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Special Issue "Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frederick W. Pontius

Department of Civil Engineering and Construction Management, Gordon and Jill Bourns College of Engineering, California Baptist University, Riverside, California, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water quality; water treatment; membrane processes; climate changes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An ongoing challenge in the years to come will be to better understand emerging contaminants in water. A contaminant of emerging concern, generally referred to as an “emerging contaminant”, is a naturally occurring or synthetic chemical or substance recently detected or suspected to be present in water and whose toxicity or persistence pose some risk to human health or the environment. Emerging contaminants are usually not regulated or have no established health goals. The lack of scientific information on their detection, treatment and risk prevents evaluation for regulatory action. An already-regulated contaminant could also become an emerging contaminant if new scientific information becomes available necessitating a change to existing regulations or guidelines.

This Special Issue is devoted solely to emerging contaminants in water, bringing together recent research findings from leading scientists, the practical experiences of operators and engineers, as well as from water regulators. The goal is to assemble contributions on the detection, treatment, or regulatory experiences regarding emerging contaminants in water. Contributions reporting the results of applied research to solve real-world emerging contaminant problems are especially desired.

Prof. Dr. Frederick W. Pontius
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Emerging contaminants
  • Water quality
  • Water treatment
  • Monitoring and analysis
  • Water quality control
  • Drinking water
  • Waste water
  • Recycled water
  • Source water
  • Sediments and soils related to water

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Micropollutants in Wastewater and Evaluation of their Removal Efficiency in Treatment Trains: The Influence of the Adopted Sampling Mode
Water 2019, 11(6), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061152
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
PDF Full-text (923 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The monitoring of micropollutants in water compartments, in particular pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has become an issue of increasing concern over the last decade. Their occurrence in surface and groundwater, raw wastewater and treated effluents, along with the removal efficiency achieved by [...] Read more.
The monitoring of micropollutants in water compartments, in particular pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has become an issue of increasing concern over the last decade. Their occurrence in surface and groundwater, raw wastewater and treated effluents, along with the removal efficiency achieved by different technologies, have been the subjects of many studies published recently. The concentrations of these contaminants may vary widely over a given time period (day, week, month, or year). In this context, this paper investigates the average concentration and removal efficiency obtained by adopting four different sampling modes: grab sampling, 24-h time proportional, flow proportional and volume proportional composite sampling. This analysis is carried out by considering three ideal micropollutants presenting different concentration curves versus time (day). It compares the percentage deviations between the ideal concentration (and removal efficiencies) and the differently measured concentrations (removal efficiencies) and provides hints as to the best sampling mode to adopt when planning a monitoring campaign depending on the substances under study. It concludes that the flow proportional composite sampling mode is, in general, the approach which leads to the most reliable measurement of concentrations and removal efficiencies even though, in specific cases, the other modes can also be correctly adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation)
Open AccessArticle
Spectrophotometric Detection of Glyphosate in Water by Complex Formation between Bis 5-Phenyldipyrrinate of Nickel (II) and Glyphosate
Water 2019, 11(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040719
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
A spectrophotometric method for the determination of glyphosate based on the monitoring of a complex formation between bis 5-phenyldipyrrinate of nickel (II) and the herbicide was developed. The method showed a short response time (10 s), high selectivity (very low interference from other [...] Read more.
A spectrophotometric method for the determination of glyphosate based on the monitoring of a complex formation between bis 5-phenyldipyrrinate of nickel (II) and the herbicide was developed. The method showed a short response time (10 s), high selectivity (very low interference from other pesticides and salts), and high sensitivity (LOD 2.07 × 10−7 mol/L, LOQ 9.87 × 10−7 mol/L, and a Kd from 1.75 × 10−6 to 6.95 × 10−6 mol/L). The Job plot showed that complex formation occurs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The method was successfully applied in potable, urban, groundwater, and residual-treated water samples, showing high precision (0.34–2.9%) and accuracy (87.20–119.04%). The structure of the complex was elucidated through theoretical studies demonstrating that the nickel in the bis 5-phenyldipyrrinate forms a distorted octahedral molecular geometry by expanding its coordination number through one bond with the nitrogen and another with the oxygen of the glyphosate’ carboxyl group, at distances between 1.89–2.08 Å. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Oxazepam Alters the Behavior of Crayfish at Diluted Concentrations, Venlafaxine Does Not
Water 2019, 11(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020196
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pharmaceutically active compounds are only partially removed from wastewaters and hence may be major contaminants of freshwaters. Direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms are reported at dilute concentrations. This study was focused on the possible effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (~1 µg [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutically active compounds are only partially removed from wastewaters and hence may be major contaminants of freshwaters. Direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms are reported at dilute concentrations. This study was focused on the possible effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (~1 µg L−1) of two psychoactive compounds on the behavior of freshwater crayfish. Experimental animals exposed to venlafaxine did not show any behavioral alteration. Crayfish exposed to the benzodiazepine oxazepam exhibited a significant alteration in the distance moved and activity, and the effects were different when individuals were ready for reproduction. Results suggested that even the low concentration of selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals could alter the behavioral patterns of crayfish, as reported for other pharmaceuticals. These results provide new information about the possible adverse effects of pharmaceuticals at dilute concentrations. From previous knowledge and our results, it is obvious that different compounds have different effects and the effects are even specific for different taxa. Detailed studies are therefore needed to assess the possible ecological consequences of particular substances, as well as for their mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation)
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Open AccessArticle
PPCP Monitoring in Drinking Water Supply Systems: The Example of Káraný Waterworks in Central Bohemia
Water 2018, 10(12), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121852
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
The Káraný waterworks supplies drinking water to about one-third of Prague, the capital city of the Czech Republic with a population of more than 1 million. The combination of two technologies—bank infiltration and artificial recharge—are used for production of drinking water. The two-year [...] Read more.
The Káraný waterworks supplies drinking water to about one-third of Prague, the capital city of the Czech Republic with a population of more than 1 million. The combination of two technologies—bank infiltration and artificial recharge—are used for production of drinking water. The two-year monitoring of PPCPs (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) at monthly intervals observed temporal changes in 81 substances in the source river and groundwater, and the efficacy of contamination removal depended on the treatment technology used. The results showed a very wide range of PPCPs discharged from the waste water treatment plant at Mladá Boleslav into the Jizera River at concentrations ranging from ng/L to μg/L. Acesulfame and oxypurinol in concentrations exceeding 100 ng/L systematically occurred, and then a few tens of ng/L of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, and lamotrigine were regularly detected at the water outlet using the artificial recharge for production of drinking water. Bank infiltration was found more efficient in removing PPCP substances at the Káraný locality where none of the monitored substances was systematically detected in the mixed sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term River Water Quality Trends and Pollution Source Apportionment in Taiwan
Water 2018, 10(10), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101394
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
PDF Full-text (3069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The application of multivariate statistical techniques including cluster analysis and principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) was successfully used to classify the river pollution level in Taiwan and identify possible pollution sources. Water quality and heavy metal monitoring data from the Taiwan Environmental [...] Read more.
The application of multivariate statistical techniques including cluster analysis and principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) was successfully used to classify the river pollution level in Taiwan and identify possible pollution sources. Water quality and heavy metal monitoring data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) was evaluated for 14 major rivers in four regions of Taiwan with the Erren River classified as the most polluted river in the country. Biochemical oxygen demand (6.1 ± 2.38), ammonia (3.48 ± 3.23), and total phosphate (0.65 ± 0.38) mg/L concentration in this river was the highest of the 14 rivers evaluated. In addition, heavy metal levels in the following rivers exceeded the Taiwan EPA standard limit (lead: 0.01, copper: 0.03, and manganese: 0.03) mg/L concentration: lead-in the Dongshan (0.02 ± 0.09), Jhuoshuei (0.03 ± 0.03), and Xinhuwei Rivers (0.02 ± 0.02) mg/L; copper: in the Dahan (0.036 ± 0.097), Laojie (0.06 ± 1.77), and Erren Rivers are (0.05 ± 0.158) mg/L; manganese: in all rivers. A total 72% of the water pollution in the Erren River was estimated to originate from industrial sources, 16% from domestic black water, and 12% from natural sources and runoff from other tributaries. Our research demonstrated that applying PCA-MLR and cluster analysis on long-term monitoring water quality would provide integrated information for river water pollution management and future policy making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation)
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