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Special Issue "Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 22 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonello Troncone

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Università della Calabria, Via P. Bucci, cubo 44b, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: soil mechanics; numerical analysis; slope stability; landslides
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enrico Conte

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile,Università della Calabria,Via P. Bucci, cubo 44b, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) Italy
E-Mail
Interests: soil mechanics; numerical analysis; slope stability; landslides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The topic of this Special Issue, "Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control", will be of great interest for many practical and scientific reasons. In fact, in many countries, landslides represent one of the major natural threats for the security of people, infrastructure, lifelines, and economic activities. Water is a primary cause of landslides, which can occur owing to intense rainfall, snowmelt, changes in groundwater level in slopes, and changes in water level of water reservoirs at the base of natural or artificial slopes, and along coastlines. These triggered factors, along with the properties of the involved soils, considerably affect the mechanical processes that lead to slope failure and the subsequent movements of landslide mass in the post-failure phase. For example, prolonged and extremely-intense rainfall could cause catastrophic and fast movement of rock and soil masses. Therefore, water plays a critical role in the study of landslides and the water–slope interaction should be investigated in detail.

Contributions concerning case studies and methods for slope stability analysis will be welcome for the present Special Issue. In particular, papers focused on the following topics: Rainfall-induced landslides, landslides activated by groundwater fluctuations, drainage systems for the slope stabilization and methods for their design, development of new monitoring techniques and nowcasting models for early warning systems, will be much appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Antonello Troncone
Prof. Dr. Enrico Conte
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Landslides
  • slope stability
  • water seepage
  • rain infiltration
  • groundwater level
  • analysis methods
  • drainage measures
  • monitoring

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis of the Slope Response to an Increase in Pore Water Pressure Using the Material Point Method
Water 2019, 11(7), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071446
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Traditional numerical methods, such as the finite element method or the finite difference method, are generally used to analyze the slope response in the pre-failure and failure stages. The post-failure phase is often ignored due to the unsuitability of these methods for dealing [...] Read more.
Traditional numerical methods, such as the finite element method or the finite difference method, are generally used to analyze the slope response in the pre-failure and failure stages. The post-failure phase is often ignored due to the unsuitability of these methods for dealing with problems involving large deformations. However, an adequate analysis of this latter stage and a reliable prediction of the landslide kinematics after failure are very useful for minimizing the risk of catastrophic damage. This is generally the case of the landslides triggered by an excess in pore water pressure, which are often characterized by high velocity and long run-out distance. In the present paper, the deformation processes occurring in an ideal slope owing to an increase in pore water pressure are analyzed using the material point method (MPM) that is a numerical technique capable of overcoming the limitations of the above-mentioned traditional methods. In particular, this study is aimed to investigate the influence of the main involved parameters on the development of a slip surface within the slope, and on the kinematics of the consequent landslide. The obtained results show that, among these parameters, the excess water pressure exerts the major influence on the slope response. A simple equation is also proposed for a preliminary evaluation of the run-out distance of the displaced soil mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining TRIGRS and DEBRIS-2D Models for the Simulation of a Rainfall Infiltration Induced Shallow Landslide and Subsequent Debris Flow
Water 2019, 11(5), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050890
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
TRIGRS revealed the responses of the total pressure heads and factors of safety with a depth change under a rainfall infiltration occurring on the Daniao tribe’s hill. The depth distribution of the collapsed zone could be identified under the condition where the factors [...] Read more.
TRIGRS revealed the responses of the total pressure heads and factors of safety with a depth change under a rainfall infiltration occurring on the Daniao tribe’s hill. The depth distribution of the collapsed zone could be identified under the condition where the factors of safety Fs = 1, and the results could calculate the area and volume. Afterward, DEBRIS-2D used TRIGRS’s results to assess the hazard zone of the subsequent debris flow motion. In this study, the DTM variation analysis results from both of before and after the Daniao tribe’s landslide are used to validate TRIGRS’s simulation, the area and the volume of the collapse zone within 8% and 23% errors, respectively. The real disaster range was depicted from the aerial photo used to validate the hazard zone simulation of DEBRIS-2D within 25% errors. In spite of that, the hazard zone from the simulation still included the real disaster range. The combining method for a rainfall infiltration induced a shallow landslide and subsequent debris flow, which was well-matched on a real disaster range on the Daniao tribe’s hill. Therefore, we believe that the TRIGRS and DEBRIS-2D combining methods would provide a better solution for an assessment of a rainfall infiltration inducing shallow landslide and subsequent debris flow motion. TRIGRS could, therefore, provide the area and depth distribution of the collapsed zone, and DEBRIS-2D could use TRIGRS’s results for subsequent debris flow hazard assessment. Furthermore, these results would be of great help in the management of slope disaster prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Mapping of Rainfall-Induced Landslide Susceptibility in A Luoi District, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam
Water 2019, 11(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010051
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rainfall-induced landslides form an important natural threat in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to explore regional landslide susceptibility mapping in the mountainous district of A Luoi in Thua Thien Hue Province, where data on the occurrence and causes of landslides are [...] Read more.
Rainfall-induced landslides form an important natural threat in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to explore regional landslide susceptibility mapping in the mountainous district of A Luoi in Thua Thien Hue Province, where data on the occurrence and causes of landslides are very limited. Three methods are applied to examine landslide susceptibility: statistical index, logistic regression and certainty factor. Nine causative factors are considered: elevation, slope, geological strata, fault density, geomorphic landforms, weathering crust, land use, distance to rivers and annual precipitation. The reliability of the landslide susceptibility maps is evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve is used to quantify and compare the prediction accuracy of the models. The certainty factor model performs best. This model is optimized by maximizing the difference between the true positive rate and the false positive rate. The optimal model correctly identifies 84% of the observed landslides. The results are verified with a validation test, whereby the model is calibrated with 75% randomly selected observed landslides, while the remaining 25% of the observed landslides are used for validation. The validation test correctly identifies 81% of the observed landslides in the training set and 73% of the observed landslides in the validation set. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
The Stability of Tailings Dams under Dry-Wet Cycles: A Case Study in Luonan, China
Water 2018, 10(8), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081048
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Instability of tailings dams may result in loss of life and property and serious environmental pollution. The position of the tailings dam’s phreatic line varies due to continuously changing factors such as rainfall infiltration and discharge of tailings recycling water. Consequently, tailings dams [...] Read more.
Instability of tailings dams may result in loss of life and property and serious environmental pollution. The position of the tailings dam’s phreatic line varies due to continuously changing factors such as rainfall infiltration and discharge of tailings recycling water. Consequently, tailings dams undergo dry-wet (DW) cycles, accompanied by the appearance of a hydro-fluctuation belt. With dynamic development of the physical and chemical properties of tailings sand in the hydro-fluctuation belt, the stability of tailings dams is uncertain. In this study, direct shear tests were performed on the tailings sand collected from a tailings dam in Luonan, through which the shear strength parameters of tailings sand with DW cycles were obtained. Then, a method that efficiently calculates the phreatic line of the tailings dam under DW cycles was proposed. In addition, based on laboratory tests and the proposed phreatic line calculation method, we used a finite element program to evaluate the stability of the tailings dam that experienced different DW cycles. The calculated results showed that: (i) the damage effects of DW cycles gradually weakens as the number of DW cycles increases. (ii) With the increasing of DW cycles, the maximum displacement of the tailings dam increases from 0.5 mm to 22 mm, and the area of maximum displacement expanded mainly at the toe of the tailings dam and at the front edge of the hydro-fluctuation belt. (iii) The tailings dam safety factor decreases continuously with increasing DW cycles. This study may provide a novel method for analyzing the stability of tailings dams under different DW cycles as well as an important reference for improving tailings dam stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Effect of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy on Slope Stability Using a Coupled Hydromechanical Framework
Water 2018, 10(7), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070905
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In studies on the effect of rainfall on slope stability, soil hydraulic conductivity is usually assumed to be isotropic to simplify the analysis. In the present study, a coupled hydromechanical framework based on transient seepage analysis and slope stability analysis is used to [...] Read more.
In studies on the effect of rainfall on slope stability, soil hydraulic conductivity is usually assumed to be isotropic to simplify the analysis. In the present study, a coupled hydromechanical framework based on transient seepage analysis and slope stability analysis is used to investigate the effects of hydraulic conductivity anisotropy on rainfall infiltration and slope safety at various slope locations (the top of the slope, the slope itself and the toe of the slope). The results show that when the vertical hydraulic conductivity (Ky) is constant, the horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kx) increases (i.e., anisotropy increases). This occurs because rainfall tends to infiltrate into the interior of the slope, resulting in the soil on top of the slope and on the slope itself being easily influenced by rainfall, leading to soil instability. The change of rainfall infiltration at the slope itself is the most significant. When the anisotropic ratio Kr (=Kx/Ky) increased from 1 to 100, the depth of the wetting zones for loam, silt and clay slopes increased by 23.3%, 33.3% and 50%, respectively. However, increased Kr led to a slower infiltration rate in the vertical direction at the toe of the slope. Compared to the results for Kr = 1 and for Kr = 100, the thickness of the wetting zones at the toe of loam and silt slopes decreased by 23.3% and 30.0%, respectively. For the clay slope, Kr changes did not significantly affect the wetting zones because of poor permeability. The results of this study suggest that the effect of soil hydraulic conductivity anisotropy should be considered when estimating slope stability to better understand the effect of rainfall on slopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
WCSPH with Limiting Viscosity for Modeling Landslide Hazard at the Slopes of Artificial Reservoir
Water 2018, 10(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040515
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (11312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work illustrated an application of the FOSS code SPHERA v.8.0 (RSE SpA, Milano, Italy) to the simulation of landslide hazard at the slope of a water basin. SPHERA is based on the weakly compressible SPH method (WCSPH) and holds a mixture model, [...] Read more.
This work illustrated an application of the FOSS code SPHERA v.8.0 (RSE SpA, Milano, Italy) to the simulation of landslide hazard at the slope of a water basin. SPHERA is based on the weakly compressible SPH method (WCSPH) and holds a mixture model, consistent with the packing limit of the Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (KTGF), which was previously tested for simulating two-phase free-surface rapid flows involving water-sediment interaction. In this study a limiting viscosity parameter was implemented in the previous formulation of the mixture model to limit the growth of the apparent viscosity, thus saving computational time while preserving the solution accuracy. This approach is consistent with the experimental behavior of high polymer solutions for which an almost constant value of viscosity may be approached at very low deformation rates near the transition zone of elastic–plastic regime. In this application, the limiting viscosity was used as a numerical parameter for optimization of the computation. Some preliminary tests were performed by simulating a 2D erosional dam break, proving that a proper selection of the limiting viscosity leads to a considerable drop of the computational time without altering significantly the numerical solution. SPHERA was then validated by simulating a 2D scale experiment reproducing the early phase of the Vajont landslide when a tsunami wave was generated that climbed the opposite mountain side with a maximum run-up of about 270 m. The obtained maximum run-up was very close to the experimental result. Influence of saturation of the landslide material below the still water level was also accounted, showing that the landslide dynamics can be better represented and the wave run-up can be properly estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Geomorphologic Factors for Identifying Soil Loss in Vulnerable Regions of the Cameron Highlands
Water 2018, 10(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040396
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (32402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework of power law distribution. To this end, three geomorphologic factors, namely shear stress and stream power, as well as the drainage area of every point in the basin of interest, have been extracted using GIS, and then their complementary cumulative distributions are graphically analyzed by fitting them to power law distribution, with the purpose of identifying the sensitive points within the basin that are susceptible to soil loss with respect to scaling regimes of shear stress and stream power. It is observed that the range of vulnerable regions by the scaling regime of shear stress is much narrower than by the scaling regime of stream power. This result seems to suggest that shear stress is a scale-dependent factor, which does not follow power law distribution and does not adequately reflect the energy expenditure pattern of a river basin. Therefore, stream power is preferred as a more reasonable factor for the evaluation of soil loss. The methodology proposed in this study can be validated by visualizing the path of soil loss, which is generated from the hillslope process (characterized by the local slope) to the valley through a fluvial process (characterized by the drainage area as well as the local slope). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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