Special Issue "Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. William F. Ritter
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Delaware, Newark, United States
Interests: waste management; groundwater pollution; water quality modeling; irrigation management; surface water contamination
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Land application of wastewater has been practiced for several hundreds of years. By 1875, there were about 50 sewage farms providing land treatment in England, and many similar farms served major cities in Europe and towns and cities in the US. By the late 19th century, it was considered to be the safest and best method for wastewater disposal. Treated effluents are customarily discharged into a surface water body. With advances in wastewater treatment technology, wastewater effluents can achieve a consistently high quality and are increasingly reclaimed for reuse. The value of reclaimed water in crop irrigation has long been recognized, particularly where fresh water resources are limited. It is expected that 60% of the total world’s population may face water shortage problems by 2025, so wastewater for crop irrigation and food production will become more important in many parts of the world. Wastewater reuse will face some challenges in the future, such as more stringent water quality standards and concerns about trace amounts of home care products, pharmaceuticals, sex and steroidal hormones and disinfection byproducts in the wastewater.

For this Special Issue on “Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation”, we are interested in case studies, regulations, new wastewater treatment technology processes, aerosol transport, challenges facing land application in developing countries, economics, crop production issues, and water quality issues related to land application. This Special Issue should add some of the latest information on wastewater irrigation from a worldwide prospective to the literature.

Dr. William F. Ritter
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • trace elements
  • advanced wastewater treatment
  • economics
  • regulations
  • water quality
  • irrigation efficiency

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
State Regulations and Guidelines for Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in the U.S.
Water 2021, 13(20), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202818 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to present an overview of state regulations and guidelines for wastewater reuse for irrigation. Land application of wastewater in the U.S. began in the 19th century when it was considered the safest and best method for wastewater [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to present an overview of state regulations and guidelines for wastewater reuse for irrigation. Land application of wastewater in the U.S. began in the 19th century when it was considered the safest and best method for wastewater disposal. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 27 states have regulations for wastewater reuse and 11 states have guidelines for reuse. Some states have no regulations or guidelines for wastewater reuse. For urban wastewater reuse for irrigation where public access is not restricted and for irrigation of food crops, many of the states require additional levels of treatment beyond secondary treatment, which may include oxidation, coagulation, and filtration and high levels of disinfection. California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida were the earliest states to establish water reuse programs and account for the majority of wastewater reuse for irrigation in the U.S. Several of the challenges to increase wastewater reuse are water rights in the western states and a lack of funding for new projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation)
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Article
Numerical Model of Leachate Recirculation in Bioreactor Landfills with High Kitchen Waste Content
Water 2021, 13(13), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131750 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Surface spraying, horizontal trenches, and vertical wells are the most common leachate recirculation system used at landfills in engineering practice. In order to quantify the efficiency of the three aforementioned recirculation systems, a hydro–biochem–mechanical-coupled model was developed in the present work, which can [...] Read more.
Surface spraying, horizontal trenches, and vertical wells are the most common leachate recirculation system used at landfills in engineering practice. In order to quantify the efficiency of the three aforementioned recirculation systems, a hydro–biochem–mechanical-coupled model was developed in the present work, which can describe hydrodynamic and biochemical behaviors in food-waste-rich landfills. A typical landfill cell was modeled in COMSOL. The results indicate that leachate recirculation can accelerate the decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW) with food-rich waste content, relieving acidification, improving gas generation efficiency, and consequently, increasing the early settlement in landfills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation)
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Review

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Review
Design of Land Application Systems for Water Reuse
Water 2021, 13(15), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152120 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Water reuse via land application is old technology; but the water balance only design approach and practice has not worked well. There are many benefits of water reuse by irrigating crops; however, there are some risks if not designed properly. When the design [...] Read more.
Water reuse via land application is old technology; but the water balance only design approach and practice has not worked well. There are many benefits of water reuse by irrigating crops; however, there are some risks if not designed properly. When the design approach uses a combined water-nutrient-salt balance, the most effective and sustainable, long-term system is achieved. This approach provides a design based on land area requirements, on-site water storage, and economic return from the irrigated crops. The single, most often overlooked step in the water balance is accounting for the water stored in the soil. When spread over large areas, this quantity of water results in considerably less required surface water storage, which saves capital costs. This design approach has been used successfully on multiple sites for over 30 years without failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation)
Review
Perspective on Land Treatment and Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture in the Western United States
Water 2021, 13(13), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131822 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
The practice of irrigation with municipal wastewater has evolved from avoidance of surface water pollution to beneficial reuse of water and nutrients for crop production. The ability of the soil to filter out pollutants and pathogens has been documented, such that groundwater quality [...] Read more.
The practice of irrigation with municipal wastewater has evolved from avoidance of surface water pollution to beneficial reuse of water and nutrients for crop production. The ability of the soil to filter out pollutants and pathogens has been documented, such that groundwater quality is not degraded where recycled water to irrigate crops used for human consumption. The example of successful practice of the Castroville project in Monterey County, California illustrates safe reuse of recycled water for crop growth, marketing of crops grown into the fresh produce market, and groundwater protection. Impediments to the future more widespread reuse of recycled water for agricultural irrigation are also discussed. Many of the same technological advancements that have supported the development of modern agricultural water reuse projects have also improved the feasibility of various competing urban water reuse applications. The effects from increasing water scarcity has also had an impact on the quality and quantity of water available for agricultural water reuse projects. The historical practice of developing centralized and regional wastewater treatment facilities near a suitable surface water discharge location may need to be modified for better consideration of agricultural irrigation in integrated water resources planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation)
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Review
Treated Wastewater Irrigation—A Review
Water 2021, 13(11), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111527 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
As the most important resource for life, water has been a central issue on the international agenda for several decades. Yet, the world’s supply of clean freshwater is steadily decreasing due to extensive agricultural demand for irrigated lands. Therefore, water resources should be [...] Read more.
As the most important resource for life, water has been a central issue on the international agenda for several decades. Yet, the world’s supply of clean freshwater is steadily decreasing due to extensive agricultural demand for irrigated lands. Therefore, water resources should be used with greater efficiency, and the use of non-traditional water resources, such as Treated Wastewater (TW), should be increased. Reusing TW could be an alternative option to increase water resources. Thus, many countries have decided to turn wastewater into an irrigation resource to help meet urban demand and address water shortages. However, because of the nature of that water, there are potential problems associated with its use in irrigation. Some of the major concerns are health hazards, salinity build-up, and toxicity hazards. The objectives of this comprehensive literature review are to illuminate the importance of using TW in irrigation as an alternative freshwater source and to assess the effects of its use on soil fertility and other soil properties, plants, and public health. The literature review reveals that TW reuse has become part of the extension program for boosting water resource utilization. However, the uncontrolled application of such waters has many unfavorable effects on both soils and plants, especially in the long-term. To reduce these unfavorable effects when using TW in irrigation, proper guidelines for wastewater reuse and management should be followed to limit negative effects significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation)
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