Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 30610

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: fish ecophysiology; environmental stress; fish growth; freshwater aquaculture; fish ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fish living in water exhibits magnificent life legends on the blue planet. Aquatic environments in oceans, rivers, lakes, and ponds provide the conditions for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. Natural events and anthropogenic activities, such as climate change, water construction projects, and water pollution, are changing the aquatic environment. Fish must attempt to adapt to this changing environment. Alterations in fish early life history, growth and reproduction strategies, population size, community structure and function, and other fish-related ecological issues, have occurred in recent decades.

Scientists are trying to elucidate the mechanism of the ecological adaption of fish to the aquatic environment. Modern techniques and methods have been developed to study how fish interact with their environment in a wide range of aquatic habitats and artificial water bodies. Fish can modify their organs’ structure and function in response to the water physicochemical environment, change their reproduction strategy for population sustainability, and adjust their behavior and growth patterns in response to environmental change. If the environment changes beyond the physiological tolerance of the fish, however, they cannot re-establish homeostasis, which eventually causes fish death, altering the aquatic community structure or affecting fish farming.

With this Special Issue of Water, we offer a platform for the publication of innovative original articles and reviews regarding the effect of the aquatic environment on fish ecology. The scope of this Special Issue includes, but is not limited to: the effect of different environmental factors on fish development, growth, and reproduction; studies modeling environmental impacts on fish population and culture; the responses of fish to water pollution; mechanisms of fish adaption to environmental stress; and ecological changes in fish cultured in freshwater and seawater. To quantify and describe the functional relationships between fish and the aquatic environment will lead to better management of fish farming and better conservation strategies for fish species, populations, and communities, leading to a more sustainable aquatic food supply.

Prof. Dr. Dapeng Li
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fish ecology
  • fish growth
  • physiological ecology
  • fish behavior
  • water pollution
  • ocean acidification
  • eutrophication
  • environmental stress
  • population dynamics

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 17563 KiB  
Article
Allometric Growth Patterns and Ontogenetic Development during Early Larval Stages of Schizothorax waltoni Regan and Percocypris retrodorslis in Southwest China
by Bin Xu, Dapeng Li, Kaijin Wei, Xiangyun Zhu, Jin Xu and Baoshan Ma
Water 2023, 15(4), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040824 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3834
Abstract
Due to a sharp decline in resources, Schizothorax waltoni Regan and Percocypris retrodorslis have been listed as wildlife under second-class protection in China. Under culture conditions, the early development and allometric growth patterns of S. waltoni and P. retrodorslis were researched from the [...] Read more.
Due to a sharp decline in resources, Schizothorax waltoni Regan and Percocypris retrodorslis have been listed as wildlife under second-class protection in China. Under culture conditions, the early development and allometric growth patterns of S. waltoni and P. retrodorslis were researched from the hatching stage to 60 DPHs (days post-hatching), and a sampling of ten to fifteen larvae was made every day, followed by measurements with Axio Vision 4.8 software (Carl Zeiss AG, Jena, Germany). Morphological indicators included the anal fin length, the body depth, the body depth at the anus level, the caudal fin length, the dorsal fin length, the eye diameter, the head length, the head depth, the pectoral fin length, the tail length, the trunk length, the snout length, the total length, and the ventral fin length. Based on the morphology development of S. waltoni Regan and P. retrodorslis, four periods of larval growth were identified: pre-flexion larvae at 0–14 DPHs and 0–16 DPHs; flexion larvae at 14–23 DPHs and 16–26 DPHs, post-flexion larvae at 23–50 DPHs and 26–52 DPHs, and the juvenile stage. In newly hatched larvae, most organs and body parts were not differentiated, and they successively developed within 26 DPHs. The depletion of the yolk sac was observed at 23 DPHs and 25 DPHs. Allometric growth mainly occurs in the head and tail regions, indicating that body parts related to feeding and swimming behaviors were more important than the other parts. In addition, the growth pattern shows that the development of organs gives priority to the functions of gill respiration, sensation, exogenous feeding, and swimming. The inflection points of body part growth patterns only appeared before 40 DAH, so future studies should concentrate focus on developing the best feeding from the first feeding to 40 DAH. These outcomes were discussed with regard to the ontogeny of the functional morphology in relation to ecology and aquaculture. It is expected that this research can provide valuable perspectives in species conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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19 pages, 6270 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Aquatic Ecological Health Based on the Characteristics of the Fish Community Structures of the Hun River Basin, Northeastern China
by Jun Xie, Caiyan Wang, Lu Liu, Yuanshuai Duan, Bin Huo and Dapeng Li
Water 2023, 15(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030501 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Long-term ecological restoration can restore aquatic ecosystems to a certain extent and alleviate the crisis of freshwater fish biodiversity. In order to explore the fish community distribution patterns and key factors after ecological restoration and the health status of the watershed, fish and [...] Read more.
Long-term ecological restoration can restore aquatic ecosystems to a certain extent and alleviate the crisis of freshwater fish biodiversity. In order to explore the fish community distribution patterns and key factors after ecological restoration and the health status of the watershed, fish and environmental data were collected from 39 sampling points in the Hun River Basin in the spring and autumn of 2021. A total of 51 fish species belonging to 11 families and 37 genera were collected during the survey, and the dominant species were Rhynchocypris lagowskii, Zacco platypus, Carassius auratus and Pseudorasbora parva. Compared with the results of past studies, the number of fish species has increased. The study found that the distribution of fish along the longitudinal gradient of the watershed showed obvious spatial differences and was divided into two groups. The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that agricultural land, urban land and grassland were the key factors for the spatial variation in fish communities in the Hun River Basin. The results of the F-IBI evaluation showed that the health status of the Hun River was fair or above fair, among which healthy, good, fair, poor and bad points accounted for 5.13%, 30.77%, 33.33%, 25.64% and 5.13%, respectively. The upper and middle reaches of the Hun River Basin were in better health, while the lower reaches were in poorer health, which was mainly affected by the intensity of human activities in different regions. This study will help watershed managers to make targeted restoration and protection measures for different regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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18 pages, 3628 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Short-Term Upwelling Events on Fish Assemblages at the South-Eastern Coast of the Baltic Sea
by Toma Dabuleviciene, Deividas Jucevicius, Tomas Zolubas, Diana Vaiciute and Nerijus Nika
Water 2023, 15(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030452 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Multiple stressors, such as overfishing, pollution, climate change, biological invasions etc., are affecting fish communities, and thus can have versatile effects on marine ecosystems and socio-economic activities as well. Understanding the changes in the fish community structure is ecologically and economically important, yet [...] Read more.
Multiple stressors, such as overfishing, pollution, climate change, biological invasions etc., are affecting fish communities, and thus can have versatile effects on marine ecosystems and socio-economic activities as well. Understanding the changes in the fish community structure is ecologically and economically important, yet a very complex issue, requiring comprehensive analysis of multiple factors. The role of regional oceanographic variability, namely, coastal upwelling, is often neglected when it comes to the analysis of fish assemblages. In this perspective, we were aiming, for the first time in the Baltic Sea, to assess the upwelling influence on fish communities and fish community-based ecological indices used under Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The study covered a long-term period (2000–2019) for upwelling identified by satellite data analysis and fish gillnet surveys, performed in three distinct locations in the coastal waters of the SE Baltic Sea. Overall, our study revealed that temporal dynamics of fish abundance and community composition were associated with the presence of coastal upwelling. The study outcomes suggest that the fish community was more diverse and a higher number of some fish species was observed before upwelling. During upwelling, there was more evident dominance of 1–2 main marine fish species. Through the changes in fish abundance and species composition upwelling was also responsible for the changes in fish community structure-based indices for marine environment status, i.e., in the majority of the cases a decrease in Trophic, Piscivorous Fish, and Diversity indices were observed. Our study demonstrates that upwelling can affect both, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of coastal fish communities, therefore, it is important to consider this when predicting shifts in the distribution of fish stocks or assessing environmental status indicators, especially under changing climate. We believe that our approach adds novel information to the study of coastal ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and is important for better management of socio-economic activities in the coastal zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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13 pages, 5555 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Metabolites between Different Altitude Schizothorax nukiangensis (Cyprinidae, Schizothoracine) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Nujiang River
by Weitong Xu, Fengyue Zhu, Dengqiang Wang, Daqing Chen, Xinbin Duan, Mingdian Liu and Dapeng Li
Water 2023, 15(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020284 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
In order to investigate the influence of the high-altitude aquatic environment on indigenous fish metabolites, metabolomics studies were applied in this study. Widespread throughout the main stem of the Nujiang River of Schizothorax nukiangensis, we established sampling sites at high (3890 m) [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the influence of the high-altitude aquatic environment on indigenous fish metabolites, metabolomics studies were applied in this study. Widespread throughout the main stem of the Nujiang River of Schizothorax nukiangensis, we established sampling sites at high (3890 m) and low (2100 m) altitudes and selected six S. nukiangensis at each location, each weighing approximately 150 g and looking healthy. Then, metabolomics analysis was performed to compare the various metabolites of the two groups. Low concentrations of amino acids, dipeptides, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, Thioetheramide-PC, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, 1-Stearoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine, 1-Myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-Palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, high concentrations in S-Methyl-5’-thioadenosine, creatine, D-mannose-6-phosphate, D-mannose-1-phosphate, oleic acid and myristoleic acid were found in high-altitude fish liver. These differentially accumulated metabolites were involved in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. mTOR signaling pathway, apoptosis and lysosome were the KEGG pathways that were enriched between different groups to ensure energy supply and limit tissue damage of fish at high altitudes. All these results contributed to the understanding of the high-altitude adaptation of S. nukiangensis in the Nujiang River. Nicotine and methoprene, two organic pollutants, performed differently in fish at different altitudes. Overall, our findings advanced the fundamental understanding of fish responses to high-altitude environments, adaptive mechanisms and organic contaminants pollution in the Nujiang River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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18 pages, 3688 KiB  
Article
Effects of Temperature on the Growth Performance, Biochemical Indexes and Growth and Development-Related Genes Expression of Juvenile Hybrid Sturgeon (Acipenser baerii♀ × Acipenser schrenckii♂)
by Huiqin Chen, Qing Hu, Lingfu Kong, Hua Rong and Baoliang Bi
Water 2022, 14(15), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152368 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
In order to investigate the effects of temperature on the growth performance, biochemical indexes and genes expression in juvenile hybrid sturgeon (Acipenser baerii♀ × Acipenser schrenckii♂), five temperature treatment groups (18 °C, 21 °C, 24 °C, 27 °C, 30 °C) [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effects of temperature on the growth performance, biochemical indexes and genes expression in juvenile hybrid sturgeon (Acipenser baerii♀ × Acipenser schrenckii♂), five temperature treatment groups (18 °C, 21 °C, 24 °C, 27 °C, 30 °C) were set in this study. After 25 days of domestication, the specific growth rate (SGR) and relative weight gain rate of juvenile sturgeon increased at first and then decreased with the increase in temperature in the range of 18–30 °C and reached the highest value at 21 °C. A quadratic equation was used to fit the regression equation of SGR and temperature (T). The result showed that the temperature of the maximum SGR is 23.45 °C. Moreover, the expression level of the growth hormone (gh) and the content of blood glucose (GLU) increased significantly at 21 °C, while the expression level of the growth hormone receptor (ghr) in the liver decreased significantly. When the temperature exceeded 27 °C, the thyroid hormone levels were significantly affected, and the levels of total antioxidants (T-AOC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly higher than those in the control group. In addition, with the increase in temperature, the expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 in the liver increased significantly, while the expression level of the luteinizing hormone (lh) in the brain decreased significantly. To summarize, the effect of temperature on the growth and development of juvenile sturgeon mainly occurs through the effects of glucose metabolism, thyroid hormone level, total antioxidant capacity and growth-related genes. Therefore, in a temperature range between 21 and 24 °C, juvenile sturgeon can obtain the maximum growth rate and survival rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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17 pages, 4120 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Removal of Water and Sediment in Grass Carp Aquaculture Ponds by Mixed Nitrifying and Denitrifying Bacteria and Its Effects on Bacterial Community
by Dengfeng Han, Zhenyi Hu, Dapeng Li and Rong Tang
Water 2022, 14(12), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121855 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
Nitrification and denitrification are important for nitrogen (N) cycling in fish ponds culture, but the effects of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria concentrations on pond water and sediments remain largely unknown. Here, we used 0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/L different concentrations of mixed nitrifying [...] Read more.
Nitrification and denitrification are important for nitrogen (N) cycling in fish ponds culture, but the effects of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria concentrations on pond water and sediments remain largely unknown. Here, we used 0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/L different concentrations of mixed nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to repair the pond substrate through an enclosure experiment lasting 15 days. The results showed that the purification effect of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria was most obvious on pond nitrogen from day 4 to day 7. The optimal relative concentration was 0.60 mg/L for nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria; NH4+-N (ammonia nitrogen) decreased by 75.83%, NO2-N (nitrite) by 93.09%, NO3-N (nitrate) by 38.02%, and TN (total nitrogen) by 45.16% in this concentration group on pond water. In one cycle, C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio of both water body and bottom sediment significantly increased, but C/N ratio of water body increased more significantly than that of sediment. Water C/N ratio increased by 76.00%, and sediment C/N ratio increased by 51.96% in the 0.60 mg/L concentration group. Amplicon sequencing of pond sediment showed that the change in nitrifying and denitrifying bacterium diversity was consistent with that in water quality index. Dominant nitrifying bacteria had a relatively high percentage, with significant differences in dominant bacterium percentage across different bacterial addition groups, while dominant denitrifying bacterium percentage was not high without significant differences among different groups. The dominant species of nitrifying bacteria were, respectively, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosovibrio, Nitrosospira, and Aeromonas, and the dominant species of denitrifying bacteria were Thauera, Azoarcus, Magnetospirillum, Azospira, and Idiomarina. The correlation analyses showed an aerobic nitrification and facultative anaerobic denitrification in pond sediments. Research shows that the addition of exogenous nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria can effectively reduce the nitrogen load of pond water and sediment. At the concentration of 0.6 mg/L, the nitrogen load of pond water and sediment decreased most obviously, which had the best effect on pond purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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20 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Fish Habitat Reclamation Based on Geographical Morphology Heterogeneity in the Yangtze River and the Short-Term Effects on Fish Community Structure
by Xuan Che, Xingguo Liu, Jun Zhang, Bin He, Changfeng Tian, Yin Zhou, Xiaolong Chen and Lin Zhu
Water 2022, 14(10), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101554 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Human alterations, such as hydropower development, are intensive and have negative impacts on fish and ecological environment. However, fish habitat restoration projects based on geographical morphology have not yet been reported in the Yangtze River. To explore engineering measures used to restore fish [...] Read more.
Human alterations, such as hydropower development, are intensive and have negative impacts on fish and ecological environment. However, fish habitat restoration projects based on geographical morphology have not yet been reported in the Yangtze River. To explore engineering measures used to restore fish habitat structure and function, a mesoscale fish habitat restoration project was designed and constructed, which included restructuring of habitat topography in the fluctuating area. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were used to simulate and predict the project’s effect on the hydromorphology prior to construction, and an Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was deployed to test and verify actual flow field improvement. Short-term effects on fish species sorting and their main ecological traits were examined. The results showed that vorticity and flow heterogeneity in the river reach increased, suggesting that the restoration projects created flow conditions favourable to indigenous fishes. Thus, pre-optimization using computer simulation is an essential and scientific procedure that could be used to increase the probability of river restoration success. The promotion of habitat diversity had strong effects on fish aggregation, especially for the rare and endemic fish species targeted. Fish abundance, catch biomass and species richness increased by 98.1%, 62.7% and 22.5%, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in species number and catch abundance before and after the project. The number of rare and endemic fish species increased from four to nine species. Overall, this research provides evidence that the promotion of habitat hydraulic morphology heterogeneity accelerates the recovery of fish diversity and biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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11 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Muscle Quality of the Yellow Catfish Cultured in In-Pond Raceway Systems and Traditional Ponds
by Xiaoqun Zhang, Weiyou Zheng, Heng Zhang, Yi Chai and Guoliang Ruan
Water 2022, 14(8), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081223 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
In order to understand the difference in muscle nutritional quality between yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) cultured in in-pond raceway systems (IPR) and traditional ponds (TRP), two modes were used to culture the yellow catfish with the same initial body weight [average [...] Read more.
In order to understand the difference in muscle nutritional quality between yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) cultured in in-pond raceway systems (IPR) and traditional ponds (TRP), two modes were used to culture the yellow catfish with the same initial body weight [average body weight (15.69 1 ± 2.28) g] for 60 days. The growth index, muscle texture characteristics, muscle nutritional components, amino acids and fatty acids of the fish were measured after the culture experiment. The results showed that the weight gain rate, specific growth rate and survival rate of IPR were significantly higher than TRP (p < 0.05). The hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience of the yellow catfish cultured in IPR were significantly higher than those cultured in TRP (p < 0.05). The crude protein content in the muscle of the yellow catfish cultured in IPR was significantly higher than that cultured in TRP (p < 0.01), while the content of crude fat and water was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The total amount of amino acids, essential amino acids and flavor amino acids of IPR were significantly higher than TRP (p < 0.01). The percentages of saturated fatty acids in muscle of the yellow catfish cultured in IPR and TRP were 3.59% and 3.83%, respectively, and the percentages of unsaturated fatty acids were 96.41% and 96.17%, respectively. It was concluded that the nutritional quality of yellow catfish cultured in IPR was better than that of fish cultured in TRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
15 pages, 2373 KiB  
Article
Lotic Environment Affects Morphological Characteristics and Energy Metabolism of Juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella
by Pengjin Zhu, Jieya Liu, Yin Wang and Dapeng Li
Water 2022, 14(7), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071019 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of a lotic environment on morphological characteristics and energy metabolism in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The fish were stocked in the lotic environment and forced to swim for 12 h per day for 4 weeks at [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of a lotic environment on morphological characteristics and energy metabolism in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The fish were stocked in the lotic environment and forced to swim for 12 h per day for 4 weeks at three water current velocities of 0.5, 2, and 4 body length s−1 (Bl s−1). The control fish were stocked in the lentic environment with water current velocities of 0 Bl s−1. The results showed that lotic environment significantly increased body weight, body length, and condition factor of grass carp. The first principal component (PC1) characterized by measured overall body size suggested that fish in a lotic environment had body stoutness and wider tail stalk. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), and aerobic swimming performance (Ucrit) were elevated with the increased water flow and positively correlated with PC1. The 4 Bl s−1 group showed significantly decreased contents of serum glucose and muscular glycogen, and a significantly increased level of serum lactic acid. The mRNA expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase-phosphorylate PPAR γ coactivator 1 α-nuclear respiratory factor 1 (AMPK-PGC1α-NRF1) pathway-related genes were significantly upregulated in red muscle of grass carp in the lotic environment. Water flow environment at 4 Bl s−1 significantly increased ratios of metabolic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase/citrate synthase) and cytochrome c oxidase/citrate synthase) in the muscle. The relationship between morphological characteristics and metabolic capacity suggested that the body size of grass carp in a lotic environment was shaped to promote energy metabolism. The study identified the evidence of the mechanism and relationship of the trade-off between energy and morphology in grass carp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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14 pages, 3355 KiB  
Article
Nitrite Stress Induces Oxidative Stress and Leads to Muscle Quality Decreased in Wuchang Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) Juveniles
by Zhenyi Hu, Chenglong Qi, Chenzhi Lin and Rong Tang
Water 2022, 14(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020160 - 8 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
To determine the effects of nitrite exposure on muscle quality and physiological functions in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), we exposed M. amblycephala juveniles to acute nitrite (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/L), and the muscle and blood samples were measured at [...] Read more.
To determine the effects of nitrite exposure on muscle quality and physiological functions in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), we exposed M. amblycephala juveniles to acute nitrite (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/L), and the muscle and blood samples were measured at 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. The results showed that when exposed to nitrite for 12 h, the concentrations of blood glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the 20 mg/L experimental group had the maximum value. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased significantly in a dose-dependently manner and peaked at 96 h in the 20 mg/L group. During 96 h of exposure to nitrite, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) activity in the liver of the 20 mg/L experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group, while the concentration of muscle glycogen showed a downtrend. At 12 h and 96 h, the hardness of the four experimental groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Our research shows that acute sodium nitrite exposure will not only cause oxidative stress and decreased muscle quality in M. amblycephala juveniles but also will be accompanied by changes in serum biochemical index, liver antioxidant capacity, muscle physiological characteristics, and muscle physical characteristics. Preliminary speculation may be that acute nitrite exposure may cause M. amblycephala juveniles to choose to reduce muscle quality and activate antioxidant systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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17 pages, 2672 KiB  
Article
The Sustainable Treatment Effect of Constructed Wetland for the Aquaculture Effluents from Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Farm
by Bing Li, Rui Jia, Yiran Hou, Chengfeng Zhang, Jian Zhu and Xianping Ge
Water 2021, 13(23), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233418 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
In aquaculture, constructed wetland (CW) has recently attracted attention for use in effluent purification due to its low running costs, high efficiency and convenient operation,. However, less data are available regarding the long-term efficiency of farm-scale CW for cleaning effluents from inland freshwater [...] Read more.
In aquaculture, constructed wetland (CW) has recently attracted attention for use in effluent purification due to its low running costs, high efficiency and convenient operation,. However, less data are available regarding the long-term efficiency of farm-scale CW for cleaning effluents from inland freshwater fish farms. This study investigated the effectiveness of CW for the removal of nutrients, organic matter, phytoplankton, heavy metals and microbial contaminants in effluents from a blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) farm during 2013–2018. In the study, we built a farm-scale vertical subsurface flow CW which connected with a fish pond, and its performance was evaluated during the later stage of fish farming. The results show that CW improved the water quality of the fish culture substantially. This system was effective in the removal of nutrients, with a removal rate of 21.43–47.19% for total phosphorus (TP), 17.66–53.54% for total nitrogen (TN), 32.85–53.36% for NH4+-N, 33.01–53.28% NH3-N, 30.32–56.01% for NO3-N and 42.75–63.85% for NO2-N. Meanwhile, the chlorophyll a (Chla) concentration was significantly reduced when the farming water flowed through the CW, with a 49.69–62.01% reduction during 2013–2018. However, the CW system only had a modest effect on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the aquaculture effluents. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were reduced by 39.85% and 55.91%, respectively. A microbial contaminants test showed that the counts of total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) were reduced by 55.93% and 48.35%, respectively. In addition, the fish in the CW-connected pond showed better growth performance than those in the control pond. These results indicate that CW can effectively reduce the loads of nutrients, phytoplankton, metals, and microbial contaminants in effluents, and improve the water quality of fish ponds. Therefore, the application of CW in intensive fish culture systems may provide an advantageous alternative for achieving environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Aquatic Environment on Fish Ecology)
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