 chlorinated pesticides were found to be lower than their maximum permissible contamination levels. Approximately 50% of the surface water samples collected from the Charsadda district were found to be contaminated with the pesticides γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin, with maximum concentrations of 0.023, 0.108, 0.014 and 0.013 µg L−1, respectively. For adults and children, the cancer risk from water due to contamination by various pesticides ranged from 0 to 33.29 × 10−6. The non-carcinogenic risk from each pollutant in the water samples of the Charsadda district was found to be in the order of heptachlor > aldrin > dieldrin > γ-BHC. However, the pesticides α-BHC, β-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, 4,4′-DDD, endrin ketone, 4,4′-DDT, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor were not detected in any of the surface water samples of investigated in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
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Article
Activated Ailanthus altissima Sawdust as Adsorbent for Removal of Acid Yellow 29 from Wastewater: Kinetics Approach
Water 2021, 13(15), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152136 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
In this study, Ailanthus altissima sawdust was chemically activated and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X rays (EDX), and surface area analyzer. The sawdust was used as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye; Acid [...] Read more.
In this study, Ailanthus altissima sawdust was chemically activated and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X rays (EDX), and surface area analyzer. The sawdust was used as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye; Acid Yellow 29 (AY 29) from wastewater. Different kinetic and equilibrium models were used to calculate the adsorption parameters. Among the applied models, the more suitable model was Freundlich with maximum adsorption capacities of 9.464, 12.798, and 11.46 mg/g at 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C respectively while R2 values close to 1. Moreover, the kinetic data was best fitted in pseudo second order kinetic model with high R2 values approaching to 1. Furthermore, adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated and the adsorption process was found to be exothermic with a value of ∆H° = −9.981 KJ mol−1, spontaneous that was concluded from ΔG° values which were negative (−0.275, −3.422, and −6.171 KJ mol−1 at 20, 30, and 40 °C respectively). A positive entropy change ∆S° with a value of 0.0363 KJ mol−1 indicated the increase disorder during adsorption process. It was concluded that the activated sawdust could be used as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of waste material, especially dyes from polluted waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
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Review

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Review
Review on Methylene Blue: Its Properties, Uses, Toxicity and Photodegradation
Water 2022, 14(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020242 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 3208
Abstract
The unavailability of clean drinking water is one of the significant health issues in modern times. Industrial dyes are one of the dominant chemicals that make water unfit for drinking. Among these dyes, methylene blue (MB) is toxic, carcinogenic, and non-biodegradable and can [...] Read more.
The unavailability of clean drinking water is one of the significant health issues in modern times. Industrial dyes are one of the dominant chemicals that make water unfit for drinking. Among these dyes, methylene blue (MB) is toxic, carcinogenic, and non-biodegradable and can cause a severe threat to human health and environmental safety. It is usually released in natural water sources, which becomes a health threat to human beings and living organisms. Hence, there is a need to develop an environmentally friendly, efficient technology for removing MB from wastewater. Photodegradation is an advanced oxidation process widely used for MB removal. It has the advantages of complete mineralization of dye into simple and nontoxic species with the potential to decrease the processing cost. This review provides a tutorial basis for the readers working in the dye degradation research area. We not only covered the basic principles of the process but also provided a wide range of previously published work on advanced photocatalytic systems (single-component and multi-component photocatalysts). Our study has focused on critical parameters that can affect the photodegradation rate of MB, such as photocatalyst type and loading, irradiation reaction time, pH of reaction media, initial concentration of dye, radical scavengers and oxidising agents. The photodegradation mechanism, reaction pathways, intermediate products, and final products of MB are also summarized. An overview of the future perspectives to utilize MB at an industrial scale is also provided. This paper identifies strategies for the development of effective MB photodegradation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
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Review
A Review on Silver Nanoparticles: Classification, Various Methods of Synthesis, and Their Potential Roles in Biomedical Applications and Water Treatment
Water 2021, 13(16), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162216 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Recent developments in nanoscience have appreciably modified how diseases are prevented, diagnosed, and treated. Metal nanoparticles, specifically silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are widely used in bioscience. From time to time, various synthetic methods for the synthesis of AgNPs are reported, i.e., physical, chemical, and [...] Read more.
Recent developments in nanoscience have appreciably modified how diseases are prevented, diagnosed, and treated. Metal nanoparticles, specifically silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are widely used in bioscience. From time to time, various synthetic methods for the synthesis of AgNPs are reported, i.e., physical, chemical, and photochemical ones. However, among these, most are expensive and not eco-friendly. The physicochemical parameters such as temperature, use of a dispersing agent, surfactant, and others greatly influence the quality and quantity of the synthesized NPs and ultimately affect the material’s properties. Scientists worldwide are trying to synthesize NPs and are devising methods that are easy to apply, eco-friendly, and economical. Among such strategies is the biogenic method, where plants are used as the source of reducing and capping agents. In this review, we intend to debate different strategies of AgNP synthesis. Although, different preparation strategies are in use to synthesize AgNPs such as electron irradiation, optical device ablation, chemical reduction, organic procedures, and photochemical methods. However, biogenic processes are preferably used, as they are environment-friendly and economical. The review covers a comprehensive discussion on the biological activities of AgNPs, such as antimicrobial, anticancer anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic potentials of AgNPs. The use of AgNPs in water treatment and disinfection has also been discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
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Other

Correction
Correction: Zekker, I. Editorial to Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants. Water 2022, 14, 995
Water 2022, 14(18), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182864 - 14 Sep 2022
Viewed by 224
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
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