Special Issue "Urban Environmental Vulnerability under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hsin-Fu Yeh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Interests: hillslope hydrology; groundwater recharge; unsaturated soil; isotopes hydrology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urbanization alters surface landscapes and drives changes in regional environments and the global environment by changing surface coverage, hydrological systems, and the ecosphere. Regarding global environmental changes and climate change, the development of urban regions poses several challenges in the interaction between humans and the environment. Topics include, but are not limited to, environmental pollution, land loss, the urban heat-island effect, changes in urban hydrology patterns, and the depletion of water resources.

Prof. Dr. Hsin-Fu Yeh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • environmental vulnerability
  • climate change
  • anthropogenic impacts
  • hydrological system
  • urban heat-island effect
  • water resources

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Factors Controlling of Thermal Water Hydrogeochemical Characteristics in Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan
Water 2020, 12(9), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092473 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
The Tatun geothermal system is located in Northern Taiwan and is hosted by the Tatun volcano group (TVG). The variation in the geochemical composition of thermal waters is considered to be an important indicator of volcanic activity. In this study, we analyzed the [...] Read more.
The Tatun geothermal system is located in Northern Taiwan and is hosted by the Tatun volcano group (TVG). The variation in the geochemical composition of thermal waters is considered to be an important indicator of volcanic activity. In this study, we analyzed the chemical and isotopic compositions of hot springs in the TVG. A chemical and multicomponent geothermometer was used to estimate the reservoir temperature, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes were used to determine the source of the thermal water. The presence of thick andesite and fractures allowed the formation of different type of springs in the center close each other with lower temperatures and acidic springs with higher temperatures at the northeast and southwest sides of the Tatun geothermal field. The saturation index showed that the concentration of SiO2 in the thermal water was controlled by quartz. The multicomponent geothermometer indicated a reservoir temperature between 130 °C and 190 °C, and the geothermal water in Longfengku, Lengshniken, Matsao and Szehuangping may have mixed with shallow groundwater. Isotope data indicated that the stream water and groundwater originated from meteoric water, and the spring water showed a significant oxygen shift, due to water–rock interaction and evaporation. The isotopes of the fluid in the TVG are also affected by the seasonal monsoon. These results can serve as a reference for designing a conceptual model of the spring in the Tatun geothermal system. Full article
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Article
A Comparison of Streamflow and Baseflow Responses to Land-Use Change and the Variation in Climate Parameters Using SWAT
Water 2020, 12(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010191 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Alteration of land use and climate change are among the main variables affecting watershed hydrology. Characterizing the impacts of climate variation and land use alteration on water resources is essential in managing watersheds. Thus, in this research, streamflow and baseflow responses to climate [...] Read more.
Alteration of land use and climate change are among the main variables affecting watershed hydrology. Characterizing the impacts of climate variation and land use alteration on water resources is essential in managing watersheds. Thus, in this research, streamflow and baseflow responses to climate and land use variation were modeled in two watersheds, the Upper West Branch DuPage River (UWBDR) watershed in Illinois and Walzem Creek watershed in Texas. The variations in streamflow and baseflow were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. The alteration in land use between 1992 and 2011 was evaluated using transition matrix analysis. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test was adopted to investigate changes in meteorological data for 1980–2017. Our results indicate that the baseflow accounted for almost 55.3% and 33.3% of the annual streamflow in the UWBDR and Walzem Creek watersheds, respectively. The contribution of both land use alteration and climate variability on the flow variation is higher in the UWBDR watershed. In Walzem Creek, the alteration in streamflow and baseflow appears to be driven by the effect of urbanization more than that of climate variability. The results reported herein are compared with results reported in recent work by the authors in order to provide necessary information for water resources management planning, as well as soil and water conservation, and to broaden the current understanding of hydrological components variation in different climate regions. Full article
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Article
Impact of Climate Change and Human Activities on Streamflow Variations Based on the Budyko Framework
Water 2019, 11(10), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102001 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
In recent years, the influence of climate change and human activity on the global environment have become a concern. It is essential to better understand the hydrologic environment to evaluate water availability and related issues. In this study, we perform a trend and [...] Read more.
In recent years, the influence of climate change and human activity on the global environment have become a concern. It is essential to better understand the hydrologic environment to evaluate water availability and related issues. In this study, we perform a trend and breakpoint analysis on streamflow time series in the Lanyang, Keelung, Dahan, Fengshan, Youluo and Shangping River Basins in northern Taiwan. Furthermore, we apply the Budyko–Fu equation and the Budyko–Mezentsev–Choudhury–Yang equation to evaluate the elasticity of streamflow with respect to climate factors and the catchment characteristics parameter. We discuss the sensitivity of streamflow to climate factors (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), as well as sensitivity to human activities such as land use changes. We detected breakpoints in the streamflow time series for the Lanyang and Keelung rivers in in 1993 and 1990, respectively. The streamflow of Lanyang River increased by 32.50% during the variation period (1993–2017), with 109.00% of the variation caused by non-climate factors. The Keelung River’s streamflow was reduced by 18.11% during the variation period (1990–2017), and the dominant factor was climate change, accounting for 71.53% of the reduction. Sensitivity analysis showed that precipitation changes were the most sensitive factor of streamflow variation. For every 1% increase in precipitation, the streamflow would increase by 1.05% to 1.37%. These results could serve as a reference for the sustainable development of water resources and territorial policies in northern Taiwan. Full article
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Article
Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers
Water 2019, 11(8), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081737 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
The prediction of the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water recycling with urban stormwater and treated wastewater is important since PFAS are widely used, persistent, and have potential impacts on human health and the environment. These alternative water sources have [...] Read more.
The prediction of the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water recycling with urban stormwater and treated wastewater is important since PFAS are widely used, persistent, and have potential impacts on human health and the environment. These alternative water sources have been utilized for water recycling via aquifers or managed aquifer recharge (MAR). However, the fate of these chemicals in MAR schemes and the potential impact in terms of regulation have not been studied. PFAS can potentially be transported long distances in the subsurface during MAR. This article reviews the potential risks to MAR systems using recycled water and urban stormwater. To date, there are insufficient data to determine if PFAS can be degraded by natural processes or retained in the aquifer and become suitable pre-treatment or post-treatment technologies that will need to be employed depending upon the end use of the recovered water. The use of engineered pre-treatment or post-treatment methods needs to be based on a ‘fit for purpose’ principle and carefully integrated with the proposed water end use to ensure that human and environmental health risks are appropriately managed. Full article
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Article
Methane Emissions Driven by Adding a Gradient of Ethanol as Carbon Source in Integrated Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetlands
Water 2019, 11(5), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051086 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
This work aims to investigate the methane emissions from integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) when ethanol is added as an external carbon source. In this study, a gradient of ethanol (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mmol/L) was added as the carbon [...] Read more.
This work aims to investigate the methane emissions from integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) when ethanol is added as an external carbon source. In this study, a gradient of ethanol (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mmol/L) was added as the carbon source in an IVCW planted with Cyperus alternifolius L. The results showed that the methane emission flux at an ethanol concentration of 32 mmol/L was 32.34 g CH4 m−2 day−1 less than that of the control experiment (0 mmol/L) and that the methane emission flux at an ethanol concentration of 16 mmol/L was 5.53 g CH4 m−2 day−1 less than that at 0 mmol/L. In addition, variations in the water quality driven by the different ethanol concentrations were found, with a redox potential range of −64 mV to +30 mV, a pH range of 6.6–6.9, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate range of 41% to 78%, and an ammonia nitrogen removal rate range of 59% to 82% after the ethanol addition. With the average CH4-C/TOC (%) value of 35% driven by ethanol, it will be beneficial to understand that CH4-C/TOC can be considered an ecological indicator of anthropogenic methanogenesis from treatment wetlands when driven by carbon sources or carbon loading. It can be concluded that adding ethanol as an external carbon source can not only meet the water quality demand of the IVCW treatment system but also stimulate and increase the average CH4 emissions from IVCWs by 23% compared with the control experiment. This finding indicates that an external carbon source can stimulate more CH4 emissions from IVCWs and shows the importance of carbon sources during sewage treatment processes when considering greenhouse emissions from treated wetlands. Full article
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Article
Variations in Illicit Compound Discharged from Treated Wastewater
Water 2019, 11(5), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051071 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The detection and monitoring of illicit drug concentrations in environmental waters is of increasing interest. This study aimed to determine if illicit and regulated compounds, their potential pre-cursors, and metabolites varied in amount discharged into the environment from treated wastewater at different facilities. [...] Read more.
The detection and monitoring of illicit drug concentrations in environmental waters is of increasing interest. This study aimed to determine if illicit and regulated compounds, their potential pre-cursors, and metabolites varied in amount discharged into the environment from treated wastewater at different facilities. Water samples were taken from discharge points of four different tertiary wastewater treatment plants discharging directly into the Hawkesbury-Nepean River (Australia) on two different occasions and analysed to determine the concentrations of compounds including: ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine. Here, we show that detectable levels of illicit drug and metabolites are being emitted on a consistent basis after having persisted through the wastewater treatment process. The concentrations of methamphetamine are in excess of previously reported surface water concentrations. The estimated total load of compounds being discharged on a daily basis is greater than similar sized catchment areas. The results presented here are of concern from both an ecological and human health perspective. Full article
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