Special Issue "Advances in Rainfall Partitioning in Natural and Urban Environments"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecohydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2023 | Viewed by 1918

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements, Transylvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania
Interests: ecohydrology; water resources; biogeochemistry; rainfall interception; stemflow; throughfall; hyrcanian forest; caspian forest; rainfall partitioning; evapotranspiration; iran; forest hydrology
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Dr. Mojca Šraj
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: watershed hydrology; hydrological modeling; hydrological extreme analysis; floods; flood frequency analysis; nonstationarity of hydrological extremes; copula function; rainfall interception; evapotranspiration; climate change impact
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Water aims to gather high-quality original research articles, reviews, and technical notes concerning advances in rainfall partitioning in natural and urban environmental studies.

The interactions between forest and water have been studied for over a century. Forest hydrology deals with the water balance of forests, particularly regarding precipitation (as a rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow, and rainfall interceptions), evapotranspiration, transpiration, runoff, infiltration, and groundwater recharge in different forest types and management systems. Rainfall partitioning studies in large watersheds are limited, mainly due to the lack of an efficient, commonly accepted methodology. Successful water cycle modelling in forest ecosystems is highly dependent on the availability of data on each part of the hydrological cycle. Hence, if we desire to fully understand how vegetation impacts the hydrological cycle, we should consider and quantify rainfall partitioning as well as different factors influencing the process of rainfall partitioning (e.g., meteorological variables, rainfall microstructure, vegetation characteristics, seasonality, etc.).

In this Special Issue, we focus on studies dealing with novel observations or model techniques aiming to increase our understanding of rainfall partitioning, both in time and space, and on a small scale as well as a regional–global scale. Contributions may address any impact of vegetation or meteorological characteristics on rainfall partitioning in urban or natural environments.

Dr. Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi
Dr. Mojca Šraj
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • forest hydrology
  • ecohydrology
  • rainfall partitioning
  • rainfall interception modelling
  • throughfall
  • stemflow
  • rainfall interception
  • litter interception
  • evapotranspiration
  • measurements

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Comparison of Rainfall Partitioning and Estimation of the Utilisation of Available Water in a Monoculture Beech Forest and a Mixed Beech-Oak-Linden Forest
Water 2023, 15(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020285 - 09 Jan 2023
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Abstract
Monoculture forests formed by Fagus sylvatica L. belong to one of the most sensitive forest ecosystems, mainly at low altitudes. Cultivation of this species in mixed stands should reduce its sensitivity to drought in the vegetation period, which is why we researched the [...] Read more.
Monoculture forests formed by Fagus sylvatica L. belong to one of the most sensitive forest ecosystems, mainly at low altitudes. Cultivation of this species in mixed stands should reduce its sensitivity to drought in the vegetation period, which is why we researched the water balance in one pure-beech (i.e., monoculture) and one beech–oak–linden (i.e., mixed) forest. This research was carried out in Drahanská vrchovina in the Czech Republic in the period 2019–2021. The total precipitation was measured, together with its partitions (i.e., throughfall and stemflow), and the crown interception was also calculated. The total forest transpiration was calculated from the values measured on the sample trees. The values of each rainfall partition and transpiration (and their percentages) were compared. The rainfall partitions in the monoculture forest differed from those in the mixed forest. While, on average, the annual percentages of the throughfall, stemflow and crown interception in the monoculture forest were 63%, 6% and 31%, respectively, these partitions in the mixed forest were 76%, 2% and 22%, respectively. The crown interception was greater in the monoculture (31% of precipitation) and the effective precipitation (i.e., the sum of throughfall and stemflow) was greater in the mixed forest (78% of precipitation). The greatest differences (in each rainfall partition) between the monoculture and mixed forest were in the summer and winter. The throughfall was greater in the mixed forest (ca. 22% in the summer and ca. 12% in the winter), and the stemflow was greater in the monoculture forest (ca. 66% in the summer and ca. 51% in the winter). The mean annual transpiration was 318 (±52) mm in the monoculture and 451 (±58) mm in the mixed forest, i.e., about 99 (±65) mm more in the mixed forest than in the monoculture forest. The transpiration, in comparison with the effective precipitation, made up, on average, 70% of the effective precipitation in the monoculture forest. On the other hand, the transpiration reached 71% (in 2019), 74% (in 2020) and even 100% (in 2021) of the effective precipitation in the mixed forest. Our results show that an oak–beech–linden mixed forest can manage water better than a beech monoculture because more precipitation leaked through the mixed forest onto the soil than through the monoculture, especially via the throughfall in the summer. On the other hand, the amount of water that transpired was greater in the mixed forest than in the monoculture. However, the utilisation of the effective precipitation by trees was very similar in the monoculture in all three years, while, in the mixed forest, the utilisation of the effective water by trees increased, which may have been caused by the saturation of the deeper soil layers with water in the first two years of measurement. We can, Therefore, say that, at lower altitudes, it will be more suitable in the future to cultivate beech in mixed forests because of the assumed lack of water (mainly in early spring and summer). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rainfall Partitioning in Natural and Urban Environments)
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Article
Rainfall Partitioning by Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-Leaved Xerophytic Tree Species: Influence of Rainfall, Canopy Characteristics, and Meteorology
Water 2022, 14(22), 3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223723 - 17 Nov 2022
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Abstract
Understanding how rainfall is partitioned into throughfall, stemflow, and interception losses by xerophytic trees is important for evaluating afforestation projects and modeling hydrological budgets in semi-arid regions. However, information regarding rainfall partitioning by xerophytic trees and the controlling factors in semi-arid regions remains [...] Read more.
Understanding how rainfall is partitioned into throughfall, stemflow, and interception losses by xerophytic trees is important for evaluating afforestation projects and modeling hydrological budgets in semi-arid regions. However, information regarding rainfall partitioning by xerophytic trees and the controlling factors in semi-arid regions remains underrepresented in the literature. We examined whether plant functional groups have a significant impact on rainfall partitioning in two xerophytic trees (evergreen species: Pinus tabuliformis (Pinales:Pinaceae) hereafter called P. tabuliformis, deciduous species: Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabales:Fabaceae) hereafter called R. pseudoacacia) commonly used for afforestation on the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China, and evaluated the effects of rainfall, canopy characteristics and meteorological variables on rainfall partitioning. The event-based gross rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured during both growing (May–October) and dormant (January–April and November–December) seasons in 2015 and 2016 within an afforested watershed in semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. During our study period, the average rainfall depth for growing season and dormant season was 8.4 mm (varied from 0.2 to 57.6 mm) and 5.6 mm (varied from 0.2 to 41.6 mm), respectively. On average, the measured throughfall, stemflow and interception loss for R. pseudoacacia accounted for 81.8%, 1.4% and 16.8% of gross rainfall, respectively. Corresponding values for P. tabuliformis were 75.1%, 0.7% and 24.1%, respectively. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in stemflow were detected between R. pseudoacacia and P. tabuliformis during both the growing and dormant seasons. The rainfall partitioning components were significantly positively correlated with individual rainfall amounts. The minimum rainfall required to generate stemflow was 5.2 mm for R. pseudoacacia and 5.9 mm for P. tabuliformis during the growing season, and 3.1 mm for R. pseudoacacia and 6.0 mm for P. tabuliformis during the dormant season. Smaller rainfall events contributed to a lower percentage of rainfall amount, throughfall and stemflow but higher percentage of canopy interception loss. The percentage of throughfall and stemflow showed an increased tendency with increasing rain-fall characteristics, while the increasing rainfall characteristics resulted in a decrease in relative interception loss. During the growing season, leaf area index is significantly correlated with throughfall and interception loss of R. pseudoacacia, while there were no significant correlation between meteorological variables and rainfall partitioning. In general, the depth of rainfall partitioning can be predicted reasonably well by using the developed multiple regression models, but the proportions of rainfall partitioning had a relative lower accuracy using the developed models, especially for relative interception loss. To better predict canopy interception loss, other plant morphological and meteorological variables should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rainfall Partitioning in Natural and Urban Environments)
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Article
Rainstorms Inducing Shifts of River Hydrochemistry during a Winter Season in the Central Appalachian Region
Water 2022, 14(17), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172687 - 30 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Rainstorms rapidly change catchment conditions which can alter river flow and water constituents due to the transport and fate of suspended and dissolved solids and the river water chemistry. To understand river water chemistry changes, this investigation relies on field data collected during [...] Read more.
Rainstorms rapidly change catchment conditions which can alter river flow and water constituents due to the transport and fate of suspended and dissolved solids and the river water chemistry. To understand river water chemistry changes, this investigation relies on field data collected during a winter season. The Kanawha River in West Virginia was monitored using grab water samples and continuous readings from two water quality stations (Q1 and Q2) separated by 23.5 km. Water samples allowed the identification of water chemistry, whereas the two stations retrieved hourly measurements of temperature, turbidity, NO3, Cl and pH to capture transient rainstorm responses. It was found through the Piper diagram that water type was mainly calcium-chloride, whereas the Gibbs diagram identified that the dominant geochemical process was rock weathering. On the other hand, during transient rainstorms responses, we found that concentrations of HCO3, NO3 and Cl changed from bicarbonate type to no dominant type. Furthermore, hysteretic effects of rainstorms were influenced by the soil moisture of the catchment area. Additionally, HCO3 and NO3 had different hysteretic loop directions between Q1 and Q2. This approach proved that river water chemistry adjustments caused by rainstorms were successfully identified by relying on grab water samples and continuous measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rainfall Partitioning in Natural and Urban Environments)
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