Special Issue "Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Jin-Yong Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea
Interests: groundwater chemistry; groundwater-stream water interaction; ground source heat pumps; climate change and water resources; water chemistry in Antarctica; critical zone

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrochemistry is an essential part of groundwater resources and it is largely affected by various natural and anthropogenic factors including geological and hydrogeological conditions, and agricultural and industrial activities. The surrounding geology greatly influences the chemical characteristics of groundwater. With increasing groundwater use and elevating sea levels, coastal groundwater experiences a large change in chemical composition and deteriorating quality threatens sustainable use of groundwater resources. The changing climate is accompanied by frequent severe droughts or torrential rainstorms, which affect groundwater chemistry in karst aquifers. Groundwater overdraft for irrigation and the use of various chemical fertilizers distort the chemical composition of groundwater in agricultural areas. Urban groundwater is also exposed to hydrochemical change and contamination due to many industrial activities.

The objective of this Special Issue is to disseminate up-to-date knowledge on hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater. Field investigations, numerical modeling, and case studies are all welcome. The study areas are not limited to the areas mentioned above.

Prof. Jin-Yong Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • groundwater chemistry
  • hydrogeological condition
  • agricultural and urban groundwaters
  • contamination and remediation
  • coastal aquifer
  • karst aquifer
  • ionic and isotopic composition
  • earthquake

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Characteristics of Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes in a Karst Region in Samcheok, Republic of Korea
Water 2021, 13(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020213 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Karst regions cover approximately 10% of the Korean Peninsula and are highly vulnerable to contamination. In this study, five field surveys were conducted between 2017 and 2019 to examine the monthly and seasonal changes in the hydro-environment of a characteristic karst region in [...] Read more.
Karst regions cover approximately 10% of the Korean Peninsula and are highly vulnerable to contamination. In this study, five field surveys were conducted between 2017 and 2019 to examine the monthly and seasonal changes in the hydro-environment of a characteristic karst region in Samchoek, South Korea. During the surveys, a total of 24 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for field water quality parameters, major and minor ions, and stable isotopes. The results indicate that the water quality in the study area is significantly affected by precipitation. Overall, the water was classified as a Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, and correlation analysis of the major ions detected in the water samples indicates that the inflow of nitrate to the surface water originated from agricultural activities in the region. Furthermore, variations caused by climate were verified using the relationships between the various ions. In addition, high precipitation rates during the rainy season cause the active exchange of surface material, which was verified using stable isotope outliers. The results provide a scientific basis for studying the connectivity of water systems in complex karst hydrogeological regions and can aid future sustainable management of water resources in these regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater)
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Article
Evaluation of Temporal Contribution of Groundwater to a Small Lake through Analyses of Water Quantity and Quality
Water 2020, 12(10), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102879 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 509
Abstract
Groundwater can flow into or out of surface water and thus can greatly affect the quantity and quality of surface water. In this study, we conducted a water quantity and quality analysis for 11 months in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate the temporal [...] Read more.
Groundwater can flow into or out of surface water and thus can greatly affect the quantity and quality of surface water. In this study, we conducted a water quantity and quality analysis for 11 months in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate the temporal contribution of groundwater to surface water at Osongji, a small lake located in Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do, Korea. Groundwater fluxes and groundwater and surface water levels were measured using seepage meters and a piezometer, respectively. On-site water quality parameters, cations, and anions for groundwater and surface water were analyzed. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for groundwater, surface water, and rainwater were also analyzed. Groundwater influx did not correlate directly to precipitation, suggesting that it may be delayed after rainwater infiltration. Aqueous chemistry indicated that the hydrogeochemical characteristics of surface water were substantially affected by groundwater. The isotopic composition of surface water changed over time, indicating a different contribution of groundwater in different seasons. This study shows that water quantity and quality data can be used in combination to evaluate temporal changes in the groundwater contribution to surface water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater)
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Article
Feasible Ways Promoting Nitrate Removal in Riparian Zone Downstream of a Regulated River
Water 2020, 12(7), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072054 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Set in the downstream riparian zone of Xin’an River Dam, this paper established a 2D transversal coupling flow and solute transport and reaction model by verification within situ groundwater level and temperature. The denitrifying methods and principles in the riparian zone from the [...] Read more.
Set in the downstream riparian zone of Xin’an River Dam, this paper established a 2D transversal coupling flow and solute transport and reaction model by verification within situ groundwater level and temperature. The denitrifying methods and principles in the riparian zone from the perspective of hyporheic exchange were explored, which provided a basis for the engineering techniques for river ecological restoration. Our studies have shown that under the condition of water level fluctuation, a biological method such as adding denitrifying bacteria biomass to a fixed degree (the same below) can greatly increase the denitrifying rate (1.52 g/d) in the riparian zone; chemical methods such as adding organic carbon into the surface water or groundwater can increase the total riparian nitrate removal (8.00–8.18 g) and its efficiency (19.5–20.0%) to a great extent; hydrogeological methods such as silt cleaning of the aquifer surface or local pumping around the contaminated area can increase the total riparian nitrate removal (1.06–14.8 g) to some extent, but correspondingly reduce the denitrifying efficiency (0.95–1.4%); physical methods such as designing the bank form into gentle slope or concave shape can slightly increase the total riparian nitrate removal (0.22–0.52 g) and correspondingly improve the denitrifying efficiency (0.25–0.85%). At the application level of river ecological restoration, integrated adopting the above methods can make the riparian denitrifying effect “fast and good”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater)
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