Special Issue "Innovative, Smart and Sustainable Solutions for Urban Stormwater Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Patrizia Piro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: modeling; combined sewer overflows; water pollution; urban stormwater management; water treatment; urban drainage; low impact development; soil science; sustainability of water and energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mario Maiolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering (DIAm – Unical), Capo Tirone Experimental Marine Station, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: sustainable water management; drinking water risk; water supply systems; water pollution; groundwater hydrology and protection of groundwater; coastal dynamics, rehabilitation and remediation of coastal environments
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, urban flooding risk, the deterioration of water quality, air pollution, and urban heat islands can be considered as relevant effects of the urbanization process and climate change. Specifically, from a hydraulic point of view, sewer flooding and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent potential risks to human life, economic assets, and the environment.

Since traditional urban drainage techniques are unable to meet these emerging challenges, a transition toward a sustainable, smart, and resilient urban water management is required. New techniques such as real-time control (RTC) of the urban drainage network and low impact development (LID) systems (green roof, permeable pavements, green wall, rain garden, rainwater harvesting, etc.) provide several benefits at multiple scales, representing valid and cost-effective solutions.

This Special Issue aims to publish studies, review articles, and original papers presenting innovative, smart, and/or nature-based solutions; advanced hydrodinamic modelling; and methods that meet new challenges in stormwater management and urban surface runoff.

Prof. Dr. Patrizia Piro
Associate Professor Mario Maiolo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban flooding risk mitigation;
  • Water quality control;
  • Nature-based solutions;
  • Green-infrastuctures;
  • Low-impact development;
  • Real-time control systems;
  • Rainfall-runoff models;
  • Advanced hydrodinamic models and methods;
  • Water-sensitive urban design and planning;
  • Life cycle assessment

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Improving the Efficiency of Green Roofs Using Atmospheric Water Harvesting Systems (An Innovative Design)
Water 2021, 13(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040546 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
Conventional green roofs, although having numerous advantages, could place water resources under pressure in dry periods due to irrigation requirements. Moreover, the thermal efficiency of green roofs could decrease without irrigation, and the plants could get damaged. Therefore, this study aims to improve [...] Read more.
Conventional green roofs, although having numerous advantages, could place water resources under pressure in dry periods due to irrigation requirements. Moreover, the thermal efficiency of green roofs could decrease without irrigation, and the plants could get damaged. Therefore, this study aims to improve the efficiency of conventional green roofs by proposing a new multipurpose green roof combined with fog and dew harvesting systems. The analysis determined that the average water use of green roofs in the summer (in humid regions) is about 3.7 L/m2/day, in the Mediterranean regions about 4.5 L/m2/day, and in arid regions about 2.7 L/m2/day. During the dry season, the average fog potential in humid regions is 1.2 to 15.6 L/m2/day, Mediterranean regions between 1.6 and 4.6 L/m2/day, and arid regions between 1.8 and 11.8 L/m2/day. The average dew potential during the dry season in humid regions is 0.1 to 0.3 L/m2/day, in the Mediterranean regions is 0.2 to 0.3 L/m2/day, and in the arid regions is 0.5 to 0.7 L/m2/day. The analysis of the suggested multipurpose green roof combined with fog/dew harvesting systems, in the summer, in three different climates, show that fog harvesting could provide the total water requirement of the green roofs, and that dew harvesting by PV (photo-voltaic) panels could provide 15 to 26% of the water requirements. Moreover, it could show a higher thermal impact on the building, higher efficiency in stormwater management, less dependence on the urban water network, and greater efficiency in decreasing urban air, water, and noise pollution. Finally, the novel green roof system could consume less water due to the shaded area by mesh and solar PVs and maximize the utilization of the roof area, as solar panels could be applied on the same green roof. Full article
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Article
Vegetation Survival in Green Roofs without Irrigation
Water 2021, 13(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020136 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
The implementation of green roofs as sustainable urban drainage systems provides benefits for stormwater control and the environment and is more and more encouraged. A model for the estimation of the probability of vegetation survival without irrigation is proposed. The model, developed through [...] Read more.
The implementation of green roofs as sustainable urban drainage systems provides benefits for stormwater control and the environment and is more and more encouraged. A model for the estimation of the probability of vegetation survival without irrigation is proposed. The model, developed through a probabilistic analytical derivation procedure, can also consider the effects of chained rainfall events, without the need of continuous simulation of hydrological processes. The model equations can be useful in the design of green roofs, allowing to determine the growing medium thickness in terms of an assumed risk of vegetation withering in dry periods. The proposed model is also able to identify the optimal thickness of the growing medium, over which the survival performances can be increased only with irrigation. Model performances were tested by the application to two case studies in Italy. Comparison between the probabilities and the cumulative frequencies from a continuous simulation of water content in the growing medium shows a good agreement and provide a first confirmation of reliability. Full article
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Article
A Novel Idea for Improving the Efficiency of Green Walls in Urban Environment (an Innovative Design and Technique)
Water 2020, 12(12), 3524; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123524 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
The advantages of low-impact development approaches, such as green walls in an urban environment, are numerous. These systems can be applied for managing stormwater, saving energy consumption, decreasing noise pollution, improving runoff quality, improving life quality, and so forth. Besides, atmospheric water harvesting [...] Read more.
The advantages of low-impact development approaches, such as green walls in an urban environment, are numerous. These systems can be applied for managing stormwater, saving energy consumption, decreasing noise pollution, improving runoff quality, improving life quality, and so forth. Besides, atmospheric water harvesting methods are considered a nonconventional water source. There are many studies about the analysis and advantages of green walls and atmospheric water harvesting conducted separately. However, the use of a combined system that uses fog harvesting in the irrigation of green walls has received less attention in previous studies, and therefore in this research, the feasibility of a novel green wall platform was investigated. At first, the potential of using green walls and atmospheric water harvesting in different climates was analyzed. Then a new combined system was proposed and explained. The study results determined that atmospheric water harvesting can be applied as a source of irrigation for green facilities, particularly in the dry season and in periods with lower precipitation. In the Mediterranean climate, summer fog harvesting yields 1.4–4.6 L/m2/day, and the water consumption of green walls is about 4–8 L/day/m2. This can improve one issue of green walls in an urban environment, which is irrigation in summer. Furthermore, the novel system would protect plants from severe conditions, improve buildings’ thermal behavior by decreasing direct sunlight, and increase conventional green walls’ efficiency and advantages. Full article
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Article
Combined Application of Real-Time Control and Green Technologies to Urban Drainage Systems
Water 2020, 12(12), 3432; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123432 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
The increase in waterproof surfaces, a typical phenomenon of urbanization, on the one hand, reduces the volume of rainwater that naturally infiltrates the subsoil and, on the other, it determines the increase in speeds, flow rates, and outflow volume surface; at the same [...] Read more.
The increase in waterproof surfaces, a typical phenomenon of urbanization, on the one hand, reduces the volume of rainwater that naturally infiltrates the subsoil and, on the other, it determines the increase in speeds, flow rates, and outflow volume surface; at the same time, it causes a qualitative deterioration of the water. This study researched the optimal management of urban drainage systems via the combined application of real-time control and green technologies. A hydraulic model of the sewer system of the suburbs of Bologna (Italy) was set up using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to evaluate the reduction in water volume and the masses of pollutants discharged in water bodies. The combined application of these technologies allows significantly reducing both the pollutants released into the receiving water bodies and the overflow volumes, while optimizing the operation of the treatment plants. Green technologies cause an average reduction equal to 45% in volume and 53% of total suspended solids (TSS) sent to the receiver. The modeled cases represent only some of the possible configurations achievable on urban drainage systems; the combined use of different solutions could lead to further improvements in the overall functioning of the drainage system. Full article
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Article
Assessing the Effectiveness of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS): Interventions, Impacts and Challenges
Water 2020, 12(11), 3160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113160 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) can be a key tool in the management of extremes of rainfall, due to their capacity to attenuate and treat surface water. Yet, implementation is a complex process, requiring buy-in from multiple stakeholders. Buy-in is often undermined by a [...] Read more.
Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) can be a key tool in the management of extremes of rainfall, due to their capacity to attenuate and treat surface water. Yet, implementation is a complex process, requiring buy-in from multiple stakeholders. Buy-in is often undermined by a lack of practical evidence and monitoring of implemented SuDS. In this paper, we present a collaborative case study between a local authority, university and the UK Environment Agency. This partnership approach enabled the installation of SuDS and monitoring equipment to address surface runoff in the north east of England. Ultrasonic sensors were installed in the drainage network to evaluate the attenuation of surface water. SuDS were installed during an atypically wet spring, followed by a hot and dry summer, providing a range of conditions to assess their performance. Results demonstrate that there was a statistically significant difference in the detected flow level in manholes downstream of the SuDS interventions. Several challenges occurred, from signal obstacles in wireless telecommunication services, to logistical constraints of installing sensors in the drainage network, and issues with the adoption of property level SuDS. These issues require further research. Qualitative support for partnership working was crucial to increase the capacity for delivering SuDS. To ensure the success of future schemes and likelihood of SuDS uptake, partnership working and engaging with communities is vital. Full article
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Article
On the Use of a Real-Time Control Approach for Urban Stormwater Management
Water 2020, 12(10), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102842 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
The real-time control (RTC) system is a valid and cost-effective solution for urban stormwater management. This paper aims to evaluate the beneficial effect on urban flooding risk mitigation produced by applying RTC techniques to an urban drainage network by considering different control configuration [...] Read more.
The real-time control (RTC) system is a valid and cost-effective solution for urban stormwater management. This paper aims to evaluate the beneficial effect on urban flooding risk mitigation produced by applying RTC techniques to an urban drainage network by considering different control configuration scenarios. To achieve the aim, a distributed real-time system, validated in previous studies, was considered. This approach uses a smart moveable gates system, controlled by software agents, managed by a swarm intelligence algorithm. By running the different scenarios by a customized version of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the findings obtained show a redistribution of conduits filling degrees, exploiting the whole system storage capacity, with a significant reduction of node flooding and total flood volume. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Permeable Brick Pavement on the Reduction of Stormwater Runoff Using a Coupled Hydrological Model
Water 2020, 12(10), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102821 - 11 Oct 2020
Viewed by 566
Abstract
In several cities, permeable brick pavement (PBP) plays a key role in stormwater management. Although various hydrological models can be used to analyze the mitigation efficiency of PBP on rainfall runoff, the majority do not consider the effect of multi-layered pavement on infiltration [...] Read more.
In several cities, permeable brick pavement (PBP) plays a key role in stormwater management. Although various hydrological models can be used to analyze the mitigation efficiency of PBP on rainfall runoff, the majority do not consider the effect of multi-layered pavement on infiltration in urban areas. Therefore, we developed a coupled model to evaluate the potential effect of PBP in reducing stormwater runoff at a watershed scale. Specifically, we compared the hydrological responses (outflow and overflow) of three different PBP scenarios. The potential effects of PBP on peak flow (PF), total volume (TV), and overflow volume (OV) were investigated for 20 design rainstorms with different return periods and durations. Our results indicate that an increase in PBP ratio reduces both PF (4.2–13.5%) and TV (4.2–10.5%) at the outfall as well as the OV (15.4–30.6%) across networks. The mitigation effect of PBP on OV is linearly correlated to storm return period and duration, but the effects on PF and TV are inversely correlated to storm duration. These results provide insight on the effects of infiltration-based infrastructure on urban flooding. Full article
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Article
Study on Water Absorption–Dehydration Characteristics for SAP Composite Soil for Rainwater Harvesting
Water 2020, 12(9), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092380 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 639
Abstract
As a water absorption material, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) has gained its popularity in agriculture and environmental remediations. This study conducted a comparative investigation on saturated water content of cinnamon soil mixed with SAP. Two SAPs, SAP1 and SAP2, with different behaviors were tested, [...] Read more.
As a water absorption material, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) has gained its popularity in agriculture and environmental remediations. This study conducted a comparative investigation on saturated water content of cinnamon soil mixed with SAP. Two SAPs, SAP1 and SAP2, with different behaviors were tested, where SAP1 is an organic superabsorbent polymer, and SAP2 is polyacrylic acid sodium salt polymer. The saturated water content of SAP composite cinnamon soil was investigated with the weighing method. The repeated water absorption capacity and dehydration behavior of SAP composite soil under different designed rainfall intensity were investigated with a soil column tester. The results showed that (1) cinnamon soil mixed with SAP increased the saturated soil water content, and SAP1 was more effective than SAP2; (2) SAP held strong water absorption ability and recycling efficiency with eight repeated absorption–dehydration tests; (3) the average dehydration time for SAP composite soil were 626 h and 1214 h under 5-year and 10-year design rainfall intensities. Full article
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Article
Investigating Tradeoffs of Green to Grey Stormwater Infrastructure Using a Planning-Level Decision Support Tool
Water 2020, 12(7), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072005 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Integrated decision support tools are needed to investigate the tradeoffs of stormwater control measures (SCMs) and determine the optimal suite of SCMs based on the needs of watersheds. In this study, an urbanized watershed undergoing infill development (the Berkeley neighborhood located in Denver, [...] Read more.
Integrated decision support tools are needed to investigate the tradeoffs of stormwater control measures (SCMs) and determine the optimal suite of SCMs based on the needs of watersheds. In this study, an urbanized watershed undergoing infill development (the Berkeley neighborhood located in Denver, CO, USA) was modeled using a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN (SUSTAIN). The primary goal was to compare the relative performance between green and grey SCMs, use optimizations and a planning-level approach to assist in decision-making, and discuss how stakeholder and community preferences can shift which SCMs are optimal for the watershed. Green and grey SCMs have variable hydrologic performance based on design and function, and both offer benefits that may be important to decision makers. Our results showed that infiltration trenches and underground infiltration were optimal for reducing flow volumes while vegetated swales and underground detention were optimal for pollutant concentration reduction. Stakeholders value both of these benefits and so the optimal stormwater solution in the Berkeley neighborhood included a mix of green and grey SCMs. Determining the optimal SCMs while considering tradeoffs in costs and associated benefits was complex and multifaceted. Modeling results such as those presented here are critical for informing stakeholders’ decision-making process. Full article
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Article
Attitude and Actual Behaviour towards Water-Related Green Infrastructures and Sustainable Drainage Systems in Four North-Western Mediterranean Regions of Italy and France
Water 2020, 12(5), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051474 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Water-related green infrastructures (WrGIs), also known as blue infrastructures, and sustainable drainage systems (SuDSs) offer services such as stormwater runoff management, water purification, water storage at the intersection of the built environment, and natural systems by mimicking natural hydrological processes. While several papers [...] Read more.
Water-related green infrastructures (WrGIs), also known as blue infrastructures, and sustainable drainage systems (SuDSs) offer services such as stormwater runoff management, water purification, water storage at the intersection of the built environment, and natural systems by mimicking natural hydrological processes. While several papers document the reliability of such infrastructures in providing a variety of water-related services, few studies investigated the actual behaviour and the attitude of different stakeholders to understand the limitations and barriers in WrGIs/SuDSs implementation. In this paper, we investigated these issues by posing a set of questions to 71 qualified stakeholders in three Italian regions (Toscana, Liguria, and Sardegna) and one French region (Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur) in the northwestern Mediterranean. The results of the investigation largely show a lack of knowledge on these innovative solutions, although there is a general interest in their implementation both in the Italian and French regions. Barriers are also constituted by the scarcity of the demonstrators implemented, little knowledge on construction and maintenance costs, the absence of a proper regulatory framework, and of fiscal and financial incentives to support private citizens and companies. We finally suggest tools and soft measures that, in our opinion, may contribute to supporting the implementation of WrGIs/SuDSs, especially in view of adapting Mediterranean territories to the challenges posed by climate change. The results of our analyses may be reasonably up-scaled to the whole Mediterranean coastal region. Full article
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Article
Urban Flood Prediction Using Deep Neural Network with Data Augmentation
Water 2020, 12(3), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030899 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Data-driven models using an artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning (DL) and numerical models are applied in flood analysis of the urban watershed, which has a complex drainage system. In particular, data-driven models using neural networks can quickly present the results and be [...] Read more.
Data-driven models using an artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning (DL) and numerical models are applied in flood analysis of the urban watershed, which has a complex drainage system. In particular, data-driven models using neural networks can quickly present the results and be used for flood forecasting. However, not a lot of data with actual flood history and heavy rainfalls are available, it is difficult to conduct a preliminary analysis of flood in urban areas. In this study, a deep neural network (DNN) was used to predict the total accumulative overflow, and because of the insufficiency of observed rainfall data, 6 h of rainfall were surveyed nationwide in Korea. Statistical characteristics of each rainfall event were used as input data for the DNN. The target value of the DNN was the total accumulative overflow calculated from Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulations, and the methodology of data augmentation was applied to increase the input data. The SWMM is one-dimensional model for rainfall-runoff analysis. The data augmentation allowed enrichment of the training data for DNN. The data augmentation was applied ten times for each input combination, and the practicality of the data augmentation was determined by predicting the total accumulative overflow over the testing data and the observed rainfall. The prediction result of DNN was compared with the simulated result obtained using the SWMM model, and it was confirmed that the predictive performance was improved on applying data augmentation. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Hyetographs for Drainage System Modeling
Water 2020, 12(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010149 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Modeling the reliability of storm water drainage systems encounters a number of methodological difficulties, especially in the selection of a reliable rainfall scenario. Many methods for creating reference hyetographs are described in the literature. The aim of the work was the analysis of [...] Read more.
Modeling the reliability of storm water drainage systems encounters a number of methodological difficulties, especially in the selection of a reliable rainfall scenario. Many methods for creating reference hyetographs are described in the literature. The aim of the work was the analysis of the shapes of local precipitation hyetographs and the verification of the reference shapes of rainfall hyetographs used for the drainage systems designing and modeling its operation in Poland (Euler type II and DVWK models). The research material was represented by historical records of rainfall data from the measuring station located in Jelenia Góra (Poland). Rainfall were grouped due to the similarity of physical features, using various methodologies: Huff, cluster analysis using the Ward and k-means methods. The k-means method proved to be especially useful for selecting precipitation in terms of shape hyetographs. The statistical analysis of the similarity of the rainfall hyetograph shapes was performed within the separated genetic clusters, based on the parameters of mass distributions and unevenness over time. The comparative analysis allowed for the positive verification of the Euler type II and DVWK models for the tested station. Full article
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Article
Advanced Operating Technique for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs Based on Flood Forecasting to Increase System Resilience in Urban Watersheds
Water 2019, 11(8), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081533 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
The frequency of inundation in urban watersheds has increased, and structural measures have been conducted to prevent flood damage. The current non-structural measures for complementing structural measures are mostly independent non-structural measures. Unlike the current non-structural measures, the new operating technique based on [...] Read more.
The frequency of inundation in urban watersheds has increased, and structural measures have been conducted to prevent flood damage. The current non-structural measures for complementing structural measures are mostly independent non-structural measures. Unlike the current non-structural measures, the new operating technique based on flood forecasting is a real-time mixed measure, which means the combination of different non-structural measures. Artificial rainfall events based on the Huff distribution were used to generate preliminary and dangerous thresholds of flood forecasting. The new operation for centralized and decentralized reservoirs was conducted by two thresholds. The new operation showed good performance in terms of flooding and resilience based on historical rainfall events in 2010 and 2011. The flooding volume in the new operation decreased from 6617 to 3368 m3 compared to the current operation in 2010, and the flooding volume in 2011 decreased from 664 to 490 m3. In the 2010 event, the results of resilience were 0.831835 and 0.866566 in current and new operations, respectively. The result of resilience increased from 0.988823 to 0.993029 in the 2011 event. This suggestion can be applied to operating facilities in urban drainage systems and might provide a standard for the design process of urban drainage facilities. Full article
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Article
Characterising Recycled Organic and Mineral Materials for Use as Filter Media in Biofiltration Systems
Water 2019, 11(5), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051074 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Filter media (FM) sourced from recycled organic and mineral materials offer an effective and low cost means of treating urban stormwater. Using recycled materials rather than the increasingly scarce source of virgin materials (typically sandy loam soil) can ensure a sustainable and long-term [...] Read more.
Filter media (FM) sourced from recycled organic and mineral materials offer an effective and low cost means of treating urban stormwater. Using recycled materials rather than the increasingly scarce source of virgin materials (typically sandy loam soil) can ensure a sustainable and long-term economy and environment. This paper presents the results from the laboratory analysis and mathematical modelling to highlight the performance of recycled organic and mineral materials in removing nutrients and metals from stormwater. The analysis included the physical and chemical characterisation of particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, effective cation exchange capacity, and pollutant removal performance. The design mixes (DM), comprising a combination of organic and mineral materials, were characterised and used to develop/derive the modelling design within the Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC v6). Comparison is made to the Adoption Guidelines for Stormwater Biofiltration Systems—Summary Report which were based on the Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB) guidelines to assist in the development of biofiltration systems, including the planning, design, construction, and operation of those systems. An observed outcome from over two decades of biofiltration guideline development has been the exclusion of alternative biofilter materials due to claims of excessive leaching. Results from this study indicate that high nutrient and metal removal rates can be achieved over a range of hydraulic conductivities using design mixes of recycled organic and mineral materials that have a demonstrated equivalence to existing guideline specifications. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Review of Roof and Pond Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Water Security: The Design, Performance and Way Forward
Water 2020, 12(11), 3163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113163 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Rapid urbanization, population explosion and climate change have threatened water security globally, regionally and locally. While there are many ways of addressing these problems, one of the innovative techniques is the recent employment of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) which include rainwater harvesting [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization, population explosion and climate change have threatened water security globally, regionally and locally. While there are many ways of addressing these problems, one of the innovative techniques is the recent employment of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) which include rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS). Therefore, this paper reviews the design and component of two types of RWHS, the namely roof harvesting system (RHS) and the pond harvesting system (PHS). The performance in terms of quantity and quality of collected rainwater and energy consumption for RWHS with different capacities were evaluated, as well as the benefits and challenges particularly in environmental, economic and social aspects. Presently, the RHS is more commonly applied but its effectiveness is limited by its small scale. The PHS is of larger scale and has greater potentials and effectiveness as an alternative water supply system. Results also indicate the many advantages of the PHS especially in terms of economics, environmental aspects and volume of water harvested. While the RHS may be suited to individual or existing buildings, the PHS has greater potentials and should be applied in newly developed urban areas with wet equatorial climate. Full article
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