Special Issue "Membrane and Membrane-Based Hybrid Processes for Water Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mohtada Sadrzadeh
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Interests: water treatment; membranes; membrane fabrication; nanocomposite membranes; membrane-based hybrid processes; thin film composite membranes; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; ultrafiltration; microfiltration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Toraj Mohammadi
Website
Guest Editor
Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran
Interests: separation processes; water and gas treatment; membranes; membrane fabrication; nanocomposite membranes; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; ultrafiltration; microfiltration; pervaporation; gas separation; membrane distillation; polymer and zeolite membranes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Demand for freshwater has significantly increased over the past decade with the exponential growth of the world’s population and rapid industrialization. Nowadays, about one-fifth of the world’s population suffer from severe water shortage and limited access to clean water. The lack of freshwater has therefore intensified efforts to upgrade the available water treatment processes and to develop advanced techniques to treat, purify, recycle and reuse water sustainably. Membrane separation processes have become one of the fastest emerging technologies for desalination and water treatment due to their distinct advantages over traditional methods such as adsorption, coagulation, biological treatment, and oxidation. In particular, membrane processes provide lower operating costs, compact design and high product quality. However, high susceptibility of membranes to fouling, restricts the development of sustainable and energy-efficient membrane processes for water treatment. Given that, much research and development have been recently undertaken to develop either high-performance antifouling membranes or membrane-based hybrid processes. Enhanced antifouling properties were typically achieved via membrane surface modification techniques including: (i) photo- and redox-initiated grafting of hydrophilic polymers; (ii) plasma treatment; (iii) physical coating of a layer of hydrophilic polymers on the surface; and (iv) applying functional nanomaterials to synthesize hybrid polymer/inorganic membranes. In addition, combining the membrane process with conventional well-known water treatment techniques, such as membrane bioreactors (MBR), ceramic ultrafiltration (UF)/reverse osmosis (RO), micellar enhanced UF (MEUF), electrocoagulation/MF, and activated carbon/membrane, aimed to reduce energy consumption, operating costs, final effluent concentration and to overcome concerns related to water treatment in harsh conditions. This Special Issue focuses on the attempts that have been devoted to the development of advanced membrane materials and membrane-based hybrid processes to improve water and energy efficiency in water treatment processes.

Prof. Dr. Mohtada Sadrzadeh
Prof. Dr. Toraj Mohammadi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • membrane
  • membrane-based hybrid processes
  • water treatment
  • fouling-resistant membranes
  • nanocomposite membranes
  • surface modification
  • reverse osmosis
  • nanofiltration
  • ultrafiltration
  • microfiltration

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cu-BTC Metal−Organic Framework Modified Membranes for Landfill Leachate Treatment
Water 2020, 12(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010091 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this study, Cu-BTC (copper(II) benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were incorporated into the structure of polysulfone (PSf) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes to improve the membrane performance for landfill leachate treatment, whereby different concentrations of Cu-BTC (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 wt%) were added to the [...] Read more.
In this study, Cu-BTC (copper(II) benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were incorporated into the structure of polysulfone (PSf) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes to improve the membrane performance for landfill leachate treatment, whereby different concentrations of Cu-BTC (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 wt%) were added to the PSf casting solution. The successful incorporation of Cu-BTC MOFs into the modified membranes was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The Cu-BTC-modified PSf membranes showed higher performance in terms of flux and rejection, as compared to the neat PSf membrane. For example, the pure water flux (PWF) of neat membrane increased from 111 to 194 L/m2h (LMH) by loading 2 wt% Cu-BTC into the membrane structure, indicating 74% improvement in PWF. Furthermore, the flux of this membrane during filtration of landfill leachate increased up to 15 LMH, which indicated 50% improvement in permeability, as compared to the neat membrane. Finally, the modified membranes showed reasonable antifouling and anti-biofouling properties than the blank membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane and Membrane-Based Hybrid Processes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Coagulation-Membrane Processes with Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Configuration for the Treatment of Oil Sands Produced Water
Water 2019, 11(7), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071348 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study explores the feasibility of implementing five hybrid coagulation-membrane processes for the treatment of the boiler blow-down (BBD) water from an oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operation. The processes involved (1) direct nanofiltration (NF) of the BBD water, (2) pre-treatment [...] Read more.
This study explores the feasibility of implementing five hybrid coagulation-membrane processes for the treatment of the boiler blow-down (BBD) water from an oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operation. The processes involved (1) direct nanofiltration (NF) of the BBD water, (2) pre-treatment of the NF retentate using ion exchanger regeneration wastewater (IERW) as a chemical coagulant followed by NF, (3) pre-treatment of BBD water using IERW followed by NF, (4) dual pre-treatment of BBD water using IERW and soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) followed by NF, and (5) forward osmosis (FO) treatment of the BBD water using IERW as a draw solution followed by NF treatment of diluted draw solution. These scenarios were compared based on total flux decline ratio (DRt), flux recovery ratio (FRR), and total dissolved solids (TDS) removal over the final NF treatment to suggest an efficient treatment technique to avoid an undesired increase in the capital and operating expenses. It was found that process-1 provided the highest selectivity toward dissolved solids (80%) with a flux decline and recovery ration of 89.6% and 97.4%, respectively. Considering the permeation flux, process-4 exhibited the lowest flux decline (86.1%) and highest recovery ratio (97.5%) compared to other processes, proving the successful role of soda ash softening, as a chemical pretreatment method, in improving the performance of membrane filtration. Process-2 presented a mediocre performance with DRt, FRR, and TDS rejection of 93.3%, 97.3%, and 74%, respectively. Finally, process-3 and process-5 showed the lowest performance among all the scenarios with low flux recovery and low permeability, respectively. In addition, process-3 was expected to be cost-efficient since it only uses an on-site generated waste as a coagulant for the chemical pretreatment of the membrane filtration unit. The optimum scenario was proposed to be the two-stage membrane process, with direct NF of BBD followed by the post-treatment of the retentate via a hybrid chemical conditioning using IERW and soda ash softening, followed by a second NF. Overall, this integrated process offered a highly efficient mean with a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for the treatment of high pH wastewaters into an uncontaminated stream for the boilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane and Membrane-Based Hybrid Processes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
An Autopsy Study of a Fouled Reverse Osmosis Membrane Used for Ultrapure Water Production
Water 2019, 11(6), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061116 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study investigated the fouling and cleaning behaviors of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in a lab–scale ultrapure water (UPW) production system via membrane autopsies and characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and membrane foulants. Most of DOM were effectively removed by the MFC [...] Read more.
This study investigated the fouling and cleaning behaviors of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in a lab–scale ultrapure water (UPW) production system via membrane autopsies and characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and membrane foulants. Most of DOM were effectively removed by the MFC filter, with the exception of the peak at 150 Da. The RO membranes were effective in reducing conductivity, DOM, total nitrogen (TN), and ultraviolet A (UVA254nm) concentration; the polishing stage using IER filter resulted in ultra-trace levels of all these parameters required for semiconductor manufacturing (> 18.2 ΩM). The quantity of the desorbed RO membrane foulants, in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), varied considerably depending on the type of desorbing agents: 0.1 N NaCl (65.12 mgC m−2) > 0.1 N NaOH (46.14 mgC m−2) > deionized water (25.39 mgC m−2) > 0.1 N HCl (15.95 mgC m−2). The high cleaning efficiency of the salt solution (0.1 N NaCl) was attributed to the efficient desorption of hydrophilic DOM foulants from the RO membrane surfaces. These results demonstrate that the salt cleaning may provide a promising option to recover the performance of the RO membranes fouled primarily by hydrophilic DOM fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane and Membrane-Based Hybrid Processes for Water Treatment)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Progresses of Forward Osmosis Membranes Formulation and Design for Wastewater Treatment
Water 2019, 11(10), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102043 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Production of potable water or reclaimed water with higher quality are in demand to address water scarcity issues as well as to meet the expectation of stringent water quality standards. Forward osmosis (FO) provides a highly promising platform for energy-efficient membrane-based separation technology. [...] Read more.
Production of potable water or reclaimed water with higher quality are in demand to address water scarcity issues as well as to meet the expectation of stringent water quality standards. Forward osmosis (FO) provides a highly promising platform for energy-efficient membrane-based separation technology. This emerging technology has been recognized as a potential and cost-competitive alternative for many conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Motivated by its advantages over existing wastewater treatment technologies, the interest of applying FO technology for wastewater treatment has increased significantly in recent years. This article focuses on the recent developments and innovations in FO for wastewater treatment. An overview of the potential of FO in various wastewater treatment application will be first presented. The contemporary strategies used in membrane designs and fabrications as well as the efforts made to address membrane fouling are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, the challenges and future outlook of FO for wastewater treatment are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane and Membrane-Based Hybrid Processes for Water Treatment)
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