PPCP Monitoring in Drinking Water Supply Systems: The Example of Káraný Waterworks in Central Bohemia
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Characteristics of the Káraný Pilot Site
2.2. Analytical Methods
3.1. Source Area of PPCPs in the River Water
3.2. Changes in PPCP Concentrations in River Water between Mladá Boleslav and the Weir in Sojovice
3.3. Removal of PPCP Substances during the Production of Drinking Water Using Artificial Recharge
3.4. Removal of PPCPs during Drinking Water Production Using Bank Infiltration Technology
- Raw water from the Jizera River contains a range of PPCPs in concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per liter.
- The wastewater treatment plant at Mladá Boleslav significantly affects the quality of water used for production of drinking water in the Káraný waterworks. Of the 44 substances systematically detected in the river water below the wastewater treatment plant, 18 substances showed elevated content. The increase of telmisartan and iomeprol concentrations was approximately 100 ng/L, and in the case of oxypurinol, nearly 200 ng/L.
- The water discharge during flood periods significantly affects the time-related variability in PPCP content in river water. At elevated water discharges (10 m3/s), PPCP concentrations were always below the detection limit of the analytical method used.
- The time-related variability of some PPCPs in river water during 24 h demonstrates the need for a uniform time schedule for sampling.
- Acesulfame and oxypurinol were detected in concentrations exceeding 100 ng/L in purified water using artificial recharge technology. Both these substances originate from a wastewater treatment plant comprising waste water from the psychiatric hospital at Kosmonosy. Systematic occurrence of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, and lamotrigine in amounts of the first tens of ng/L originated from the river water used for artificial recharge.
- Ibuprofen and gabapentin were detected at irregular time intervals in drinking water produced through artificial recharge. Ibuprofen may come from the environment of the Quaternary aquifer when the share of artificial recharge on the total balance of mixed sample is lower.
- Bank infiltration is a technology that removes PPCPs in a more effective way than artificial recharge. None of the monitored substances occurred systematically in the mixed sample. Acesulfame occurred most frequently (in 6 cases of the 31 samples analyzed), while other substances were detected three times in maximum in concentrations of only the first tens of ng/L. The occurrences of individual detected substances were not correlated.
Conflicts of Interest
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Hrkal, Z.; Eckhardt, P.; Hrabánková, A.; Novotná, E.; Rozman, D. PPCP Monitoring in Drinking Water Supply Systems: The Example of Káraný Waterworks in Central Bohemia. Water 2018, 10, 1852. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121852
Hrkal Z, Eckhardt P, Hrabánková A, Novotná E, Rozman D. PPCP Monitoring in Drinking Water Supply Systems: The Example of Káraný Waterworks in Central Bohemia. Water. 2018; 10(12):1852. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121852Chicago/Turabian Style
Hrkal, Zbyněk, Pavel Eckhardt, Anna Hrabánková, Eva Novotná, and David Rozman. 2018. "PPCP Monitoring in Drinking Water Supply Systems: The Example of Káraný Waterworks in Central Bohemia" Water 10, no. 12: 1852. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121852