Special Issue "Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Giuseppe Oliveto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Basilicata - School of Engineering - Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 - 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: river networks patterns and evolution; fluvial hydraulics; environmental hydraulics; sediment transport; bridge hydraulics; hydraulic structures; irrigation and drainage engineering; physical models and laboratory techniques in hydraulic engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to invite you to submit your latest research findings in bridge hydraulics to a Special Issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441), an open access journal (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/water). Submissions should include studies that advance the current state of knowledge or critical reviews of existing models and practices.

Floods and erosion processes are major causes of bridge damage and collapse worldwide. Bridge hydraulics examines the interactions between bridges and rivers or other water bodies. Many bridge collapses are caused by flowing water or waves eroding the streambed around pier and abutment foundations or washing out bridge-approach embankments. Bridges are also vulnerable to river channel migrations and to alterations of riverbed morphology induced, for instance, by dams or upstream land-use changes. This Special Issue aims to collect recent research on bridge hydraulics including, but not limited to, the following themes: (i) flow patterns at bridges; (ii) general and contraction scour, local scour around piers and abutments, breaching of bridge-approach embankments; (iii) river training works and countermeasures against scour, erosion, and debris (and ice) loads; (iv) inspection and monitoring techniques. I also encourage submissions on case studies of bridge damage even when they have a multidisciplinary character due, for instance, to concomitant geotechnical and structural causes.

Prof. Giuseppe Oliveto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bridge Hydraulics
  • Bridge Scour
  • Bridge Embankment Breaching
  • Bridge Scour Countermeasures
  • Bridge Monitoring Techniques
  • Fluvial Hydraulics
  • Sediment Transport

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Supplied Sediment Tracking for Bridge Collapse with Large-Scale Channel Migration
Water 2020, 12(7), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071881 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Here, we provide a numerical model that assigns an identification number to trace sediments and also identify the source of sediment supply. We analyze the efficacy of our model by reproducing the reach-scale field observations from flooding events in 2010 and 2016 that [...] Read more.
Here, we provide a numerical model that assigns an identification number to trace sediments and also identify the source of sediment supply. We analyze the efficacy of our model by reproducing the reach-scale field observations from flooding events in 2010 and 2016 that affected Kyusen Bridge over the Bebetsu River, Hokkaido, Japan. Our simulation results can successfully reproduce and trace the formation of bars caused by sediment supply in the study region. Our study also suggests a strong relationship between bank erosion rate, sediment supply and flow-discharge. The bank erosion rate is higher when sediment supply increases, and bank erosion reduces as flow discharge goes down. The model can also replicate the changes in a bed concerning sediment supply and was used to reproduce the bridge-abutment failure caused by the 2016 flooding with large sediment supply and the bridge-pier failure caused by the 2010 flooding with less sediment supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pier Scour Prediction in Non-Uniform Gravel Beds
Water 2020, 12(6), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061696 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
Pier scour has been extensively studied in laboratory experiments. However, scour depth relationships based on data at the laboratory scale often yield unacceptable results when extended to field conditions. In this study, non-uniform gravel bed laboratory and field datasets with gravel of median [...] Read more.
Pier scour has been extensively studied in laboratory experiments. However, scour depth relationships based on data at the laboratory scale often yield unacceptable results when extended to field conditions. In this study, non-uniform gravel bed laboratory and field datasets with gravel of median size ranging from 2.7 to 14.25 mm were considered to predict the maximum equilibrium scour depth at cylindrical piers. Specifically, a total of 217 datasets were collected: 132 from literature sources and 85 in this study using new experiments at the laboratory scale, which constitute a novel contribution provided by this paper. From the analysis of data, it was observed that Melville and Coleman’s equation performs well in the case of laboratory datasets, while it tends to overestimate field measurements. Guo’s and Kim et al.’s relationships showed good agreements only for laboratory datasets with finer non-uniform sediments: deviations in predicting the maximum scour depth with non-uniform gravel beds were found to be significantly greater than those for non-uniform sand and fine gravel beds. Consequently, new K-factors for the Melville and Coleman’s equation were proposed in this study for non-uniform gravel-bed streams using a curve-fitting method. The results revealed good agreements between observations and predictions, where this might be an attractive advancement in overcoming scale effects. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most sensitive K-factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Hydrodynamic Analysis by Using Two−Dimensional Models and Application to a New Bridge
Water 2020, 12(4), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040997 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 722
Abstract
This document develops a methodology that evaluates the impact on the environment of the rivers produced by the creation of civil infrastructures. The methodology is based on the two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation by using shallow water equations both in the conditions prior to the [...] Read more.
This document develops a methodology that evaluates the impact on the environment of the rivers produced by the creation of civil infrastructures. The methodology is based on the two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation by using shallow water equations both in the conditions prior to the creation of the infrastructure, and in the new conditions after the infrastructure is created. Subsequently, several characteristics, such as water depth and velocity, among others, are compared between the initial and final conditions, and a two-dimensional zoning of the changes observed is obtained. The methodology herein presented is useful to verify the impact that the implantation of different infrastructures around the river currents could produce. In addition, it is also relevant for carrying out a study taking into account different infrastructure options related to river currents, as well as for selecting the most suitable one. By using the methodology presented, changes on the regime of the currents caused by the infrastructures can be deduced, including a qualitative and quantitative zoning of the changes, with a special emphasis on some characteristics, such as depth and velocity. The methodology is applied in a case study for the creation of a road bridge over the Jalon River in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Experimental Study of Local Scour around Caissons under Unidirectional and Tidal Currents
Water 2020, 12(3), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030640 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Local scour around caissons under currents has become one of the main factors affecting the safety of foundation construction and operation in coastal and offshore bridge engineering. Local scour occurs not only in the operation stage, when the caisson has settled into the [...] Read more.
Local scour around caissons under currents has become one of the main factors affecting the safety of foundation construction and operation in coastal and offshore bridge engineering. Local scour occurs not only in the operation stage, when the caisson has settled into the sediment, but also in the construction stage, when the caisson is suspended in water. In this study, the local scour induced by unidirectional and tidal currents around settled caissons with different cross-sections (circular, square, and diamond) was experimentally investigated. Circular and square caissons were selected to investigate the difference in local scour of suspended caissons under unidirectional and tidal currents. The main findings from the experimental results were: (1) the temporal development of scour under tidal current was slower than that of unidirectional current; (2) the effect of current type can significantly influence the size and location of maximum scour depth around circular and square caissons; (3) the appropriate choice of cross-section could reduce the maximum scour depth around the settled caisson; (4) the maximum scour depth of tidal current was smaller than that of unidirectional current when the caisson was settled into the sediment, while the opposite effect occurred when the caisson was suspended in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Peak Flow Distribution for Bridge Collapse Sites
Water 2020, 12(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010052 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
Bridge collapse risk can be evaluated more rigorously if the hydrologic characteristics of bridge collapse sites are demystified, particularly for peak flows. In this study, forty-two bridge collapse sites were analyzed to find any trend in the peak flows. Flood frequency and other [...] Read more.
Bridge collapse risk can be evaluated more rigorously if the hydrologic characteristics of bridge collapse sites are demystified, particularly for peak flows. In this study, forty-two bridge collapse sites were analyzed to find any trend in the peak flows. Flood frequency and other statistical analyses were used to derive peak flow distribution parameters, identify trends linked to flood magnitude and flood behavior (how extreme), quantify the return periods of peak flows, and compare different approaches of flood frequency in deriving the return periods. The results indicate that most of the bridge collapse sites exhibit heavy tail distribution and flood magnitudes that are well consistent when regressed over the drainage area. A comparison of different flood frequency analyses reveals that there is no single approach that is best generally for the dataset studied. These results indicate a commonality in flood behavior (outliers are expected, not random; heavy-tail property) for the collapse dataset studied and provides some basis for extending the findings obtained for the 42 collapsed bridges to other sites to assess the risk of future collapses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characteristics of Flow Structure around Cylindrical Bridge Piers in Pressure-Flow Conditions
Water 2019, 11(11), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112240 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
The emerging shift of extreme events, combined with an aging infrastructure and bridges, highlights the potential increase in the risk of damage and catastrophic failure of bridges with climate change. This article analyzes the behavior of the flow and turbulence features in proximity [...] Read more.
The emerging shift of extreme events, combined with an aging infrastructure and bridges, highlights the potential increase in the risk of damage and catastrophic failure of bridges with climate change. This article analyzes the behavior of the flow and turbulence features in proximity to bridge piers, at two different moments of the scour temporal evolution in free-surface and pressure-flow conditions. Bridge pressure-flow conditions occur when the water depth submerges a bridge deck during extreme events. A circular pier and two rectangular decks of different lengths were used for this research. All tests were carried out in clear water conditions at the sediment critical velocity. This paper studied first the rate of scour temporal evolution and scour morphologies. Second, velocity measurements were taken using a Nortek acoustic Velocimeter at 25 Hz sampling rate in both free-surface and pressure-flow conditions. The average three-dimensional flow velocities, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stress, and turbulent kinetic energy were studies for the cross section corresponding to the center of the pier. The results show that pressure flow conditions accelerate the scour rate. This rate approximately reaches twice the scour in free-surface conditions with a vertical contraction of about 17%. Flow and turbulence measurements clearly exhibit how, under pressure-flow conditions, the additional turbulence and accelerated velocity modifies the flow pattern and circulation, accelerating the scour evolution around the bridge base. While numerous studies exist for pier scour and turbulence in free-surface conditions, pressure flow conditions received limited attention in the past. These results provide essential information for understanding scour mechanisms and for facilitating the design of future structures to increase bridge safety and resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evolution of Turbulent Horseshoe Vortex System in Front of a Vertical Circular Cylinder in Open Channel
Water 2019, 11(10), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102079 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
A turbulent horseshoe vortex (HV) system around a wall-mounted cylinder in open channel is characterized by random variations in vortex features and an abundance of vortex interactions. The turbulent HV system is responsible for initiating the local scour process in front of the [...] Read more.
A turbulent horseshoe vortex (HV) system around a wall-mounted cylinder in open channel is characterized by random variations in vortex features and an abundance of vortex interactions. The turbulent HV system is responsible for initiating the local scour process in front of the cylinder. The evolution of the turbulent HV system is investigated statistically and quantitatively with time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The cylinder Reynolds numbers of the flow are 8600, 10,200, and 13,600, respectively. A novel vortex tracking method was proposed to obtain the variations in position, size, and strength of the primary HV (PHV) which dominates the system most of the time. Relationships between the various features of the PHV during its evolutionary process were obtained through correlation analyses. Results show that the dimensionless mean lifespan of the PHV is about 5.0. Statistically, the downstream movement of the PHV toward the cylinder is accompanied with its bed-approaching movement and decreasing in size, and the opposite is true. The circulation strength of the PHV decreases and increases dramatically in the region downstream of its time-averaged position when the PHV approaches and departs from the cylinder, respectively. Meanwhile, mechanisms responsible for the generation, movement, variation, and disappearance of the PHV are re-investigated and enriched based on its interactions with vortices in the separation region and structures in the incoming flow. The obtained change trends of the features of the PHV and the underlying mechanisms for its evolution are valuable for predicting and controlling the initial stage of the local scour in front of cylinders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Non-Intrusive Underwater Measurement of Local Scour Around a Bridge Pier
Water 2019, 11(10), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102063 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
A non-intrusive low-cost technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial evolution of the scour hole around bridge piers is presented. The setup for the application of the technique is simple, low-cost and non-intrusive. It couples a line laser source and commercial camera to [...] Read more.
A non-intrusive low-cost technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial evolution of the scour hole around bridge piers is presented. The setup for the application of the technique is simple, low-cost and non-intrusive. It couples a line laser source and commercial camera to get a fast and accurate measurement of the whole scour hole in the front and behind the bridge pier. A short campaign of measurements of the scour hole around a bridge pier in clear-water conditions is presented to provide a control test and to show how to apply the new method. Finally, the results are compared with two of the most used equations, for the time evolution of the maximum scour depth in clear-water conditions, to show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of a Safety-Inspection Method for River Bridges in Turkey
Water 2019, 11(9), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091902 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6379
Abstract
In this paper, findings of a research project about river bridges in Turkey are shared and details of the developed safety-inspection method based on hydrological and hydraulic factors are presented. In the project, the Western Black Sea Basin was chosen as the pilot [...] Read more.
In this paper, findings of a research project about river bridges in Turkey are shared and details of the developed safety-inspection method based on hydrological and hydraulic factors are presented. In the project, the Western Black Sea Basin was chosen as the pilot area, where the basin is mountainous with steep slopes and has a rainy climate with frequent flash floods. Many river bridges in the basin were inspected at different flow conditions throughout the project duration of three years. The developed safety-inspection method is composed of four main parts: evaluation of watershed hydrology and its flood potential, stream stability, bridge characteristics and a rapid scour assessment. A structural assessment is also included in the method. Five river bridges in the area were chosen for detailed inspection and application of the method. Results showed that the method was capable of identifying and ranking the bridges in regard to maintenance needs and forming a comprehensive inventory for bridge engineers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact Assessment of Pier Shape and Modifications on Scouring around Bridge Pier
Water 2019, 11(9), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091761 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Previous experimental research on utilizing pier modifications as countermeasures against local scour has focused primarily on circular pier. It is of utmost importance to further investigate the most suitable pier shape for pier modification countermeasure separately and in combination. This experimental study aims [...] Read more.
Previous experimental research on utilizing pier modifications as countermeasures against local scour has focused primarily on circular pier. It is of utmost importance to further investigate the most suitable pier shape for pier modification countermeasure separately and in combination. This experimental study aims to reduce the stagnation of the flow and vortex formation in front of the bridge pier by providing a collar, a hooked collar, a cable, and openings separately and in combination around a suitable pier shape. Therefore, six different pier shapes were utilized to find out the influence of pier shape on local scouring for a length–width ratio smaller than or equal to 3. A plain octagonal shape was shown as having more satisfactory results in reducing scour compared to other pier shapes. Furthermore, the efficiency of pier modification was then evaluated by testing different combinations of collar, hooked collar, cable, and openings within the octagonal bridge pier, which was compared to an unprotected octagonal pier without any modification. The results show that by applying such modifications, the scour depth reduced significantly. The best combination was found to be a hooked collar with cable and openings around an octagonal pier. It was revealed that the best combination reduced almost 53% of scour depth, as compared to an unprotected octagonal pier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Morphological Patterns at River Contractions
Water 2019, 11(8), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081683 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Sediment transport at river contractions is an important process of engineering concern which might occur when a river encounters a reduction in flow area because of either natural or artificial constraints. This paper focuses on the morphological patterns that are prone to form [...] Read more.
Sediment transport at river contractions is an important process of engineering concern which might occur when a river encounters a reduction in flow area because of either natural or artificial constraints. This paper focuses on the morphological patterns that are prone to form at and around the constriction of watercourses based on experimental investigations at laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out at the University of Basilicata, Italy, in a 1 m wide and 20 m long rectangular channel. The length of the working section extended up to 16 m, according to the length of the contraction model. Two nearly-uniform sediments were used as mobile bed, sand with median grain size d50 = 1.7 mm and gravel with d50 = 9.0 mm. The contraction length was either 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m. Runs were carried out under steady flow and clear-water approach flow conditions. Typically, they were of long duration (up to 15 days) also to achieve an equilibrium state. New predictive equations are given on the temporal progress of: the maximum scour depth, the scour hole length, and the axial bed profile with emphasis on the processes of bed aggradation or degradation beyond the contracted region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
On the Morphodynamic Alterations around Bridge Piers under the Influence of Instream Mining
Water 2019, 11(8), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081676 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Sand mining in an active alluvial channel can compromise the streambed stability of the hydraulic structures nearby. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effects of rectangular mining pit on the morphodynamics around circular tandem piers in a movable bed. A rectangular [...] Read more.
Sand mining in an active alluvial channel can compromise the streambed stability of the hydraulic structures nearby. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effects of rectangular mining pit on the morphodynamics around circular tandem piers in a movable bed. A rectangular pit is excavated upstream of two circular piers embedded in the sand-bed in a tandem arrangement. The results are then compared to a case having only the piers without any mining pit. Turbulent stresses and mean velocities in the near-bed region rise significantly at the upstream region of the piers in the presence of a pit. Also, stronger flow reversal and horseshoe vortices have been detected at the base of the pier front. Due to these alterations in the nature of turbulence, erosion of channel beds upstream of the piers, increased scour depths, scour volume, and lateral erosion of the scour hole have been observed. Dynamic evolution of the local scour at various time scales has been studied using a wavelet cross-correlation method. Spatial evolution of local scour is found to be faster when a pit is excavated in the channel. Thus, mining activities near the piers can lead to significant changes in the flow-field, causing excessive scour around piers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Scour around Spur Dike in Sand–Gravel Mixture Bed
Water 2019, 11(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071417 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Scour is the main cause of failure for spur dike. The accurate prediction of scour around spur dike is essential to design a spur dike. The present study focuses on the maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in [...] Read more.
Scour is the main cause of failure for spur dike. The accurate prediction of scour around spur dike is essential to design a spur dike. The present study focuses on the maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in a sand–gravel mixture bed. Outcomes of the present experimental study showed that the non-dimensional maximum equilibrium scour depth increases with critical velocity ratio (U/Uca), water depth-armour particle ratio (h/da), Froude number for sediment mixture (Frsm), water depth-spur dike length ratio (h/l), and decreases with increase in armour particle-spur dike length ratio (da/l). The maximum scour depth is proportional to dimensionless parameters of U/Uca, h/da, Frsm, h/l, but the scour depth is inverse proportional to da/l. Scour around spur dike in a sand–gravel mixture is mainly influenced by the property of the sediment mixture. The scour increases with decrease in non-uniformity of the sediment mixture. A non-linear empirical equation is proposed to estimate the maximum scour depth at an upstream nose of rectangular spur dike with a maximum error of 15%. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the maximum non-dimensional equilibrium scour depth depends on Frsm, followed by the secondary sensible parameters da/l, h/l, and h/da. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
The Science behind Scour at Bridge Foundations: A Review
Water 2020, 12(2), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020374 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Foundation scour is among the main causes of bridge collapse worldwide, resulting in significant direct and indirect losses. A vast amount of research has been carried out during the last decades on the physics and modelling of this phenomenon. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Foundation scour is among the main causes of bridge collapse worldwide, resulting in significant direct and indirect losses. A vast amount of research has been carried out during the last decades on the physics and modelling of this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to provide an up-to-date, comprehensive, and holistic literature review of the problem of scour at bridge foundations, with a focus on the following topics: (i) sediment particle motion; (ii) physical modelling and controlling dimensionless scour parameters; (iii) scour estimates encompassing empirical models, numerical frameworks, data-driven methods, and non-deterministic approaches; (iv) bridge scour monitoring including successful examples of case studies; (v) current approach for assessment and design of bridges against scour; and, (vi) research needs and future avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Scour around Piers under Waves: Current Status of Research and Its Future Prospect
Water 2019, 11(11), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112212 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
In this review article, the current status of research on pier scour under waves is presented. This includes a summary of different bridge failure events due to scour, scour mechanism, scour depth predictors under waves, influence of pier shape on scour depth formation, [...] Read more.
In this review article, the current status of research on pier scour under waves is presented. This includes a summary of different bridge failure events due to scour, scour mechanism, scour depth predictors under waves, influence of pier shape on scour depth formation, shape of scour hole around piers, and many others. Further, this article describes the scour process, development of scour depth predictors, and the complexity involved in the scour related calculations. Finally, the future scope of research is delineated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop