Next Article in Journal
Analysis of the Interconnections between Classic Vortex Models of Coherent Structures Based on DNS Data
Previous Article in Journal
Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Occurrence of Micropollutants in Wastewater and Evaluation of Their Removal Efficiency in Treatment Trains: The Influence of the Adopted Sampling Mode
Open AccessReview

Regulation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Drinking Water: A Comprehensive Review

Department of Civil Engineering and Construction Management, Gordon and Jill Bourns College of Engineering, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA 92503, USA
Water 2019, 11(10), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102003
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 26 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Detection, Treatment, and Regulation )
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are receiving global attention due to their persistence in the environment through wastewater effluent discharges and past improper industrial waste disposal. They are resistant to biological degradation and if present in wastewater are discharged into the environment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued drinking water Health Advisories for PFOA and PFOS at 70 ng/L each and for the sum of the two. The need for an enforceable primary drinking water regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is currently being assessed. The USEPA faces stringent legal constraints and technical barriers to develop a primary drinking water regulation for PFOA and PFOS. This review synthesizes current knowledge providing a publicly available, comprehensive point of reference for researchers, water utilities, industry, and regulatory agencies to better understand and address cross-cutting issues associated with regulation of PFOA and PFOS contamination of drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS; drinking water; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); regulation; best available technology (BAT); maximum contaminant level (MCL) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS; drinking water; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); regulation; best available technology (BAT); maximum contaminant level (MCL)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pontius, F. Regulation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Drinking Water: A Comprehensive Review. Water 2019, 11, 2003.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop