Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 21147

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Marine Biological Resources and Inland Waters, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos, Greece
Interests: environmental water requirements; water resources management; hydrochemistry; water resources monitoring
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Guest Editor
Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: water suplly; water disribution network; optimization; design; operation; reliability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent technological advancements have facilitated the development of efficient, low-cost sensors and automatic measurement platforms that allow monitoring of water resources in high spatial and temporal scales. Telecommunication technologies and the development of Internet of Things infrastructure have provided the opportunity for near real-time monitoring of water quantity and quality, offering early warning and adaptive water management capabilities. Key parameters such as water level, discharge and physicochemical properties are nowadays measured with a variety of smart, low-cost sensors, radar systems, remotely operated - aerial or floating - vehicles and satellites. These state-of-the-art monitoring infrastructures are expected to provide significant amount of valuable data in the next years, supporting policy makers and managers to preserve, manage and restore water resources in an efficient manner. Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest technological methods and applications for the monitoring and management of water resources with the aim to provide near real-time information and/or high spatial and temporal resolution data that can optimize current management practices and minimize the potential impacts of water-related disasters.

Dr. Elias Dimitriou
Dr. Joaquim Sousa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • water vulnerability
  • pollution risk
  • water resources management
  • pollution pressures
  • water quality
  • climate and land use change
  • water bodies restoration

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 5452 KiB  
Article
Remote Sensing Methodology for Roughness Estimation in Ungauged Streams for Different Hydraulic/Hydrodynamic Modeling Approaches
by George Papaioannou, Vassiliki Markogianni, Athanasios Loukas and Elias Dimitriou
Water 2022, 14(7), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071076 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
This study investigates the generation of spatially distributed roughness coefficient maps based on image analysis and the extent to which those roughness coefficient values affect the flood inundation modeling using different hydraulic/hydrodynamic modeling approaches ungauged streams. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images were used [...] Read more.
This study investigates the generation of spatially distributed roughness coefficient maps based on image analysis and the extent to which those roughness coefficient values affect the flood inundation modeling using different hydraulic/hydrodynamic modeling approaches ungauged streams. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images were used for the generation of high-resolution Orthophoto mosaic (1.34 cm/px) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Among various pixel-based and object-based image analyses (OBIA), a Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) was eventually selected to examine several texture parameters. The combination of local entropy values (OBIA method) with Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC; pixel-based analysis) was highlighted as a satisfactory approach (65% accuracy) to determine dominant grain classes along a stream with inhomogeneous bed composition. Spatially distributed roughness coefficient maps were generated based on the riverbed image analysis (grain size classification), the size-frequency distributions of river bed materials derived from field works (grid sampling), detailed land use data, and the usage of several empirical formulas that used for the estimation of Manning’s n values. One-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and coupled (1D/2D) hydraulic modeling approaches were used for flood inundation modeling using specific Manning’s n roughness coefficient map scenarios. The validation of the simulated flooded area was accomplished using historical flood extent data, the Critical Success Index (CSI), and CSI penalization. The methodology was applied and demonstrated at the ungauged Xerias stream reach, Greece, and indicated that it might be applied to other Mediterranean streams with similar characteristics and flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 3550 KiB  
Article
Discharge Estimation with the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Hydraulic Methods in Shallow Rivers
by Sergios Lagogiannis and Elias Dimitriou
Water 2021, 13(20), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202808 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Although river discharge is essential hydrologic information, it is often absent, especially for small rivers and remote catchment areas. Practical difficulties frequently impede the installation and operation of gauging stations, while satellite-sensed data have proved to be relatively useful only for discharge estimation [...] Read more.
Although river discharge is essential hydrologic information, it is often absent, especially for small rivers and remote catchment areas. Practical difficulties frequently impede the installation and operation of gauging stations, while satellite-sensed data have proved to be relatively useful only for discharge estimation of large-scale rivers. In this study, we propose a new methodology based on UAV-sensed data and photogrammetry techniques combined with empirical hydraulic equations for discharge estimation. In addition, two different riverbed particle size distributions were incorporated, to study the effect of fine sediment inclusion (or exclusion) in the estimation process. Accordingly, 17 study sites were selected and six different approaches were applied in each. Results show that at 75% of sites at least one approach produced an accurate discharge estimation, while in 10 out the 17 sites (58.8%) all six approaches produced accurate estimations. A strong correlation between a threshold value for the hydraulic radius (Rh = 0.3 m) of cross-sections and high estimation errors for sites exceeding it was also observed. The fine sediment inclusion improved only the performance of certain approaches and did not have a consistently positive effect. Overall, the relatively high percentage of sites with satisfactory discharge estimates indicates that using UAV-derived data and simple hydraulic equations can be used for this purpose, with an acceptable level of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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17 pages, 3567 KiB  
Article
OpenHi.net: A Synergistically Built, National-Scale Infrastructure for Monitoring the Surface Waters of Greece
by Nikos Mamassis, Katerina Mazi, Elias Dimitriou, Demetris Kalogeras, Nikolaos Malamos, Spyridon Lykoudis, Antonis Koukouvinos, Ioannis Tsirogiannis, Ino Papageorgaki, Anastasios Papadopoulos, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Demetris Koutsoyiannis, Antonis Christofides, Andreas Efstratiadis, Georgios Vitantzakis, Nikos Kappos, Dimitrios Katsanos, Basil Psiloglou, Evangelos Rozos, Theodora Kopania, Ioannis Koletsis and Antonis D. Koussisadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Water 2021, 13(19), 2779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192779 - 07 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
The large-scale surface-water monitoring infrastructure for Greece Open Hydrosystem Information Network (Openhi.net) is presented in this paper. Openhi.net provides free access to water data, incorporating existing networks that manage their own databases. In its pilot phase, Openhi.net operates three telemetric networks for monitoring [...] Read more.
The large-scale surface-water monitoring infrastructure for Greece Open Hydrosystem Information Network (Openhi.net) is presented in this paper. Openhi.net provides free access to water data, incorporating existing networks that manage their own databases. In its pilot phase, Openhi.net operates three telemetric networks for monitoring the quantity and the quality of surface waters, as well as meteorological and soil variables. Aspiring members must also offer their data for public access. A web-platform was developed for on-line visualization, processing and managing telemetric data. A notification system was also designed and implemented for inspecting the current values of variables. The platform is built upon the web 2.0 technology that exploits the ever-increasing capabilities of browsers to handle dynamic data as a time series. A GIS component offers web-services relevant to geo-information for water bodies. Accessing, querying and downloading geographical data for watercourses (segment length, slope, name, stream order) and for water basins (area, mean elevation, mean slope, basin order, slope, mean CN-curve number) are provided by Web Map Services and Web Feature Services. A new method for estimating the streamflow from measurements of the surface velocity has been advanced as well to reduce hardware expenditures, a low-cost ‘prototype’ hydro-telemetry system (at about half the cost of a comparable commercial system) was designed, constructed and installed at six monitoring stations of Openhi.net. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Tomato and Watermelon Production with Mulches and Automatic Drip Irrigation in North Dakota
by Uday Bhanu Prakash Vaddevolu, Justin Lester, Xinhua Jia, Thomas F. Scherer and Chiwon W. Lee
Water 2021, 13(14), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141991 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
In North Dakota, agriculture contributes a large sector of the state’s economy, but vegetable production is limited due to the state’s climate condition. Inadequate soil moisture and low soil temperature are the two major factors prohibiting quality produce and high-yield vegetable production. In [...] Read more.
In North Dakota, agriculture contributes a large sector of the state’s economy, but vegetable production is limited due to the state’s climate condition. Inadequate soil moisture and low soil temperature are the two major factors prohibiting quality produce and high-yield vegetable production. In this study, a soil-water potential, sensor-based drip irrigation system was developed, designed, and installed to evaluate its application on tomato and watermelon productions in a two-year field experiment in 2019 and 2020. The experimental treatments were drip irrigation and no irrigation under three mulches: black plastic, clear plastic, and landscape fabric mulches. Irrigation was scheduled at 8:00 am for watermelon and 9:00 a.m. for tomato, with the ability for each irrigation event to be bypassed based on the soil moisture conditions. Due to rainfall differences in the two years, irrigation was barely needed in 2019, but in 2020, drip irrigation was applied frequently. On average, for the two-years’ field experiment, the highest yield for tomatoes was obtained from drip irrigation under black plastic drip irrigation treatment with 40.24 Mg ha−1 in 2020, whereas the highest yield for watermelon was from drip irrigation under clear plastic mulch with 165.55 Mg ha−1 in 2020. The effect of mulch, irrigation, and combined practices were analyzed based on the average fruit weight and diameter, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and sugar content of the samples. The results showed that for watermelon, the average weight and diameter were significantly heavier and higher with irrigation treatments, but the EC and the pH values were significantly higher with mulch treatments. For tomatoes, the average weight, diameter, pH, and sugar content were all significantly higher with mulch treatment, but the EC was higher with irrigation treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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27 pages, 9737 KiB  
Article
Integrative Approach for Groundwater Pollution Risk Assessment Coupling Hydrogeological, Physicochemical and Socioeconomic Conditions in Southwest of the Damascus Basin
by Nazeer Asmael, Jessica D. Villanueva, Nicolas Peyraube, Mohamed Baalousha, Frédéric Huneau, Alain Dupuy and Philippe Le Coustumer
Water 2021, 13(9), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091220 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
Groundwater is the main resource for irrigation and drinking supply in most parts of Syria, as for most Mediterranean countries, however this resource suffers from mismanagement. In the study area (northeast of Mt. Hermon), the lack of information makes water management in this [...] Read more.
Groundwater is the main resource for irrigation and drinking supply in most parts of Syria, as for most Mediterranean countries, however this resource suffers from mismanagement. In the study area (northeast of Mt. Hermon), the lack of information makes water management in this area extremely difficult. Assessing groundwater pollution risk is the most essential issue for water resources management, especially in the regions where complex interaction between climate, geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, water scarcity and water resource mismanagement exist. This complexity leads to significant complication in determining pollution risk of studied system. In the present work, we adopted an integrative approach to assess groundwater pollution risk in the study area. This methodology is based on the analysis of hydrogeological characteristics of aquifer systems and the available information about socioeconomic context and physiochemical groundwater conditions that might affect this system. This approach allowed us to delineate the groundwater pollution risk map based on the analysis of concerning parameters/indicators. The degree of risk was assessed as the sum and average of rating of these parameters and indicators for each subarea. Typically, very high pollution risk index was identified over the Quaternary/Neogene horizon, i.e., shallow and unconfined aquifer and in the lower part of Jurassic aquifer. In these two parts, the majority of anthropogenic activities are concentrated. Low pollution risk index was found for the outcropping of low permeable Quaternary basalt at the Southern part of the study area. A moderate pollution index was identified for the low/moderate permeability of silt, clay and marly limestone-rich horizons of the major part of Neogene aquifer outside of the intersected zones with Quaternary aquifer and for the Paleogene formations. The spatial analysis shows that about 50% of the study area is characterized as being at very high and high pollution risk index. Hence, the overall natural protective capacity of this area is still poor. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the proposed approach to assess groundwater pollution risk in local complex aquifer system characterized by lack of information and data in order to reduce the risk of future groundwater pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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14 pages, 3535 KiB  
Article
Optimization Methodology for Estimating Pump Curves Using SCADA Data
by Elad Salomons, Uri Shamir and Mashor Housh
Water 2021, 13(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050586 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3548
Abstract
Water distribution systems (WDSs) deliver water from sources to consumers. These systems are made of hydraulic elements such as reservoirs, tanks, pipes, valves, and pumps. A pump is characterized by curves which define the relationship of the pump’s head gain and efficiency with [...] Read more.
Water distribution systems (WDSs) deliver water from sources to consumers. These systems are made of hydraulic elements such as reservoirs, tanks, pipes, valves, and pumps. A pump is characterized by curves which define the relationship of the pump’s head gain and efficiency with its flow. For a new pump, the curves are provided by the manufacturer. However, due to its operating history, the performance of a pump deteriorates, and its curves decline at an estimated rate of about 1% per year. Pump curves are key elements for planning and management of WDSs and for monitoring system efficiency, to determine when a pump should be rehabilitated or replaced. In practice, determining pump curves is done by field tests, which are conducted every few years. This leaves the pump’s performance unmonitored for long time periods. Moreover, these tests often cover only a small range of the curves. This study demonstrates that in the era of IoT and big data, the data collected by Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems can be used to continuously monitor pumps’ performance and derive updated pump characteristic curves. We present and demonstrate a practical methodology to estimate fixed and variable speed pump curves in pumping stations. The proposed method can estimate individual pump curves even when the measurements are given only for the pumping station as a whole (i.e., total flow, pumping station head gain). The methodology is demonstrated in a real-world case study of a pumping station in southern Israel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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12 pages, 4148 KiB  
Article
Study on the Performance Improvement of Axial Flow Pump’s Saddle Zone by Using a Double Inlet Nozzle
by Weidong Cao and Wei Li
Water 2020, 12(5), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051493 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3630
Abstract
The operating range of axial flow pumps is often constrained by the onset of rotating stall. An improved method using a double inlet nozzle to stabilize the performance curve is presented in the current study; a single inlet nozzle and three kinds of [...] Read more.
The operating range of axial flow pumps is often constrained by the onset of rotating stall. An improved method using a double inlet nozzle to stabilize the performance curve is presented in the current study; a single inlet nozzle and three kinds of double inlet nozzle with different rib gap widths at the inlet of axial flow pump impeller were designed. Three dimensional (3D) incompressible flow fields were simulated, and the distributions of turbulence kinetic energy and velocity at different flow rates located at the inlet section, as well as the pressure and streamline in the impeller, were obtained at the same time. The single inlet nozzle scheme and a double inlet nozzle scheme were studied; the experimental and numerical performance results show that although the cross section is partly blocked in the double inlet nozzle, the head and efficiency do not decline at stable operation flow rate. On small flow rate condition, the double inlet nozzle scheme effectively stabilized the head-flow performance, whereby the block induced by the backflow before the impeller was markedly improved by using a double inlet nozzle. It has also been found that the rib gap width impacts the efficiency curve of the axial flow pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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