Special Issue "Micromachined Environmental Sensors"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "C:Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hyoung Jin Cho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
Interests: MEMS fabrication; microsensors and microactuators; microfluidic devices
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Woo Hyoung Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
Interests: environemntal monitoring; electrochemistry; microsensors; water/wastewater treatment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Man-made pollution with emerging contaminants and its hazardous impact on environment and human health call out for innovative technological measures. The critical environmetal indicators have been traditionally obtained by gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These analyses, however, are often based on laborious procedures and cannot be applied to rapid, in situ, on-site detection when the time-sensitive, dynamic assessements are crucial.  As an increasing number of various sensors are interconnected and produce meaningful data in the era of IoT (internet of things), miniaturized sensors will be able to contribute to the rich data sets for real-time understanding of environmental conditions. The scope of this special issue includes but not limited to sensors for measuring physical, chemical and biological species and conditions in conjunction with environmental changes that arise from or impact on human activities. Various types of transducers based on, for example, chemiresistive, electrochemical and photoelectric working principles can be discussed as well as an array of fabrication technologies based on photolithography, soft lithography and direct printing methods, etc., for producing such devices on rigid and flexible substrates. Authors are welcome to propose novel environment-friendly methods in the design, fabrication and depolyment stages of environmental sensors as well.

Prof. Dr. Hyoung Jin Cho
Prof. Woo Hyoung Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • environmental sensors
  • air quality
  • water quality
  • pollution
  • in-situ analysis
  • sensor manufacturing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
A Carbon Nanotube–Metal Oxide Hybrid Material for Visible-Blind Flexible UV-Sensor
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040368 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Flexible sensors with low fabrication cost, high sensitivity, and good stability are essential for the development of smart devices for wearable electronics, soft robotics, and electronic skins. Herein, we report a nanocomposite material based on carbon nanotube and metal oxide semiconductor for ultraviolet [...] Read more.
Flexible sensors with low fabrication cost, high sensitivity, and good stability are essential for the development of smart devices for wearable electronics, soft robotics, and electronic skins. Herein, we report a nanocomposite material based on carbon nanotube and metal oxide semiconductor for ultraviolet (UV) sensing applications, and its sensing behavior. The sensors were prepared by a screen-printing process under a low-temperature curing condition. The formation of a conducting string node and a sensing node could enhance a UV sensing response, which could be attributed to the uniform mixing of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanoparticles. A fabricated device has shown a fast response time of 1.2 s and a high recovery time of 0.8 s with good mechanical stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromachined Environmental Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Flexible Method for Nanofiber-based 3D Microfluidic Device Fabrication for Water Quality Monitoring
Micromachines 2020, 11(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11030276 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Water pollution seriously affects human health. Accurate and rapid detection and timely treatment of toxic substances in water are urgently needed. A stacked multilayer electrostatic printing technique was developed for making nanofiber-based microfluidic chips for water-quality testing. Nanofiber membrane matrix structures for microfluidic [...] Read more.
Water pollution seriously affects human health. Accurate and rapid detection and timely treatment of toxic substances in water are urgently needed. A stacked multilayer electrostatic printing technique was developed for making nanofiber-based microfluidic chips for water-quality testing. Nanofiber membrane matrix structures for microfluidic devices were fabricated by electrospinning. A hydrophobic barrier was then printed through electrostatic wax printing. This process was repeatedly performed to create three-dimensional nanofiber-based microfluidic analysis devices (3D-µNMADs). Flexible printing enabled one-step fabrication without the need for additional alignment or adhesive bonding. Practical applications of 3D-µNMADs include a colorimetric platform to quantitatively detect iron ion concentrations in water. There is also great potential for personalized point-of-care testing. Overall, the devices offer simple fabrication processes, flexible prototyping, potential for mass production, and multi-material integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromachined Environmental Sensors)
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Open AccessCommunication
Fabrication of MoO3 Nanowire-based Membrane Devices for the Selective Adsorption of Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions with High Performance and Reusability
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10090586 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
A series of ultralong (up to tens of micrometers) MoO3 nanowire-based membranes were synthesized for the treatment of aqueous solutions containing the cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). This treatment method possesses extremely rapid and superhigh adsorbability (up to [...] Read more.
A series of ultralong (up to tens of micrometers) MoO3 nanowire-based membranes were synthesized for the treatment of aqueous solutions containing the cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). This treatment method possesses extremely rapid and superhigh adsorbability (up to 521 and 321 mg/g for MB and RhB, respectively), as well excellent selective adsorption ability of cationic dyes with respect to the anionic dye methyl orange (MO). Moreover, the cationic dyes on the membrane can be desorbed easily, and reusability is good. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromachined Environmental Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Bismuth-Chitosan Nanocomposite Sensor for Simultaneous Detection of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) in Wastewater
Micromachines 2019, 10(8), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10080511 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
A novel bismuth (Bi)-biopolymer (chitosan) nanocomposite screen-printed carbon electrode was developed using a Bi and chitosan co-electrodepositing technique for detecting multiple heavy metal ions. The developed sensor was fabricated with environmentally benign materials and processes. In real wastewater, heavy metal detection was evaluated [...] Read more.
A novel bismuth (Bi)-biopolymer (chitosan) nanocomposite screen-printed carbon electrode was developed using a Bi and chitosan co-electrodepositing technique for detecting multiple heavy metal ions. The developed sensor was fabricated with environmentally benign materials and processes. In real wastewater, heavy metal detection was evaluated by the developed sensor using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The nanocomposite sensor showed the detection limit of 0.1 ppb Zn2+, 0.1 ppb Cd2+ and 0.2 ppb Pb2+ in stock solutions. The improved sensitivity of the Bi-chitosan nanocomposite sensor over previously reported Bi nanocomposite sensors was attributed to the role of chitosan. When used for real wastewater samples collected from a mining site and soil leachate, similar detection limit values with 0.4 ppb Cd2+ and 0.3 ppb Pb2+ were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 1.3% to 5.6% (n = 8). Temperature changes (4 and 23 °C) showed no significant impact on sensor performance. Although Zn2+ in stock solutions was well measured by the sensor, the interference observed while detecting Zn2+ in the presence of Cu2+ was possibly due to the presence of Cu-Zn intermetallic species in mining wastewater. Overall, the developed sensor has the capability of monitoring multiple heavy metals in contaminated water samples without the need for complicated sample preparation or transportation of samples to a laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromachined Environmental Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Developments of PFAS-Detecting Sensors and Future Direction: A Review
Micromachines 2020, 11(7), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11070667 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently been labeled as toxic constituents that exist in many aqueous environments. However, traditional methods used to determine the level of PFASs are often not appropriate for continuous environmental monitoring and management. Based on the current state [...] Read more.
Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently been labeled as toxic constituents that exist in many aqueous environments. However, traditional methods used to determine the level of PFASs are often not appropriate for continuous environmental monitoring and management. Based on the current state of research, PFAS-detecting sensors have surfaced as a promising method of determination. These sensors are an innovative solution with characteristics that allow for in situ, low-cost, and easy-to-use capabilities. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the recent developments in PFAS-detecting sensors, and why the literature on determination methods has shifted in this direction compared to the traditional methods used. PFAS-detecting sensors discussed herein are primarily categorized in terms of the detection mechanism used. The topics covered also include the current limitations, as well as insight on the future direction of PFAS analyses. This paper is expected to be useful for the smart sensing technology development of PFAS detection methods and the associated environmental management best practices in smart cities of the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromachined Environmental Sensors)
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