Special Issue "Mathematical Modeling and Simulations of Wastewater Treatment Processes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 4887

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jacek Mąkinia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza Street, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Interests: wastewater treatment; nutrient removal and recovery; carbon footprint; Anammox; mathematical modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Yongmei Li
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: removal and recovery of nutrients from wastewater; fate and attenuation of emerging organic contaminants; anaerobic treatment of biosolid; phosphorus recovery; modelling of wastewater treatment plant

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The IWA-family Activated Sludge Models have been the most significant contribution in the field of modeling biological processes in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) over the past 35 years. The uniform structure of these models has constituted a convenient base for further development of model concepts for not only the activated sludge process but also biofilm and hybrid systems, and anaerobic digestion processes.

Model applications can generally be classified under four categories—process optimization and upgrade of existing plants, design of new facilities, and development of new treatment concepts. In recent years, new developments have also been proposed to standardize the organization of simulation studies and reduce the uncertainty of wastewater treatment design and analysis based on simulations with well-calibrated models. Resource recovery and energy efficiency are the latest trends in wastewater treatment. Accordingly, the focus of modeling has been shifting to models that can describe the performance of a whole plant (plant-wide models) in terms of the energy balance, operating costs, and environmental impact (carbon footprint).

This Special Issue on “Mathematical Modeling and Simulations of Wastewater Treatment Processes” seeks high-quality works that focus on the latest advances in the model development and applications in WWTPs, including the new approach towards plant-wide modeling and incorporating new criteria for the processes evaluation.

Prof. Dr. Jacek Makinia
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • activated sludge models
  • biofilm models
  • anaerobic digestion models
  • biological nutrient removal
  • resource recovery
  • carbon footprint
  • plant-wide models
  • model calibration and validation
  • sensitivity and uncertainty analysis
  • model applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Optimization of the Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic Process by Integrating ASM2d with Pareto Analysis of Variance and Response Surface Methodology
Water 2022, 14(6), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060940 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are high-energy-consuming units. Reasonable operation strategies can enable WWTPs to meet discharge standards while reducing the operating cost. In this study, the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d), Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA), and response surface methodology (RSM) were jointly [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are high-energy-consuming units. Reasonable operation strategies can enable WWTPs to meet discharge standards while reducing the operating cost. In this study, the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d), Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA), and response surface methodology (RSM) were jointly used to simulate and optimize the operation of a lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) reactor. The optimization objective was to determine the optimal design and operational parameters (DOPs) that could enhance both pollutant removal and energy saving. The DOPs that had significant influence on the optimization objective, such as sludge retention time (SRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and the ratio of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand to total nitrogen (BCOD/TN), were identified by Pareto ANOVA. The optimal DOPs with SRT of 15 days, DO concentration of 0.5 mg/L, and BCOD/TN of 5.21 were determined by RSM. Under the optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 96.2%, 76.8%, and 92.8%, respectively, and the annual operating cost was $26.4. Furthermore, this combination of DOPs was validated using a pilot-scale AAO system. The TN and TP removal efficiencies were improved by 11.0% and 5.0%, respectively, and the annual operating cost could be reduced by 15.0%. Overall, this study confirmed that the method integrating ASM2d with Pareto ANOVA and RSM was effective in optimizing wastewater treatment processes. Full article
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Article
Time-Delayed Bioreactor Model of Phenol and Cresol Mixture Degradation with Interaction Kinetics
Water 2021, 13(22), 3266; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223266 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
This paper is devoted to a mathematical model for phenol and p-cresol mixture degradation in a continuously stirred bioreactor. The biomass specific growth rate is presented as sum kinetics with interaction parameters (SKIP). A discrete time delay is introduced and incorporated into [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to a mathematical model for phenol and p-cresol mixture degradation in a continuously stirred bioreactor. The biomass specific growth rate is presented as sum kinetics with interaction parameters (SKIP). A discrete time delay is introduced and incorporated into the biomass growth response. These two aspects—the mutual influence of the two substrates and the natural biological time delay in the biomass growth rate—are new in the scientific literature concerning bioreactor (chemostat) models. The equilibrium points of the model are determined and their local asymptotic stability as well as the occurrence of local Hopf bifurcations are studied in dependence on the delay parameter. The existence and uniqueness of positive solutions are established, and the global stabilizability of the model dynamics is proved for certain values of the delay. Numerical simulations illustrate the global behavior of the model solutions as well as the transient oscillations as a result of the Hopf bifurcation. The performed theoretical analysis and computer simulations can be successfully used to better understand the biodegradation dynamics of the chemical compounds in the bioreactor and to predict and control the system behavior in real life conditions. Full article
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Article
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Suspended Solids Transport in a Secondary Facultative Lagoon Used for Wastewater Treatment
Water 2021, 13(17), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172356 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 783
Abstract
The facultative lagoon hydrodynamics has been evaluated using computational fluid dynamics tools, however, little progress has been made in describing the transport of suspended solids within these systems, and their effects on fluid hydrodynamics. Traditionally, CFD models have been built using pure water. [...] Read more.
The facultative lagoon hydrodynamics has been evaluated using computational fluid dynamics tools, however, little progress has been made in describing the transport of suspended solids within these systems, and their effects on fluid hydrodynamics. Traditionally, CFD models have been built using pure water. In this sense, the novelty in this study was to evaluate the influence of suspended solids transport on the hydrodynamics of an facultative lagoon. Two three-dimensional CFD models were developed, a single-phase model (pure water) and a two-phase model (water and suspended solids), for a conventional FL in Ginebra, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Model results were compared with experimental tracer studies, displaying different tracer dispersion characteristics. Differences in the fluid velocity field were identified when suspended solids were added to the simulation. The fluid velocities in the single-phase model were greater than the fluid velocities obtained in the two-phase model, (0.127 m·s−1 and 0.115 m·s−1, respectively). Additionally, the dispersion number of each model showed that the single-phase model (0.478) exhibited a better behavior of complete mixing reactor than the two-phase model (0.403). These results can be attributed to the effect of the drag and slip forces of the solids on the velocity of the fluid. In conclusion, the fluid of FL in these models is better represented as a two-phase fluid in which the particle–fluid interactions are represented by drag and slip forces. Full article
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Article
CFD Modeling of a Stirred Anaerobic Digestion Tank for Evaluating Energy Consumption through Mixing
Water 2021, 13(12), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121629 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The anaerobic digestion process is an effective means to eliminate the detrimental impacts of cattle manure discharge into the environment, i.e., biochemical contamination and substantial methane emissions, the latter leading to global warming. For proper operation of anaerobic digesters, an efficient mixing provides [...] Read more.
The anaerobic digestion process is an effective means to eliminate the detrimental impacts of cattle manure discharge into the environment, i.e., biochemical contamination and substantial methane emissions, the latter leading to global warming. For proper operation of anaerobic digesters, an efficient mixing provides a relatively homogenous mixture of the feedstock within the tank. This study aims to investigate the mixing process and the total energy consumption needed for stirring by using an asymmetrical mixer. A further objective is to analyze the formation of stagnant volume and the velocity gradient in the digester in order to assure the mixing efficiency of the mixer type. The computational model is implemented as the finite volume method, and the rheological properties of the feedstock are considered. The results are validated by comparing the on-site power consumption of the mixer with the values obtained by the numerical torque. At various mixer speeds, the dead volume does not exceed 0.5% of the digester tank; however, with the increase of the mixer rotation speed, the energy consumption of the mixer increases drastically. Full article
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Article
Optimal Parameter Estimation in Activated Sludge Process Based Wastewater Treatment Practice
Water 2020, 12(9), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092604 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Activated sludge models (ASMs) are often used in the simulation of the wastewater treatment process to evaluate whether the effluent quality parameters of a wastewater treatment plant meet the standards. The premise of successful simulation is to choose appropriate dynamic parameters for the [...] Read more.
Activated sludge models (ASMs) are often used in the simulation of the wastewater treatment process to evaluate whether the effluent quality parameters of a wastewater treatment plant meet the standards. The premise of successful simulation is to choose appropriate dynamic parameters for the model. A niche based adaptive invasive weed optimization (NAIWO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to find the appropriate kinetic parameters of activated sludge model 1 (ASM1). The niche idea is used to improve the possibility of convergence to the global optimal solution. In addition, the adaptive mechanism and periodic operator are introduced to improve the convergence speed and accuracy of the algorithm. Finally, NAIWO is used to optimize the parameters of ASM1. Comparison with other intelligent algorithms such as invasive weed optimization (IWO), genetic algorithm (GA), and bat algorithm (BA) showed the higher convergence accuracy and faster convergence speed of NAIWO. The results showed that the ASM1 model results agreed with measured data with smaller errors. Full article
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