Feature Papers of Water-Energy Nexus, Volume II

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water-Energy Nexus".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2024) | Viewed by 7851

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Pkwy, Regina, SK, Canada
Interests: hydrological and environmental systems simulation; climate modeling and downscaling; resources, environmental, and economic systems optimization; synchrotron-based environmental chemistry and biochemistry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water shortage has become increasingly severe under the influence of climate change and the stress of socioeconomic development. On the one hand, water scarcity can impact energy production and reliability, especially for water-intensive technologies such as biofuels, concentrating solar power, and nuclear power. On the other hand, diminished freshwater resources can also lead to a greater reliance on energy-intensive sources of water supply such as desalination. While the interdependent relationship between water and energy can bring complexities to water- and energy-related issues, it can also be considered the key to the problem if properly exploited. This Special Issue presents recent research findings and technological developments related to the water–energy nexus. We welcome research articles and critical reviews on:

  • All aspects of the relationship between the water used for energy production and electricity generation and the energy required to extract, clean, deliver, store, and dispose of water;
  • Water and energy security;
  • Interactions between water and energy systems;
  • Connections between water and energy infrastructures;
  • Hydropower;
  • Integrated water–carbon footprint studies;
  • Climate change impact on water and energy systems;
  • Integrated water and energy system modeling;
  • Integrated assessment of policies addressing water–energy issues;
  • Risk assessment and projection for water and energy systems;
  • Water and energy system management;
  • Optimization of water efficiency in energy production;
  • Optimization of energy efficiency in water supply and management;
  • Co-optimization of the water–energy nexus;
  • Water–energy nexus technologies.

Prof. Dr. Gordon Huang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water–energy
  • hydropower
  • water security
  • energy security
  • integrated assessment
  • climate change
  • infrastructure
  • optimization
  • technologies
  • risk assessment and management

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 4988 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Deep Learning Techniques in Streamflow Monthly Prediction of the Zarrine River Basin
by Mahdi Nakhaei, Hossein Zanjanian, Pouria Nakhaei, Mohammad Gheibi, Reza Moezzi, Kourosh Behzadian and Luiza C. Campos
Water 2024, 16(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020208 - 6 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Predicting monthly streamflow is essential for hydrological analysis and water resource management. Recent advancements in deep learning, particularly long short-term memory (LSTM) and recurrent neural networks (RNN), exhibit extraordinary efficacy in streamflow forecasting. This study employs RNN and LSTM to construct data-driven streamflow [...] Read more.
Predicting monthly streamflow is essential for hydrological analysis and water resource management. Recent advancements in deep learning, particularly long short-term memory (LSTM) and recurrent neural networks (RNN), exhibit extraordinary efficacy in streamflow forecasting. This study employs RNN and LSTM to construct data-driven streamflow forecasting models. Sensitivity analysis, utilizing the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, also is crucial for model refinement and identification of critical variables. This study covers monthly streamflow data from 1979 to 2014, employing five distinct model structures to ascertain the most optimal configuration. Application of the models to the Zarrine River basin in northwest Iran, a major sub-basin of Lake Urmia, demonstrates the superior accuracy of the RNN algorithm over LSTM. At the outlet of the basin, quantitative evaluations demonstrate that the RNN model outperforms the LSTM model across all model structures. The S3 model, characterized by its inclusion of all input variable values and a four-month delay, exhibits notably exceptional performance in this aspect. The accuracy measures applicable in this particular context were RMSE (22.8), R2 (0.84), and NSE (0.8). This study highlights the Zarrine River’s substantial impact on variations in Lake Urmia’s water level. Furthermore, the ANOVA method demonstrates exceptional performance in discerning the relevance of input factors. ANOVA underscores the key role of station streamflow, upstream station streamflow, and maximum temperature in influencing the model’s output. Notably, the RNN model, surpassing LSTM and traditional artificial neural network (ANN) models, excels in accurately mimicking rainfall–runoff processes. This emphasizes the potential of RNN networks to filter redundant information, distinguishing them as valuable tools in monthly streamflow forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Water-Energy Nexus, Volume II)
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20 pages, 13439 KiB  
Article
Small Hydropower Assessment of Uganda Based on Multisource Geospatial Data
by Petras Punys, Gitana Vyčienė, Linas Jurevičius and Algis Kvaraciejus
Water 2023, 15(11), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112051 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
This article is based on the freely available data of the web-based hydropower map HYPOSO, which the authors compiled. Only the Ugandan river network and associated hydropower potential are highlighted here, using freely available geospatial datasets. The main objective was to assess Ugandan [...] Read more.
This article is based on the freely available data of the web-based hydropower map HYPOSO, which the authors compiled. Only the Ugandan river network and associated hydropower potential are highlighted here, using freely available geospatial datasets. The main objective was to assess Ugandan river and stream hydropower potential, compare it with previous assessments, and identify potential sites for small hydropower plant installation. GIS techniques were extensively used to analyse hydrological and other related geospatial data. The stream-reach power potential was determined based on channel slope, the length between tributaries, and the average flow derived from a specific runoff distribution map. Stream profiles extracted from the river network’s digital elevation model were validated against previous assessments. Uganda’s hydropower potential was determined in various patterns, and its values were compared with prior estimates. Around 500 potential high-energy intensity stream reaches and new potential areas for small hydropower plant development were identified in this country, considering a range of characteristics. Statistical datasets were analysed, and their straightforward summaries were presented. These summary characteristics of hydropower potential are necessary for decision-makers to foster hydropower development in this country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Water-Energy Nexus, Volume II)
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15 pages, 2381 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of a Spiral-Tube Instantaneous Water Heater Using Response Surface Methodology
by Pedram Rezaei, Hamid Reza Moheghi and Amin Amiri Delouei
Water 2023, 15(8), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081458 - 8 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
In this paper, the fabrication and optimization of a spiral-tube heat exchanger (STHE) were considered for improving the heat transfer rate and efficiency of traditional instantaneous water heaters. The large number of instantaneous water heaters exported from the customers of the “Garman Gas [...] Read more.
In this paper, the fabrication and optimization of a spiral-tube heat exchanger (STHE) were considered for improving the heat transfer rate and efficiency of traditional instantaneous water heaters. The large number of instantaneous water heaters exported from the customers of the “Garman Gas Toos” company, which was mainly due to corrosion and leakage, imposed a lot of cost and credit reduction for this company. The high energy consumption was the second reason that justified working on a new STHE. The main innovation of this research is the design and construction of a new heat exchanger with a smaller size and higher efficiency with the help of identifying the factors affecting its efficiency and heat transfer rate. In order to optimize the responses, three variables were considered, including fin number (per unit area), exhaust outlet diameter, and water flow rate. Implementing face-centered central composite design (CCD), the proposed levels of factors and the corresponding response variables were measured in the “Garman Gas Toos” laboratory. Using the design of experiments (DoE), the effects of the three factors and their mutual interaction effects were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was devised to build a prediction model and obtain the values of the factors for which the responses were optimal. Based on the results, optimum conditions for the STHE were found to be an exhaust diameter of 4 cm and a water flow rate of 6 L/min coupled with six fins. At this optimal point, the values of efficiency and heat transfer rate, as response variables, were obtained as 85% and 8480 W, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Water-Energy Nexus, Volume II)
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20 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
Energy and Exergy Analysis of Solar Air Gap Membrane Distillation System for Seawater Desalination
by Nawel Mibarki, Zakaria Triki, Abd-Elmouneïm Belhadj, Hichem Tahraoui, Abdeltif Amrane, Sabrina Cheikh, Amina Hadadi, Nasma Bouchelkia, Mohamed Kebir, Jie Zhang, Amine Aymen Assadi and Lotfi Mouni
Water 2023, 15(6), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061201 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) is a widely utilized technology for producing drinking water due to its low heat loss, high thermal efficiency, and compatibility with solar energy. The application of the first and second laws of thermodynamics in energy and exergy analyses [...] Read more.
Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) is a widely utilized technology for producing drinking water due to its low heat loss, high thermal efficiency, and compatibility with solar energy. The application of the first and second laws of thermodynamics in energy and exergy analyses provides a comprehensive evaluation of the efficiency of thermal processes. This study aims to examine numerically the energy and exergy performance indicators of a solar AGMD system used for seawater desalination. The simulation was carried out using MATLAB 9.7 software. The total thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of each element in the AGMD system were calculated for various solar field energy outputs, and moreover, a parametric study was conducted. The results indicate that the exergetic efficiency of the AGMD system components was the lowest in the solar field, with the concentrator having the lowest energy efficiency. Additionally, the thermal and exergetic efficiency of the entire solar AGMD system decreases along with the raise of ambient temperature. An additional investigation was conducted to better apprehend the sources of exergy destruction in the solar field. The obtained results from this study can be employed as a guide to reduce exergy destruction in the whole solar AGMD desalination system with recognition of the main sources of irreversibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Water-Energy Nexus, Volume II)
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