Special Issue "Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 18032

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Álvaro Sordo-Ward
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering: Hydraulics, Energy and Environment, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: hydrology and hydraulics; planning and management of hydraulic systems; hydrological safety of hydraulic infrastructure; eco-hydrology; climate change
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Water calls for original research papers focused on the broadest sense of hydraulic infrastructure, from the management of the infrastructure itself in order to enhance its hydrological safety and optimize the demand–supply, to its management as part of regulated water resources systems so as to develop water basin plans.
Research studies related to planning and management of hydraulic infrastructure include: management of hydraulic structures to deal with droughts and floods, dam safety analysis, dam risk analysis, conflicts that arise from the operation of multipurpose reservoirs, integrated early warning systems, design of hydraulic infrastructure by simultaneously accounting for dam safety and water resources management, uncertainty analysis, climate change effects on water resources systems, sensitivity analysis of adaptation measures, the economic effect of climate change on regulated water resources systems, assessment of water availability, and evaluation of a system´s performance. Studies developing integrated modeling frameworks involving the social, human, economic, and environmental dimensions of the hydraulic infrastructures, and those dealing with conflict resolution and stakeholder-oriented systems, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Álvaro Sordo-Ward
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • hydraulic structure
  • water resources systems
  • hydrological dam safety
  • water planning
  • water management
  • climate change effects
  • uncertainty analysis
  • integrated modeling framework
  • economic analysis

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Stochastic Hybrid Event Based and Continuous Approach to Derive Flood Frequency Curve
Water 2021, 13(14), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141931 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 833
Abstract
This study proposes a methodology that combines the advantages of the event-based and continuous models, for the derivation of the maximum flow and maximum hydrograph volume frequency curves, by combining a stochastic continuous weather generator (the advanced weather generator, abbreviated as AWE-GEN) with [...] Read more.
This study proposes a methodology that combines the advantages of the event-based and continuous models, for the derivation of the maximum flow and maximum hydrograph volume frequency curves, by combining a stochastic continuous weather generator (the advanced weather generator, abbreviated as AWE-GEN) with a fully distributed physically based hydrological model (the TIN-based real-time integrated basin simulator, abbreviated as tRIBS) that runs both event-based and continuous simulation. The methodology is applied to Peacheater Creek, a 64 km2 basin located in Oklahoma, United States. First, a continuous set of 5000 years’ hourly weather forcing series is generated using the stochastic weather generator AWE-GEN. Second, a hydrological continuous simulation of 50 years of the climate series is generated with the hydrological model tRIBS. Simultaneously, the separation of storm events is performed by applying the exponential method to the 5000- and 50-years climate series. From the continuous simulation of 50 years, the mean soil moisture in the top 10 cm (MSM10) of the soil layer of the basin at an hourly time step is extracted. Afterwards, from the times series of hourly MSM10, the values associated to all the storm events within the 50 years of hourly weather series are extracted. Therefore, each storm event has an initial soil moisture value associated (MSM10Event). Thus, the probability distribution of MSM10Event for each month of the year is obtained. Third, the five major events of each of the 5000 years in terms of total depth are simulated in an event-based framework in tRIBS, assigning an initial moisture state value for the basin using a Monte Carlo framework. Finally, the maximum annual hydrographs are obtained in terms of maximum peak-flow and volume, and the associated frequency curves are derived. To validate the method, the results obtained by the hybrid method are compared to those obtained by deriving the flood frequency curves from the continuous simulation of 5000 years, analyzing the maximum annual peak-flow and maximum annual volume, and the dependence between the peak-flow and volume. Independence between rainfall events and prior hydrological soil moisture conditions has been proved. The proposed hybrid method can reproduce the univariate flood frequency curves with a good agreement to those obtained by the continuous simulation. The maximum annual peak-flow frequency curve is obtained with a Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.98, whereas the maximum annual volume frequency curve is obtained with a Nash–Sutcliffe value of 0.97. The proposed hybrid method permits to generate hydrological forcing by using a fully distributed physically based model but reducing the computation times on the order from months to hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Efficient Design of Road Drainage Systems
Water 2021, 13(12), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121661 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Excess surface water on roadways due to storm events can cause hazardous scenarios for traffic. The design of efficient road and transportation facility drainage systems is a major challenge. Different approaches to limit excess surface water can be found in the drainage design [...] Read more.
Excess surface water on roadways due to storm events can cause hazardous scenarios for traffic. The design of efficient road and transportation facility drainage systems is a major challenge. Different approaches to limit excess surface water can be found in the drainage design standards of different countries. This document presents a method based on hydraulic numerical simulation and the assessment of grate inlet efficiency using the Iber model. The method is suitable for application to design criteria according to the regulations of different countries. The presented method facilitates sensitivity analyses of the performance of different scupper dispositions through the total control of the hydraulic behavior of each of the grate inlets considered in each scenario. The detailed hydraulic information can be the basis of different solution comparisons to make better decisions and obtain solutions that maximize efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
A Stochastic Procedure for Temporal Disaggregation of Daily Rainfall Data in SuDS Design
Water 2021, 13(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040403 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Hydrological design of Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) is commonly achieved by estimating rainfall volumetric percentiles from daily rainfall series. Nevertheless, urban watersheds demand rainfall data at sub-hourly time step. Temporal disaggregation of daily rainfall records using stochastic methodologies can be applied to [...] Read more.
Hydrological design of Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) is commonly achieved by estimating rainfall volumetric percentiles from daily rainfall series. Nevertheless, urban watersheds demand rainfall data at sub-hourly time step. Temporal disaggregation of daily rainfall records using stochastic methodologies can be applied to improve SuDS design parameters. This paper is aimed to analyze the ability of the synthetic rainfall generation process to reproduce the main characteristics of the observed rainfall and the estimation of the hydrologic parameters often used for SuDS design and by using the generally available daily rainfall data. Other specifics objectives are to analyze the effect of Minimum Inter-event Time (MIT) and storm volume threshold on rainfall volumetric percentiles commonly used in SuDS design. The reliability of the stochastic spatial-temporal model RainSim V.3 to reproduce observed key characteristics of rainfall pattern and volumetric percentiles, was also investigated. Observed and simulated continuous rainfall series with sub-hourly time-step were used to calculate four key characteristics of rainfall and two types of rainfall volumetric percentiles. To separate independent rainstorm events, MIT values of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h and storm volume thresholds of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm were considered. Results show that the proposed methodology improves the estimation of the key characteristics of the rainfall events as well as the hydrologic parameters for SuDS design, compared with values directly deduced from the observed rainfall series with daily time-step. Moreover, MITs rainfall volumetric percentiles of total number of rainfall events are very sensitive to MIT and threshold values, while percentiles of total volume of accumulated rainfall series are sensitive only to MIT values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Influence of Erodible Beds on Shallow Water Hydrodynamics during Flood Events
Water 2020, 12(12), 3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123340 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Flooding has become the most common environmental hazard, causing casualties and severe economic losses. Mathematical models are a useful tool for flood control, and current computational resources let us simulate flood events with two-dimensional (2D) approaches. An open question is whether bed erosion [...] Read more.
Flooding has become the most common environmental hazard, causing casualties and severe economic losses. Mathematical models are a useful tool for flood control, and current computational resources let us simulate flood events with two-dimensional (2D) approaches. An open question is whether bed erosion must be accounted for when it comes to simulating flood events. In this paper we answer this question through numerical simulations using the 2D depth-averaged shallow-water equations. We analyze the effect of mobile beds on the flow patterns during flood events. We focus on channel confluences where water flow and sediment mobilization have a marked 2D behavior. We validate our numerical simulations with laboratory experiments of erodible beds with satisfactory results. Moreover, our sensitivity analysis indicates that the bed roughness model has a great influence on the simulated erosion and deposition patterns. We simulate the sediment transport and its influence on the water flow in a real river confluence during flood events. Our simulations show that the erosion and deposition processes play an important role on the water depth and flow velocity patterns. Accounting for the mobile bed leads to smoother water depth and velocity fields, as abrupt fields for the non-erodible model emerge from the irregular bed topography. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for erosion in the simulation of flood events, and the impact on the water depth and velocity fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Probabilistic Model for Real-Time Flood Operation of a Dam Based on a Deterministic Optimization Model
Water 2020, 12(11), 3206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113206 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
This paper presents a real-time flood control model for dams with gate-controlled spillways that brings together the advantages of an optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and a case-based learning scheme using Bayesian Networks (BNets). A BNet model was designed [...] Read more.
This paper presents a real-time flood control model for dams with gate-controlled spillways that brings together the advantages of an optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and a case-based learning scheme using Bayesian Networks (BNets). A BNet model was designed to reproduce the causal relationship between inflows, outflows and reservoir storage. The model was trained with synthetic events generated with the use of the MILP model. The BNet model produces a probabilistic description of recommended dam outflows over a time horizon of 1 to 5 h for the Talave reservoir in Spain. The results of implementing the BNet recommendation were compared against the results obtained while applying two conventional models: the MILP model, which assumes full knowledge of the inflow hydrograph, and the Volumetric Evaluation Method (VEM), a method widely used in Spain that works in real-time, but without any knowledge of future inflows. In order to compare the results of the three methods, the global risk index (Ir) was computed for each method, based on the simulated behavior for an ensemble of hydrograph inflows. The Ir values associated to the 2 h-forecast BNet model are lower than those obtained for VEM, which suggests improvement over standard practice. In conclusion, the BNet arises as a suitable and efficient model to support dam operators for the decision making process during flood events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Geomechanical Constraints on Hydro-Seismicity: Tidal Forcing and Reservoir Operation
Water 2020, 12(10), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102724 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Understanding the risk associated with anthropogenic earthquakes is essential in the development and management of engineering processes and hydraulic infrastructure that may alter pore pressures and stresses at depth. The possibility of earthquakes triggered by reservoir impoundment, ocean tides, and hydrological events at [...] Read more.
Understanding the risk associated with anthropogenic earthquakes is essential in the development and management of engineering processes and hydraulic infrastructure that may alter pore pressures and stresses at depth. The possibility of earthquakes triggered by reservoir impoundment, ocean tides, and hydrological events at the Earth surface (hydro-seismicity) has been extensively debated. The link between induced seismicity and hydrological events is currently based on statistical correlations rather than on physical mechanisms. Here, we explore the geomechanical conditions that could allow for small pore pressure changes due to reservoir management and sea level changes to propagate to depths that are compatible with earthquake triggering at critically-stressed faults (several kilometers). We consider a damaged fault zone that is embedded in a poroelastic rock matrix, and conduct fully coupled hydromechanical simulations of pressure diffusion and rock deformation. We characterize the hydraulic and geomechanical properties of fault zones that could allow for small pressure and loading changes at the ground surface (in the order of tens or hundreds of kPa) to propagate with relatively small attenuation to seismogenic depths (up to 10 km). We find that pressure diffusion to such depths is only possible for highly permeable fault zones and/or strong poroelastic coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Analysis of the Sealing Mechanism of Cement-Sodium Silicate Grout in Rock Fractures with Flowing Water
Water 2020, 12(7), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071935 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
The diffusion and sealing mechanisms of cement-sodium silicate grout (C-S grout), which is widely used in flowing water sealing projects, are complicated. Based on a large-scale quasi-three-dimensional simulation test platform of fracture dynamic water grouting, an orthogonal experiment of flowing-water sealing of C-S [...] Read more.
The diffusion and sealing mechanisms of cement-sodium silicate grout (C-S grout), which is widely used in flowing water sealing projects, are complicated. Based on a large-scale quasi-three-dimensional simulation test platform of fracture dynamic water grouting, an orthogonal experiment of flowing-water sealing of C-S grout was performed. The grout was shown to diffuse in the form of an asymmetric ellipse. The flowing-water sealing process consists of three stages: (1) the grout diffuses to the fracture boundary in an asymmetrical ellipse; (2) the solidified body of grout develops; (3) the stable solidified body forms. The sealing efficiency was evaluated and graded by the reduction of water drainage through the fracture after grouting. Based on the test data, the factors that affect sealing efficiency can be listed in the following order from strong to weak: grout gel time, flowing water velocity, grout take, fracture plane width, and fracture aperture. Finally, a fitting equation was acquired to provide a reference for practical engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
May a Standard VOF Numerical Simulation Adequately Complete Spillway Laboratory Measurements in an Operational Context? The Case of Sa Stria Dam
Water 2020, 12(6), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061606 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
The present work aims to assess whether a standard numerical simulation (RANS-VOF model with kϵ closure) can adequately model experimental measurements obtained in a dam physical model. The investigation is carried out on the Sa Stria Dam, a roller compacted concrete [...] Read more.
The present work aims to assess whether a standard numerical simulation (RANS-VOF model with k ϵ closure) can adequately model experimental measurements obtained in a dam physical model. The investigation is carried out on the Sa Stria Dam, a roller compacted concrete gravity dam currently under construction in Southern Sardinia (Italy). The original project, for which a physical model was simulated, included a downstream secondary dam. However, due to both economic and technical reasons, the secondary dam may not be built. Hence, it is important to assess the flood discharge routing and energy dissipation in the modified plan. Numerical validation is performed adopting the same laboratory configuration, in presence of the downstream dam, and results show a good agreement with mean experimental variables (i.e., pressure, water level). An alternative configuration without the downstream dam is here numerically tested to understand the conditions of flood discharge and assess whether its results can give relevant information for the design of mitigation measures. The topic is of interest also from a more general perspective. Indeed, the feasibility to integrate numerical models with existing laboratory measurements can be very useful not only for new constructions but also for existing dams, which may need either maintenance or upgrading works, such as in case of flood discharge increment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Thermal Simulation of Rolled Concrete Dams: Influence of the Hydration Model and the Environmental Actions on the Thermal Field
Water 2020, 12(3), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030858 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Mathematical models for the simulation of the thermal evolution of roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dams during construction constitute an important tool for preventing excessive temperature rise, which may lead to cracking and losses of functionality. Here, we present a framework for the simulation of [...] Read more.
Mathematical models for the simulation of the thermal evolution of roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dams during construction constitute an important tool for preventing excessive temperature rise, which may lead to cracking and losses of functionality. Here, we present a framework for the simulation of the thermal process. We define the boundary conditions of the problem using a careful description that incorporates the main heat exchange mechanisms. We adopt both a non-adiabatic and an adiabatic heat generation model for the simulation of the cement hydration. Our numerical framework lets us study the effect of the adopted heat generation model on the thermal field. Moreover, we study the influence of the weather conditions on the evolution of the hydration, and on the starting date of construction. Our simulations have shown that the hydration model has an important influence over the temperature field during the construction and the heat generation rate. Moreover, the hydration process and the temperature evolution are driven by the weather conditions. Once the next lift is cast, its thermal insulation effect makes the hydration take place under quasi-adiabatic conditions. As expected, dams built in cold months are prone to dissipate more heat than those built in warm seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
Multi-Objective Approach for Determining Optimal Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Combination at City Scale. The Case of San Luis Potosí (México)
Water 2020, 12(3), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030835 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
A method for determining the optimal Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDs) combination at city scale is presented in this paper. A comprehensive set of SUDs categories comprising infrastructures aimed at either detaining and locally reusing or infiltrating precipitation are considered. A volumetric water [...] Read more.
A method for determining the optimal Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDs) combination at city scale is presented in this paper. A comprehensive set of SUDs categories comprising infrastructures aimed at either detaining and locally reusing or infiltrating precipitation are considered. A volumetric water balance is proposed for modelling hydrological processes in urban catchments. A multi-criteria approach combining a cost function and aims for both recharging aquifers and limiting runoff contribution to water courses is proposed to find the optimal SUDs combination. The water balance was run with each possible SUDs combination and the optimal set of SUDs was found. The method was applied to the Metropolitan Area of San Luis Potosí (Mexico). The optimal solutions in this case clearly promoted surface runoff detention and reuse over porous pavements and green roofs but they were sensitive to the considered costs. The SUD requirements to potential new urban developments for each catchment to comply with the original hydrological aims were also studied. The method requires customizing the cost function and using representative climatic data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
A Deterministic Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Dam Safety Flow Control Assessment
Water 2020, 12(2), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020505 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Simulation has become more widely applied for analysis of dam safety flow control in recent years. Stochastic simulation has proven to be a useful tool that allows for easy estimation of the overall probability of dam overtopping failure. However, it is difficult to [...] Read more.
Simulation has become more widely applied for analysis of dam safety flow control in recent years. Stochastic simulation has proven to be a useful tool that allows for easy estimation of the overall probability of dam overtopping failure. However, it is difficult to analyze “uncommon combinations of events” with a stochastic approach given current computing abilities, because (a) the likelihood of these combinations of events is small, and (b) there may not be enough simulated instances of these rare scenarios to determine their criticality. In this research, a Deterministic Monte Carlo approach is presented, which uses an exhaustive list of possible combinations of events (scenarios) as a deterministic input. System dynamics simulation is used to model the dam system interactions so that low-level events within the system can be propagated through the model to determine high-level system outcomes. Monte Carlo iterations are performed for each input scenario. A case study is presented with results from a single example scenario to demonstrate how the simulation framework can be used to estimate the criticality parameters for each combination of events simulated. The approach can analyze these rare events in a thorough and systematic way, providing a better coverage of the possibility space as well as valuable insights into system vulnerabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Article
An Assessment on Permeability and Grout Take of Limestone: A Case Study at Mut Dam, Karaman, Turkey
Water 2019, 11(12), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122649 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
The main purposes of the present study are to evaluate pilot grouting and to develop regression equations for prediction of grout intake. There are no permeability problems with the sandstone-siltstone-claystone alternations and basement clayey limestone at the dam site. Karstic limestone block is [...] Read more.
The main purposes of the present study are to evaluate pilot grouting and to develop regression equations for prediction of grout intake. There are no permeability problems with the sandstone-siltstone-claystone alternations and basement clayey limestone at the dam site. Karstic limestone block is permeable due to karstification and heavy discontinuities. For the purpose of the study, Q system, geological strength index (GSI), secondary permeability index (SPI), joint spacing (JSP), joint apertures (Ap), Lugeon (Lu), and the permeability coefficient (k) were determined. Karstic limestone block rock mass properties correlated with grouting material amount. A series of simple and multiple nonlinear regression analyses was performed between grout take material amount (Gt) and average values of these rock mass properties. Significant determination coefficients were determined. Prediction capacity of the empirical equations were also examined with root mean square error (RMSE), values account for (VAF), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and prediction error evaluations. Considering simple regression analyses, the equation derived with Gt-SPI gives the best performance. The best prediction is determined with the equation derived with rock quality designation values (RQD), SPI, and joint aperture as input parameters with the multiple nonlinear regression analysis, in addition to this, other empirical equations also provide acceptable results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Review

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Review
Sustainability Assessment in Water Infrastructure Projects—Existing Schemes and Challenges in Application
Water 2020, 12(9), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092383 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Ecological, economic and societal challenges require decision-making and planning processes aiming at sustainability in water management. Such processes are increasingly informed and supported by sustainability assessment schemes. The focus of this article is on water infrastructure. A selection of national (German) and international [...] Read more.
Ecological, economic and societal challenges require decision-making and planning processes aiming at sustainability in water management. Such processes are increasingly informed and supported by sustainability assessment schemes. The focus of this article is on water infrastructure. A selection of national (German) and international assessment schemes is presented and compared. Both interdisciplinary schemes, applicable to a wide range of infrastructure measures, as well as schemes specialized in water infrastructure are considered. In addition to methodological aspects and dissemination, thematic priorities are analyzed and compared. Apart from methodological similarity, specialized schemes tend to be still in the development stage. In contrast, the interdisciplinary schemes have already been used commercially and have been applied in a considerable number of projects. The schemes considered differ significantly in the number of criteria. The interdisciplinary schemes tend to focus more on the ecological dimension while considering a small number of economic criteria. The assessment results depend on various subjective factors and the schemes do not produce true or false results in absolute terms. However, their application can make these factors visible and help identify the most stable solution with regard to different sustainability perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Other

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Case Report
Riverbed Protection Downstream of an Undersized Stilling Basin by Means of Antifer Artificial Blocks
Water 2021, 13(5), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050619 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Erosion at either dam or spillway foundations, destabilization in riverbanks, and damage in the natural environment located downstream of either dams or spillways represent crucial elements to be taken into account in the risk assessment of hydraulic structures. One of the main problems [...] Read more.
Erosion at either dam or spillway foundations, destabilization in riverbanks, and damage in the natural environment located downstream of either dams or spillways represent crucial elements to be taken into account in the risk assessment of hydraulic structures. One of the main problems is related to the scouring that water flow may induce at the downstream boundary of spillways. This issue is exacerbated in the case of undersized stilling basins, i.e., when a significant level of energy migrates downstream by acting on unprotected natural riverbed. If the scour depths are large enough, the structural stability of the infrastructure will be threatened. This paper aims to illustrate an innovative technical solution suitable to protect the riverbed located just downstream of stilling basins by means of artificial Antifer blocks. These kinds of artificial blocks are widely used in the field of maritime construction, but in the literature, there are no theoretical formulations for their design within the frame of river engineering. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed technical solution, it is applied to a real case investigated by means of physical modeling. The riverbed located just downstream of the stilling basin of Liscione Dam (Campobasso, Italy) experienced scour due to high discharges during and after extreme rain events. Different protection strategies have been tested to assess the influence of different placement methods and packing densities on the stability of Antifer block armor layers. Experimental findings reveal that regular placements behave more stable than irregular placements with a similar packing density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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