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Open AccessArticle

Scour around Spur Dike in Sand–Gravel Mixture Bed

1
Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
2
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071417
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Hydraulics: Current State of the Knowledge and Perspectives)
Scour is the main cause of failure for spur dike. The accurate prediction of scour around spur dike is essential to design a spur dike. The present study focuses on the maximum scour depth in equilibrium condition and parameters, which influence it in a sand–gravel mixture bed. Outcomes of the present experimental study showed that the non-dimensional maximum equilibrium scour depth increases with critical velocity ratio (U/Uca), water depth-armour particle ratio (h/da), Froude number for sediment mixture (Frsm), water depth-spur dike length ratio (h/l), and decreases with increase in armour particle-spur dike length ratio (da/l). The maximum scour depth is proportional to dimensionless parameters of U/Uca, h/da, Frsm, h/l, but the scour depth is inverse proportional to da/l. Scour around spur dike in a sand–gravel mixture is mainly influenced by the property of the sediment mixture. The scour increases with decrease in non-uniformity of the sediment mixture. A non-linear empirical equation is proposed to estimate the maximum scour depth at an upstream nose of rectangular spur dike with a maximum error of 15%. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the maximum non-dimensional equilibrium scour depth depends on Frsm, followed by the secondary sensible parameters da/l, h/l, and h/da. View Full-Text
Keywords: spur dike; maximum equilibrium scour depth; sand–gravel mixture; clear-water scour spur dike; maximum equilibrium scour depth; sand–gravel mixture; clear-water scour
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Pandey, M.; Lam, W.H.; Cui, Y.; Khan, M.A.; Singh, U.K.; Ahmad, Z. Scour around Spur Dike in Sand–Gravel Mixture Bed. Water 2019, 11, 1417.

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