Special Issue "Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Giuseppe Oliveto Website E-Mail
University of Basilicata - School of Engineering - Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 - 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: river networks patterns and evolution; fluvial hydraulics; environmental hydraulics; sediment transport; bridge hydraulics; hydraulic structures; irrigation and drainage engineering; physical models and laboratory techniques in hydraulic engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to invite you to submit your latest research findings in bridge hydraulics to a Special Issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441), an open access journal (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/water). Submissions should include studies that advance the current state of knowledge or critical reviews of existing models and practices.

Floods and erosion processes are major causes of bridge damage and collapse worldwide. Bridge hydraulics examines the interactions between bridges and rivers or other water bodies. Many bridge collapses are caused by flowing water or waves eroding the streambed around pier and abutment foundations or washing out bridge-approach embankments. Bridges are also vulnerable to river channel migrations and to alterations of riverbed morphology induced, for instance, by dams or upstream land-use changes. This Special Issue aims to collect recent research on bridge hydraulics including, but not limited to, the following themes: (i) flow patterns at bridges; (ii) general and contraction scour, local scour around piers and abutments, breaching of bridge-approach embankments; (iii) river training works and countermeasures against scour, erosion, and debris (and ice) loads; (iv) inspection and monitoring techniques. I also encourage submissions on case studies of bridge damage even when they have a multidisciplinary character due, for instance, to concomitant geotechnical and structural causes.

Prof. Giuseppe Oliveto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bridge Hydraulics
  • Bridge Scour
  • Bridge Embankment Breaching
  • Bridge Scour Countermeasures
  • Bridge Monitoring Techniques
  • Fluvial Hydraulics
  • Sediment Transport

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Development of a Safety-Inspection Method for River Bridges in Turkey
Water 2019, 11(9), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091902 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this paper, findings of a research project about river bridges in Turkey are shared and details of the developed safety-inspection method based on hydrological and hydraulic factors are presented. In the project, the Western Black Sea Basin was chosen as the pilot [...] Read more.
In this paper, findings of a research project about river bridges in Turkey are shared and details of the developed safety-inspection method based on hydrological and hydraulic factors are presented. In the project, the Western Black Sea Basin was chosen as the pilot area, where the basin is mountainous with steep slopes and has a rainy climate with frequent flash floods. Many river bridges in the basin were inspected at different flow conditions throughout the project duration of three years. The developed safety-inspection method is composed of four main parts: evaluation of watershed hydrology and its flood potential, stream stability, bridge characteristics and a rapid scour assessment. A structural assessment is also included in the method. Five river bridges in the area were chosen for detailed inspection and application of the method. Results showed that the method was capable of identifying and ranking the bridges in regard to maintenance needs and forming a comprehensive inventory for bridge engineers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact Assessment of Pier Shape and Modifications on Scouring around Bridge Pier
Water 2019, 11(9), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091761 - 23 Aug 2019
Abstract
Previous experimental research on utilizing pier modifications as countermeasures against local scour has focused primarily on circular pier. It is of utmost importance to further investigate the most suitable pier shape for pier modification countermeasure separately and in combination. This experimental study aims [...] Read more.
Previous experimental research on utilizing pier modifications as countermeasures against local scour has focused primarily on circular pier. It is of utmost importance to further investigate the most suitable pier shape for pier modification countermeasure separately and in combination. This experimental study aims to reduce the stagnation of the flow and vortex formation in front of the bridge pier by providing a collar, a hooked collar, a cable, and openings separately and in combination around a suitable pier shape. Therefore, six different pier shapes were utilized to find out the influence of pier shape on local scouring for a length–width ratio smaller than or equal to 3. A plain octagonal shape was shown as having more satisfactory results in reducing scour compared to other pier shapes. Furthermore, the efficiency of pier modification was then evaluated by testing different combinations of collar, hooked collar, cable, and openings within the octagonal bridge pier, which was compared to an unprotected octagonal pier without any modification. The results show that by applying such modifications, the scour depth reduced significantly. The best combination was found to be a hooked collar with cable and openings around an octagonal pier. It was revealed that the best combination reduced almost 53% of scour depth, as compared to an unprotected octagonal pier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Morphological Patterns at River Contractions
Water 2019, 11(8), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081683 - 14 Aug 2019
Abstract
Sediment transport at river contractions is an important process of engineering concern which might occur when a river encounters a reduction in flow area because of either natural or artificial constraints. This paper focuses on the morphological patterns that are prone to form [...] Read more.
Sediment transport at river contractions is an important process of engineering concern which might occur when a river encounters a reduction in flow area because of either natural or artificial constraints. This paper focuses on the morphological patterns that are prone to form at and around the constriction of watercourses based on experimental investigations at laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out at the University of Basilicata, Italy, in a 1 m wide and 20 m long rectangular channel. The length of the working section extended up to 16 m, according to the length of the contraction model. Two nearly-uniform sediments were used as mobile bed, sand with median grain size d50 = 1.7 mm and gravel with d50 = 9.0 mm. The contraction length was either 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m. Runs were carried out under steady flow and clear-water approach flow conditions. Typically, they were of long duration (up to 15 days) also to achieve an equilibrium state. New predictive equations are given on the temporal progress of: the maximum scour depth, the scour hole length, and the axial bed profile with emphasis on the processes of bed aggradation or degradation beyond the contracted region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
On the Morphodynamic Alterations around Bridge Piers under the Influence of Instream Mining
Water 2019, 11(8), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081676 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
Sand mining in an active alluvial channel can compromise the streambed stability of the hydraulic structures nearby. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effects of rectangular mining pit on the morphodynamics around circular tandem piers in a movable bed. A rectangular [...] Read more.
Sand mining in an active alluvial channel can compromise the streambed stability of the hydraulic structures nearby. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effects of rectangular mining pit on the morphodynamics around circular tandem piers in a movable bed. A rectangular pit is excavated upstream of two circular piers embedded in the sand-bed in a tandem arrangement. The results are then compared to a case having only the piers without any mining pit. Turbulent stresses and mean velocities in the near-bed region rise significantly at the upstream region of the piers in the presence of a pit. Also, stronger flow reversal and horseshoe vortices have been detected at the base of the pier front. Due to these alterations in the nature of turbulence, erosion of channel beds upstream of the piers, increased scour depths, scour volume, and lateral erosion of the scour hole have been observed. Dynamic evolution of the local scour at various time scales has been studied using a wavelet cross-correlation method. Spatial evolution of local scour is found to be faster when a pit is excavated in the channel. Thus, mining activities near the piers can lead to significant changes in the flow-field, causing excessive scour around piers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Scour around Spur Dike in Sand–Gravel Mixture Bed
Water 2019, 11(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071417 - 10 Jul 2019
Abstract
Scour is the main cause of failure for spur dike. The accurate prediction of scour around spur dike is essential to design a spur dike. The present study focuses on the maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in [...] Read more.
Scour is the main cause of failure for spur dike. The accurate prediction of scour around spur dike is essential to design a spur dike. The present study focuses on the maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in a sand–gravel mixture bed. Outcomes of the present experimental study showed that the non-dimensional maximum equilibrium scour depth increases with critical velocity ratio (U/Uca), water depth-armour particle ratio (h/da), Froude number for sediment mixture (Frsm), water depth-spur dike length ratio (h/l), and decreases with increase in armour particle-spur dike length ratio (da/l). The maximum scour depth is proportional to dimensionless parameters of U/Uca, h/da, Frsm, h/l, but the scour depth is inverse proportional to da/l. Scour around spur dike in a sand–gravel mixture is mainly influenced by the property of the sediment mixture. The scour increases with decrease in non-uniformity of the sediment mixture. A non-linear empirical equation is proposed to estimate the maximum scour depth at an upstream nose of rectangular spur dike with a maximum error of 15%. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the maximum non-dimensional equilibrium scour depth depends on Frsm, followed by the secondary sensible parameters da/l, h/l, and h/da. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title:  Scour Around Spur Dike in Sand-Gravel Mixture

Author: Manish Pandey 1, Su-Chin Chen 2,*, Umesh Kumar Singh 3 and Virendra Kumar 4

Affiliation:

1   Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan, [email protected]

2   nnovation and Development Centre of Sustainable Agriculture (IDCSA), Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan

3   Civil Engineering Department, Global Institute of Management & Technology, Krishnanagar, West Bengal, India; [email protected]

4   Civil Engineering Department, NIT Hamirpur, India; [email protected]

Abstract: Scour is a main cause of failure of hydraulic structures. Precise computation of scour around spur dike is very essential to design a spur dike. Present study focuses on maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in the sand-gravel mixture. It has been found that the non-dimensional maximum equilibrium scour depth increases with increase U/Uca, y/d50a, Frsm, y/l and decreases with increase in d50a/l. It has also been found that the maximum equilibrium scour depth in sediment mixture are influenced by the property of sediment mixture and increases with decrease in non-uniformity of sediment mixture. A new non-linear mathematical equation is given for computing maximum scour depth at upstream nose of rectangular spur dike. A sensitivity analysis has also been done and it indicates that the maximum non-dimensional equilibrium scour depth heavily depends on Frsm. Secondary sensible parameters are d50/l, y/l, and y/d50a.

Keywords: Spur dike; maximum equilibrium scour depth; sand-gravel mixture; clear-water scour

Back to TopTop