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Open AccessArticle

Oxazepam Alters the Behavior of Crayfish at Diluted Concentrations, Venlafaxine Does Not

Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in České Budejovice, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25 Vodňany, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(2), 196;
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation)
Pharmaceutically active compounds are only partially removed from wastewaters and hence may be major contaminants of freshwaters. Direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms are reported at dilute concentrations. This study was focused on the possible effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (~1 µg L−1) of two psychoactive compounds on the behavior of freshwater crayfish. Experimental animals exposed to venlafaxine did not show any behavioral alteration. Crayfish exposed to the benzodiazepine oxazepam exhibited a significant alteration in the distance moved and activity, and the effects were different when individuals were ready for reproduction. Results suggested that even the low concentration of selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals could alter the behavioral patterns of crayfish, as reported for other pharmaceuticals. These results provide new information about the possible adverse effects of pharmaceuticals at dilute concentrations. From previous knowledge and our results, it is obvious that different compounds have different effects and the effects are even specific for different taxa. Detailed studies are therefore needed to assess the possible ecological consequences of particular substances, as well as for their mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental pollution; pharmaceuticals; freshwaters; crayfish environmental pollution; pharmaceuticals; freshwaters; crayfish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kubec, J.; Hossain, M.S.; Grabicová, K.; Randák, T.; Kouba, A.; Grabic, R.; Roje, S.; Buřič, M. Oxazepam Alters the Behavior of Crayfish at Diluted Concentrations, Venlafaxine Does Not. Water 2019, 11, 196.

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