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Scour around Spur Dike in Sand–Gravel Mixture Bed

1
Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
2
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071417
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
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Abstract

Scour is the main cause of failure for spur dike. The accurate prediction of scour around spur dike is essential to design a spur dike. The present study focuses on the maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in a sand–gravel mixture bed. Outcomes of the present experimental study showed that the non-dimensional maximum equilibrium scour depth increases with critical velocity ratio (U/Uca), water depth-armour particle ratio (h/da), Froude number for sediment mixture (Frsm), water depth-spur dike length ratio (h/l), and decreases with increase in armour particle-spur dike length ratio (da/l). The maximum scour depth is proportional to dimensionless parameters of U/Uca, h/da, Frsm, h/l, but the scour depth is inverse proportional to da/l. Scour around spur dike in a sand–gravel mixture is mainly influenced by the property of the sediment mixture. The scour increases with decrease in non-uniformity of the sediment mixture. A non-linear empirical equation is proposed to estimate the maximum scour depth at an upstream nose of rectangular spur dike with a maximum error of 15%. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the maximum non-dimensional equilibrium scour depth depends on Frsm, followed by the secondary sensible parameters da/l, h/l, and h/da. View Full-Text
Keywords: spur dike; maximum equilibrium scour depth; sand–gravel mixture; clear-water scour spur dike; maximum equilibrium scour depth; sand–gravel mixture; clear-water scour
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pandey, M.; Lam, W.H.; Cui, Y.; Khan, M.A.; Singh, U.K.; Ahmad, Z. Scour around Spur Dike in Sand–Gravel Mixture Bed. Water 2019, 11, 1417.

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