Special Issue "Groundwater and Soil Remediation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Marco Petrangeli Papini
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
Interests: groundwater remediation; in situ technologies; combined chemical-physical and biological processes; adsorption processes; transport and fate of contaminants in soils and aquifers
Prof. Tiziana Tosco
Website
Guest Editor
Politecnico di Torino, DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering
Interests: groundwater engineering; remediation of contaminated sites; flow and transport modelling in porous media; colloid transport; nanoparticles for groundwater remediation
Prof. Paolo Viotti
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: Remediation of contained groundwater; Basic processes of contamination in soil and subsoils; Numerical simulation of contamination processes in unsaturated and saturated soils
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The contamination of soils and groundwaters is a widely faced problem. Most industrialized nations from risks in the use of groundwater for drinking supply or for irrigational use, and soils are often unusable due to specific contamination. Difficulties are encountered in the understanding of the phenomena occurring in soil and subsoil, bringing uncertainties in the application of new technology on-site.

This Special Issue focuses on innovative technologies, integrated approaches, and the critical discussion of complex case studies of the remediation of contaminated sites. Contributions are encouraged that present studies related to the different stages of soil and groundwater remediation: modeling and experimental studies aimed at deepening the understanding of contamination processes, and the interactions of pollutants with the environmental matrices; experimental works involving the use of novel reactants aimed at improving knowledge on the basic processes of contaminant transport and dispersion; the development of innovative technologies and methodologies and their pilot/full-scale applications; the development and validation of modeling tools to support design of remediation activities; and the development of a new generation of remediation technologies with a lower impact on the environmental matrices, also in the framework of the sustainable remediation.

Prof. Marco Petrangeli Papini
Prof. Tiziana Tosco
Prof. Paolo Viotti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • groundwater modelling
  • soil and groundwater contamination
  • remediation technologies
  • experimental lab studies
  • sustainable remediation
  • contaminated sites
  • pilot studies
  • full-scale case studies

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Accelerating Contaminant Transport Simulation in MT3DMS Using JASMIN-Based Parallel Computing
Water 2020, 12(5), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051480 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
To overcome the large time and memory consumption problems in large-scale high-resolution contaminant transport simulations, an efficient approach was presented to parallelize the modular three-dimensional transport model for multi-species (MT3DMS) (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA) program on J adaptive structured meshes applications [...] Read more.
To overcome the large time and memory consumption problems in large-scale high-resolution contaminant transport simulations, an efficient approach was presented to parallelize the modular three-dimensional transport model for multi-species (MT3DMS) (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA) program on J adaptive structured meshes applications infrastructures (JASMIN). In this approach, a domain decomposition method and a stencil-based method were used to accomplish parallel implementation, while a ghost cell strategy was used for communication. The MODFLOW-MT3DMS coupling mode was optimized to achieve the parallel coupling of flow and contaminant transport. Five types of models were used to verify the correctness and test the parallel performance of the method. The developed parallel program JMT3D (China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China) can increase the speed by up to 31.7 times, save memory consumption by 96% with 46 processors, and ensure that the solution accuracy and convergence do not decrease as the number of domains increases. The BiCGSTAB (Bi-conjugate gradient variant algorithm) method required the least amount of time and achieved high speedup in most cases. Coupling the flow and contaminant transport further improved the efficiency of the simulations, with a 33.45 times higher speedup achieved on 46 processors. The AMG (algebraic multigrid) method achieved a good scalability, with an efficiency above 100% on hundreds of processors for the simulation of tens of millions of cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Large-Scale 3D Study on Transport of Humic Acid-Coated Goethite Nanoparticles for Aquifer Remediation
Water 2020, 12(4), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041207 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Humic acid-coated goethite nanoparticles (HA-GoeNPs) have been recently proposed as an effective reagent for the in situ nanoremediation of contaminated aquifers. However, the effective dosage of these particles has been studied only at laboratory scale to date. This study investigates the possibility of [...] Read more.
Humic acid-coated goethite nanoparticles (HA-GoeNPs) have been recently proposed as an effective reagent for the in situ nanoremediation of contaminated aquifers. However, the effective dosage of these particles has been studied only at laboratory scale to date. This study investigates the possibility of using HA-GoeNPs in remediation of real field sites by mimicking the injection and transport of HA-GoeNPs under realistic conditions. To this purpose, a three-dimensional (3D) transport experiment was conducted in a large-scale container representing a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. Monitoring data, including particle size distribution, total iron (Fetot) content and turbidity measurements, revealed a good subsurface mobility of the HA-GoeNP suspension, especially within the higher permeability zones. A radius of influence of 2 m was achieved, proving that HA-GoeNPs delivery is feasible for aquifer restoration. A flow and transport model of the container was built using the numerical code Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries (MNM3D) to predict the particle behavior during the experiment. The agreement between modeling and experimental results validated the capability of the model to reproduce the HA-GoeNP transport in a 3D heterogeneous aquifer. Such result confirms MNM3D as a valuable tool to support the design of field-scale applications of goethite-based nanoremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Capping Strategy and Water Balance on Salt Movement in Oil Sands Reclamation Soils
Water 2020, 12(2), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020512 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
The success of oil sands reclamation can be impacted by soil salinity depending on the materials used for soil reconstruction and the capping strategies applied. Using both a greenhouse-based column experiment and numerical modeling, we examined the potential pathways of salt migration from [...] Read more.
The success of oil sands reclamation can be impacted by soil salinity depending on the materials used for soil reconstruction and the capping strategies applied. Using both a greenhouse-based column experiment and numerical modeling, we examined the potential pathways of salt migration from saline groundwater into the rooting zone under different capping strategies (the type and the thickness of the barrier layer) and water balance scenarios. The experimental results showed that there would be salinity issues in the cover soil within several growing seasons if there was a shallow saline groundwater table and if the soil was not properly reconstructed. The thickness of the barrier layer was the most significant factor affecting the upward movement of saline groundwater and salt accumulation in the cover soil. The suitable thickness of the barrier layer for preventing the upward movement of saline groundwater and salt accumulation in the cover soil for each material varied. A numerical simulation for a 15-year period further indicates that, when the cover soil was 50 cm of peat-mineral soil mix and when wet, dry, or normal climatic conditions were considered, the minimum barrier thickness to restrain salt intrusion into the cover soil in the long term was about 75 or 200 cm for coarse tailings sand or overburden barrier material, respectively. In view of the above, to minimize salt migration into the rooting zone and ensure normal plant growth, oil sands reclamation should consider salt migration when designing soil capping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
How Can We Make Pump and Treat Systems More Energetically Sustainable?
Water 2020, 12(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010067 - 23 Dec 2019
Abstract
Pump and treat (P&T) systems are still widely employed for the hydraulic containment of contaminated groundwater despite the fact that their usage is decreasing due to their high operational costs. A way to partially mitigate such costs, both in monetary and environmental terms, [...] Read more.
Pump and treat (P&T) systems are still widely employed for the hydraulic containment of contaminated groundwater despite the fact that their usage is decreasing due to their high operational costs. A way to partially mitigate such costs, both in monetary and environmental terms, is to perform heat exchange (directly or with a heat pump) on the groundwater extracted by these systems, thus providing low-carbon and low-cost heating and/or cooling to buildings or industrial processes. This opportunity should be carefully evaluated in view of preserving (or even improving) the removal efficiency of the remediation process. Therefore, the heat exchange should be placed upstream or downstream of all treatments, or in an intermediate position, depending on the effect of water temperature change on the removal efficiency of each treatment step. This article provides an overview of such effects and is meant to serve as a starting reference for a case-by-case evaluation. Finally, the potentiality of geothermal use of P&T systems is assessed in the Italian contaminated Sites of National Interest (SIN), i.e., the 41 priority contaminated sites in Italy. At least 29 of these sites use pumping wells as hydraulic barriers or P&T systems. The total discharge rate treated by these plants exceeds 7000 m3/h and can potentially provide about 33 MW of heating and/or cooling power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier with Compost and Brown Coal to Treat Groundwater Contaminated with Trichloroethylene
Water 2019, 11(9), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091922 - 14 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study evaluates, under field conditions, the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with compost and brown coal to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) (109 µg/L) from contaminated groundwater. Three stainless steel boxes (1.2 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) with the brown coal-compost mixture [...] Read more.
This study evaluates, under field conditions, the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with compost and brown coal to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) (109 µg/L) from contaminated groundwater. Three stainless steel boxes (1.2 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) with the brown coal-compost mixture at three different mixing ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (by volume) were installed to simulate the PRB. Groundwater from the TCE-contaminated aquifer was pumped into the system at a flow rate of 3.6 L/h. Residence times in the boxes were of: 25, 20, 10 h, respectively. Effluent samples were analyzed for TCE and its daughter products: dichloroethylene (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethane. During the 198-day experimental period TCE concentrations in groundwater decreased below ≤1.1 µg/L, i.e., much lower than groundwater and drinking water standards in Poland. After 16 days cis-1,2-DCE was monitored indicating possible reductive dechlorination of TCE. However, complete transformation of TCE into non-toxic byproducts was not evidenced during the time of experiments, indicating that reductive dechlorination slowed down or stopped at DCE, and that the designed residence times were not long enough to allow the complete dechlorination process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogeochemical Model Supporting the Remediation Strategy of a Highly Contaminated Industrial Site
Water 2019, 11(7), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071371 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Delineation and understanding the geology and the hydrogeology of a contaminated site, considering its chemical and its biological aspects, are fundamental requirements for successful environmental remediation. The aim of this research is to provide some evidence about the effectiveness of a hydrogeochemical geodatabase [...] Read more.
Delineation and understanding the geology and the hydrogeology of a contaminated site, considering its chemical and its biological aspects, are fundamental requirements for successful environmental remediation. The aim of this research is to provide some evidence about the effectiveness of a hydrogeochemical geodatabase to facilitate the integrated management, representation and analysis of heterogeneous data, enabling the appropriate selection, design and optimization of an effective remediation strategy. This study investigates a new technology for the remediation of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid aged source zone, with the aim of enhancing in situ bioremediation by coupling groundwater circulation wells with a continuous production system of electron donors. The technology was verified through a pilot test carried out at an industrial site highly contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The multidisciplinary conceptual model confirmed a complex hydrogeological situation, with the occurrence of active residual sources in low permeability layers. The pilot test results clearly demonstrate a significant mobilization of contaminants from the low permeability zone, and the possibility of favoring the in situ natural attenuation mechanisms based upon biological reductive dechlorination. Different information related to the hydrogeochemical sphere must be integrated and taken into consideration when developing a reliable remediation strategy for contaminated sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
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