Special Issue "GIS Application: Flood Risk Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "New Sensors, New Technologies and Machine Learning in Water Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2021) | Viewed by 8974

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christophe Viavattene
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Middlesex university, London, United Kingdom
Interests: GIS; water resources management; flood; surface water; groundwater; extreme events; environment
Prof. Dr. Damien Serre
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Département Géographie Aménagement, Avignon Université, Avignon, France
Interests: civil engineering; rivers; urbanism; urban development; geographic information system; environment; spatial analysis; environmental impact assessment; city planning; urban sustainability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decades thanks to technological progress and the explosion of digital data and of geo-services, Geographic Information System (GIS) application has become central to supporting individuals, communities, businesses and public authorities decisions and communications in many domains. As such, GIS applications provide effective and powerful flood risk communication and decision support tools. However, the quality of geographic data to support flood risk assessment remains a challenge. This is particularly the case when assessing the exposure, vulnerability and resilience and when data is used to  appraise flood risk management options and to support emergency services decision-making.

For this special issue of Water we seek papers discussing flood risk assessment with an emphasis on data geoprocessing, on the development of tailored risk indicators or for innovative communication tools involving web-mapping. This special issue will highlight discussions on how geographic data and GIS applications can and should inform and support flood risk management. The special issue is open to any geographic scale or spatial resolution.

Dr. Christophe Viavattene
Prof. Damien Serre
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Geographic Information System
  • flood risk management
  • flood impacts
  • geodata
  • geoprocessing
  • webmapping
  • decision
  • communication

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Supporting a Resilience Observatory to Climate Risks in French Polynesia: From Valorization of Preexisting Data to Low-Cost Data Acquisition
Water 2022, 14(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030359 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Climate change has an ever-increasing impact on island territories. Whether it is due to rising sea levels or the increase in recurrence and intensity of extreme events, island territories are increasingly vulnerable. These impacts are expected to affect marine and terrestrial biodiversity, human [...] Read more.
Climate change has an ever-increasing impact on island territories. Whether it is due to rising sea levels or the increase in recurrence and intensity of extreme events, island territories are increasingly vulnerable. These impacts are expected to affect marine and terrestrial biodiversity, human occupation (infrastructure) and other activities such as agriculture and tourism, the two economic pillars of French Polynesia. While the current and future impacts of climate change on island territories are generally accepted, data acquisition, modeling, and projections of climate change are more complex to obtain and limitedly cover the island territories of the Pacific region. This article aims to develop methodologies for the acquisition and exploitation of data on current and future climate risks and their impacts in French Polynesia. This work of acquisition and valorization is part of a research project for the development of an observatory of resilience to climate risks in the perspective of building a spatial decision support system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
Estimation of Scottish Pluvial Flooding Expected Annual Damages Using Interpolation Techniques
Water 2022, 14(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030308 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Flood modelling and mapping, underpinned by hydraulic modelling, are typically used to define flood hazard and allow a quantification of risk and associated Expected Annual Damages (EAD). At a regional or national scale, such modelling is often a lengthy process, which does not [...] Read more.
Flood modelling and mapping, underpinned by hydraulic modelling, are typically used to define flood hazard and allow a quantification of risk and associated Expected Annual Damages (EAD). At a regional or national scale, such modelling is often a lengthy process, which does not allow changes in risk resulting from new science such as revised rainfall frequency estimates or climate projections to be readily quantified by policy makers. A framework of interpolation and extrapolation methods has been developed in the R language via practical application to the city of Perth in central Scotland. These methods allow existing flood mapping, design rainfall estimates and property receptor datasets combined with revised design rainfall estimates to be used to rapidly assess the consequences of change in risk and EAD. The results are evaluated against detailed hydraulic modelling and are shown to provide a good approximation of changes in flood depth and EAD for properties previously modelled as at risk of flooding, particularly residential properties, with lower confidence for non-residential properties. In the Scottish context, the methods are considered to be robust for regional and national scale application and would allow policy makers with a means to rapidly determine the consequence of changes in design rainfall estimates without the immediate requirement to undertake complex hydraulic modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
Geomatic-Based Flood Loss Assessment and Its Application in an Eastern City of China
Water 2022, 14(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010126 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 393
Abstract
Flash-flood disasters pose a serious threat to lives and property. To meet the increasing demand for refined and rapid assessment on flood loss, this study exploits geomatic technology to integrate multi-source heterogeneous data and put forward the comprehensive risk index (CRI) calculation with [...] Read more.
Flash-flood disasters pose a serious threat to lives and property. To meet the increasing demand for refined and rapid assessment on flood loss, this study exploits geomatic technology to integrate multi-source heterogeneous data and put forward the comprehensive risk index (CRI) calculation with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Based on mathematical correlations between CRIs and actual losses of flood disasters in Weifang City, the direct economic loss rate (DELR) model and the agricultural economic loss rate (AELR) model were developed. The case study shows that the CRI system can accurately reflect the risk level of a flash-flood disaster. Both models are capable of simulating disaster impacts. The results are generally consistent with actual impacts. The quantified economic losses generated from simulation are close to actual losses. The spatial resolution is up to 100 × 100 m. This study provides a loss assessment method with high temporal and spatial resolution, which can quickly assess the loss of rainstorm and flood disasters. The method proposed in this paper, coupled with a case study, provides a reliable reference to loss assessment on flash floods caused disasters and will be helpful to the existing literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
The Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Urban Properties in Tampa Due to Climate Change
Water 2022, 14(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010013 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Fast urbanization produces a large and growing population in coastal areas. However, the increasing rise in sea levels, one of the most impacts of global warming, makes coastal communities much more vulnerable to flooding than before. While most existing work focuses on understanding [...] Read more.
Fast urbanization produces a large and growing population in coastal areas. However, the increasing rise in sea levels, one of the most impacts of global warming, makes coastal communities much more vulnerable to flooding than before. While most existing work focuses on understanding the large-scale impacts of sea-level rise, this paper investigates parcel-level property impacts, using a specific coastal city, Tampa, Florida, USA, as an empirical study. This research adopts a spatial-temporal analysis method to identify locations of flooded properties and their costs over a future period. A corrected sea-level rise model based on satellite altimeter data is first used to predict future global mean sea levels. Based on high-resolution LiDAR digital elevation data and property maps, properties to be flooded are identified to evaluate property damage cost. This empirical analysis provides deep understanding of potential flooding risks for individual properties with detailed spatial information, including residential, commercial, industrial, agriculture, and governmental buildings, at a fine spatial scale under three different levels of global warming. The flooded property maps not only help residents to choose location of their properties, but also enable local governments to prevent potential sea-level rising risks for better urban planning. Both spatial and temporal analyses can be easily applied by researchers or governments to other coastal cities for sea-level rise- and climate change-related urban planning and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
Threats to Cultural Heritage Caused by the Global Sea Level Rise as a Result of the Global Warming
Water 2021, 13(18), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182577 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Climate change resulting from global warming has an increasing impact on Earth. The resulting sea level rise is starting to be noticed in some regions today, and based on projections, could have severe consequences in the future. These consequences would primarily be felt [...] Read more.
Climate change resulting from global warming has an increasing impact on Earth. The resulting sea level rise is starting to be noticed in some regions today, and based on projections, could have severe consequences in the future. These consequences would primarily be felt by residents of coastal areas, but through the potential for irreparable damage to cultural heritage sites, could be significant for the general public. The primary aim of the research undertaken in this article was to assess the threat to cultural heritage objects on the case study area of Tri-City, Poland. A review of available elevation data sources for their potential use in analyses of sea level changes was required. The selection of the optimal data source for the cultural heritage threat analysis of historic sites was carried out. The analyses were conducted for three scenarios, using ArcGIS Pro 2.7 software. A series of maps were thus prepared to show the threats to specific historic sites for various global sea level rise scenarios. Even with the slightest rise in sea level, monuments could be permanently lost. The authors point out that a lack of action to stop climate change could result not only in economic but also cultural losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
A GIS-Based Hydrological Modeling Approach for Rapid Urban Flood Hazard Assessment
Water 2021, 13(11), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111483 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Urban floods are detrimental to societies, and flood mapping techniques provide essential support for decision-making on the better management of flood risks. This study presents a GIS-based flood characterization methodology for the rapid and efficient identification of urban flood-prone areas, which is especially [...] Read more.
Urban floods are detrimental to societies, and flood mapping techniques provide essential support for decision-making on the better management of flood risks. This study presents a GIS-based flood characterization methodology for the rapid and efficient identification of urban flood-prone areas, which is especially relevant for large-scale flood hazards and emergency assessments for data-scarce studies. The results suggested that optimal flood mapping was achieved by adopting the median values of the thresholds for local depression extraction, the topographic wetness index (TWI) and aggregation analyses. This study showed the constraints of the depression extraction and TWI methods and proposed a methodology to improve the performance. A new performance indicator was further introduced to improve the evaluation ability of hazard mapping. It was shown that the developed methodology has a much lower demand on the data and computation efforts in comparison to the traditional two-dimensional models and, meanwhile, provides relatively accurate and robust assessments of flood hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
Operationalizing Urban Resilience to Floods in Island Territories—Application in Punaauia, French Polynesia
Water 2021, 13(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030337 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
In the context of climate change and increasing urbanization, Small Island Developing States are increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. In response to urbanization in at risk areas, the concept of territorial resilience has potential as an approach to urban flood issues. The objective [...] Read more.
In the context of climate change and increasing urbanization, Small Island Developing States are increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. In response to urbanization in at risk areas, the concept of territorial resilience has potential as an approach to urban flood issues. The objective of this research is to develop a spatial decision support tool based on a collaborative assessment method of territorial resilience. The proposed methodology consists of: the adaptation to the French Polynesian context, three existing resilience assessment methods applied to a case study in the Punaruu Valley’s (Punaauia, French Polynesia) and the use of geovisualization techniques: use of GIS for data processing and analysis, visualization, mapping and model processing. This methodology integrates the technical, urban and social components of the territory, while highlighting the various levers available to improve territorial resilience and facilitate its understanding through collaborative work efforts and the use of a visual tool. The results demonstrate the reproducibility of these methods for assessing resilience in French Polynesia. They underline the potential of a collaborative approach to highlight critical infrastructures and generate possible decision support to improve the territory’s ability to function despite a disruption and the ability to rebuild following this disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
Assessment of Population Exposure to Urban Flood at the Building Scale
Water 2020, 12(11), 3253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113253 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
The assessment of populations affected by urban flooding is crucial for flood prevention and mitigation but is highly influenced by the accuracy of population datasets. The population distribution is related to buildings during the urban floods, so assessing the population at the building [...] Read more.
The assessment of populations affected by urban flooding is crucial for flood prevention and mitigation but is highly influenced by the accuracy of population datasets. The population distribution is related to buildings during the urban floods, so assessing the population at the building scale is more rational for the urban floods, which is possible due to the abundance of multi-source data and advances in GIS technology. Therefore, this study assesses the populations affected by urban floods through population mapping at the building scale using highly correlated point of interest (POI) data. The population distribution is first mapped by downscaling the grid-based WorldPop population data to the building scale. Then, the population affected by urban floods is estimated by superimposing the population data sets onto flood areas, with flooding simulated by the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model. Finally, the proposed method is applied to Lishui City in southeast China. The results show that the population affected by urban floods is significantly reduced for different rainstorm scenarios when using the building-scale population instead of WorldPop. In certain areas, populations not captured by WorldPop can be identified using the building-scale population. This study provides a new method for estimating populations affected by urban flooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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Article
Vehicle-Related Flood Fatalities in Texas, 1959–2019
Water 2020, 12(10), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102884 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Texas has the highest number of flood fatalities and vehicle-related flood fatalities in the United States. This study provides a detailed analysis of vehicle-related flood fatalities in Texas from 1959 to 2019. The data was compiled from the Storm Data publication maintained by [...] Read more.
Texas has the highest number of flood fatalities and vehicle-related flood fatalities in the United States. This study provides a detailed analysis of vehicle-related flood fatalities in Texas from 1959 to 2019. The data was compiled from the Storm Data publication maintained by the National Weather Service and includes demographics of the victims, dates, flood types, roadway types, and fatality location. There were 570 vehicle-related flood fatalities during the study period, with almost all fatal accidents resulting in one fatality. These fatalities represent 58% of total flood fatalities. The spatial analysis reveals that most counties with high vehicle-related flood fatalities are clustered in Flash Flood Alley. These counties accounted for over 80% of the fatalities. The annual distribution of these fatalities follows a statistically significant decreasing trend. Monthly distribution of vehicle-related fatalities follows that of rainfall in the Flash Flood Alley, with flash floods causing 61% of all vehicle-related flood fatalities. Night was the time of the day when the most vehicle-related deaths occurred. Males accounted for 63% of the fatalities and the age group of 20–29 was the most affected. The study discusses how the results can be used to increase awareness of flood hazards, used as input into state and regional disaster mitigation plans, and help tailor education and outreach programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Application: Flood Risk Management)
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