Special Issue "The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2022) | Viewed by 9733

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ta-Kang Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Interests: vessel-source pollution; ballast water management; marine debris; ocean governance; ocean monitoring; coastal management; coastal eutrophication; marine protected area

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Maritime shipping is currently the most reliable form of cargo transport for global trade. With the growth of the world economy, seaborne trade continues to expand, and the number of ships also increases to meet global demand. However, the diverse impact of shipping may cause significant ecological consequences on the marine environment and human health. The impact categories include pollution of discharge to seawater, physical disturbance, and air emissions. Discharge to seawater may be in the form of chemical pollution from oil spills, waste dumping, the release of toxic metal from antifouling paints, and operational discharge of oil, bilge water, and litter. Biological pollution also exists as a result of introduction of non-indigenous species from ballast water or ship hulls. Physical disturbances are direct interactions between ships and marine fauna along the shipping routes, which may include ship strike/collision, anthropogenic noise, and artificial light. Marine vessels can create wave and currents that may result in physical impact, such as shoreline erosion and resuspension of sediments. Finally, exhaust gas from shipping is a growing source of greenhouse gas emissions that may contribute to climate change and ocean acidification. Other air pollutants such as SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 from shipping activities also deteriorate regional air quality along the shipping routes.

This Special Issue is dedicated to bringing current knowledge to provide a comprehensive, in-depth analysis of shipping impacts. We welcome both original papers and reviews that provide the community with the most recent advancements in all aspects of shipping impact on the marine environment.

Dr. Ta-Kang Liu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • oil spills
  • ballast water
  • noise pollution
  • ship strike
  • waste dumping
  • antifouling system
  • greenhouse gas
  • non-indigenous species
  • vessel exhaust

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Monohull Type and Catamaran Hull Type on Ocean Waste Collection Behavior Using OpenFOAM
Water 2022, 14(17), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172623 - 25 Aug 2022
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Ocean waste that continues moving in the water has been a problem until now. This has stimulated marine debris cleaning technology to emerge. This research sought to evaluate the effectiveness of waste collection using a monohull and catamaran fitted with a forward conveyor. [...] Read more.
Ocean waste that continues moving in the water has been a problem until now. This has stimulated marine debris cleaning technology to emerge. This research sought to evaluate the effectiveness of waste collection using a monohull and catamaran fitted with a forward conveyor. The Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS)-based numerical simulation research is used to predict flow pattern characteristics, velocity contour, wave pattern, pressure distribution, and ship resistance. The current research focuses on the impact of a round-bilge-type monohull and inner flat-type catamaran hull front shape on waste collection behavior by applying numerical methods. The multiphase solver numerical configuration supplied with OpenFOAM v2112 has been verified and validated using the Delft catamaran 372 with Froude numbers 0.3. The effect of free surface on resistance and flow characteristics was evaluated by comparing these two models. The results show the behavior of marine debris collection due to the flow characteristics of both models. The marine debris flows much more conveniently through the conveyor fitted in front of the catamaran model than in the monohull model. In addition, considering the front-side hull flow, the catamaran model is superior since marine debris is able to approach the ship easily. However, the monohull model is faster at bringing marine debris closer to the conveyor, particularly at the location in front of the conveyor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
Exploring Ballast Water Management in Taiwan Using the PSR Conceptual Model Based on Stakeholders’ Perspectives
Water 2022, 14(15), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152409 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Accidental introduction of nonindigenous aquatic species (NIAS) is usually mediated by shipping through ballast water. Ballast water management plans are being developed and implemented around the world to prevent the spread of NIAS. However, for marine environmental management, incorporating stakeholders’ perceptions into designing [...] Read more.
Accidental introduction of nonindigenous aquatic species (NIAS) is usually mediated by shipping through ballast water. Ballast water management plans are being developed and implemented around the world to prevent the spread of NIAS. However, for marine environmental management, incorporating stakeholders’ perceptions into designing and formulating management plans is key to achieving successful implementation. This study used qualitative interviews and grounded theory to induce the influencing factors and conceptual model of stakeholders’ perceptions on ballast water management (BWM) issues. The interplay of the pressure–state–response conceptual model based on grounded theory was established to elaborate on stakeholders’ perceptions. The study results indicated that local ballast water management required comprehensive port state control (PSC) and technical competency development. Second, an international commercial port can be used as a demonstration area to demonstrate the effectiveness and the potential benefits of BWM implementation due to its potential to link with international networks. Moreover, legislation, surveying/monitoring, institutional capacity and outreach/education are the four fundamentals to marine bio-invasion management. Initiating ballast water management measures as part of port environmental management aims to enhance marine pollution management capacity, especially in the field of marine bio-invasion management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
Environmental and Economic Analysis on Sailing from Taiwan through Arctic Passages
Water 2022, 14(13), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132099 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Maritime transportation is a key means for Taiwan to transport the cargo in the global trade. Global warming has led to two new navigation channels for arctic passages, the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage. Research has increasingly addressed the unknown economic costs of [...] Read more.
Maritime transportation is a key means for Taiwan to transport the cargo in the global trade. Global warming has led to two new navigation channels for arctic passages, the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage. Research has increasingly addressed the unknown economic costs of these passages, and the increase of navigational activity in the Arctic Ocean has also resulted in CO2 emissions. Taiwan has one of the leading merchant fleets in the world; however, study on this aspect in Taiwan is not available. We use Port of Taipei, Taiwan as the starting place to compare the two arctic shipping routes and developed a model to determine the shipping costs and as well the CO2 emission. The results showed that a voyage from the Port of Taipei to the Port of Rotterdam through the Northeast Passage would be 2107 nautical miles shorter than voyage along the current sea route to Europe but 2% to 3% costlier; CO2 emissions would be 3% lower. Sailing to New York Harbor through the Northwest Passage would shorten voyages by 2459 nautical miles and reduce both costs and CO2 emissions by 7%. Therefore, if tolls were lowered or sailing speeds increased, sailing through the Arctic Passages could be a great opportunity for shipping industries and enable Taiwan to develop its shipping economy while protecting the marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
The Study on the Ballast Water Management of Mailiao Exclusive Industrial Harbor in Taiwan
Water 2022, 14(9), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091431 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 740
Abstract
In 2004, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Taiwan’s government has been in line with the BWM Convention’s obligations by passing several administrative orders and adopted the [...] Read more.
In 2004, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Taiwan’s government has been in line with the BWM Convention’s obligations by passing several administrative orders and adopted the 3 + 1 Port State Control (PSC) procedure. International trade ports in Taiwan include commercial ports and exclusive industrial harbors. The industrial harbor in Taiwan is unique in the world, so the 3 + 1 PSC procedure cannot be directly applied to the industrial harbor. Based on document analysis, this study discusses the similarities and differences between commercial ports and industrial harbors. The regulations and systems for ballast water management in Taiwan and how they can be applied to industrial harbors are also discussed. Judging from the results of this study of regulations, commercial ports and industrial harbors differ in applicable laws, competent authorities, and construction and management units. However, in operational practice, industrial harbors should be regarded as a commercial port whose use is restricted. Therefore, this study posits that industrial harbors should be classified as commercial ports in Taiwan’s ballast water management system. Classifying industrial harbors as falling outside commercial ports may cause management difficulties and may even cause trouble for international shipping. It is suggested that the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) first discusses with the Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) and the Ocean Affairs Council (OAC) to confirm whether industrial harbors are inside or outside the category of commercial ports, and then decide on a management system and suitable laws and regulations for integrating industrial harbors with commercial ports and international affairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
Impacts of Fishing Vessels on the Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments: A Case Study of Qianzhen Fishing Port in Southern Taiwan
Water 2022, 14(7), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071174 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Routine maintenance of fishing vessels and wastewater discharges are primary sources of heavy metals in fishing ports. Sediment pollution assessment is necessary in fishing port management, including sediment dredging and disposal, sewage treatment facility construction, and pollution source control. In this study, sediment [...] Read more.
Routine maintenance of fishing vessels and wastewater discharges are primary sources of heavy metals in fishing ports. Sediment pollution assessment is necessary in fishing port management, including sediment dredging and disposal, sewage treatment facility construction, and pollution source control. In this study, sediment heavy metal contents in Qianzhen Fishing Port, the largest pelagic fishery port in Taiwan, were investigated to assess the contamination levels and related potential ecological risks using multiple sediment pollution indices. Normalization methods were applied to identify the potential sources of heavy metals in fishing port sediments. Results showed that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr contents in the sediments of the inner fishing port (averages of 276, 742, 113, and 221 mg/kg, respectively) were 3–5 times greater compared to those along the port entrance and outside, indicating the strong impacts of anthropogenic pollution (EFCu: 5.6–12.5; EFZn: 2.8–4.3; EFPb: 2.4–5.4; EFCr: 1.1–3.2). Copper pollution was more severe, with high maxima contamination factor (CFCu: 15.1–24.8), probably contributed by copper-based antifouling paints used in fishing vessels. The sediments in the inner fishing port are categorized as having considerable ecological risk and toxicity (mERMq: 0.61–0.91; ΣTU: 7.5–11.7) that can potentially cause adverse effects on benthic organisms. Qianzhen Fishing Port sediments can be characterized as high Cu/Fe and Pb/Fe, moderate Zn/Fe, and high total grease content, indicating that the potential sources of heavy metals are primarily antifouling paints and oil spills from the fishing vessels. This study provides valuable data for pollution control, remediation, and environmental management of fishing ports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
Ballast Water Management Strategy to Reduce the Impact of Introductions by Utilizing an Empirical Risk Model
Water 2022, 14(6), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060981 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
The introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species (NIASs) was identified as one of the major threats to aquatic ecosystems. Shipping is one of the potential invasive pathways for the introduction of marine NIASs, mainly via ballast water, sediments, and ship fouling. In addition, The [...] Read more.
The introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species (NIASs) was identified as one of the major threats to aquatic ecosystems. Shipping is one of the potential invasive pathways for the introduction of marine NIASs, mainly via ballast water, sediments, and ship fouling. In addition, The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs) via ships’ ballast water and sediment. Some of these species can be very harmful and cause loss of biodiversity, adverse environmental consequences, and economic and social impacts. In this study, an empirical model based on the environmental similarity and the vessel characteristics was used to assess the risk associated with the ballast water, for the incoming vessels to the port of Kaohsiung and port of Riga. The priority for port state control (PSC) inspection was established and recommended for better ballast water management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
Butyltin Contamination in Fishing Port Sediments after the Ban of Tributyltin Antifouling Paint: A Case of Qianzhen Fishing Port in Taiwan
Water 2022, 14(5), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050813 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This study investigated the concentrations of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) in the sediments of the Qianzhen Fishing Port (Taiwan) in 2020. Further, the pollution status, composition, and potential ecotoxicity of BTs were evaluated. This case study provides a reference for [...] Read more.
This study investigated the concentrations of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) in the sediments of the Qianzhen Fishing Port (Taiwan) in 2020. Further, the pollution status, composition, and potential ecotoxicity of BTs were evaluated. This case study provides a reference for the benefits of the ban of TBT-based antifouling paint to date. Results showed that the total butyltin (ΣBTs, sum of TBT, DBT, and MBT) concentrations measured in the sediments of the Qianzhen Fishing Port ranged between 14.2–807 ngSn·g−1 dw, with an average of 356 ± 305 ngSn·g−1 dw. TBT was the most dominant species, with an average concentration of 303 ± 287 ngSn·g−1 dw. This average TBT concentration is about 4.3 times lower than in 2003, showing the progress of gradual degradation of TBT in the sediments. Still, the degradation is rather slow, with a half-life of about 8.09 years. An analysis of the effects of TBT on organisms in the sediments of the Qianzhen Fishing Port was carried out according to the TBT toxicity guidelines of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the assessment class criterion for imposex (ACCI) of the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR). The results showed that TBT levels in 80% of the sediments may pose negative effects on sensitive gastropods, and half of the sediments may even have an impact on gastropod reproduction. These show that marine life is still affected and threatened by TBT compounds, despite the decline of TBT concentrations since the ban of TBT-containing antifouling paints on ships in 2008. Therefore, it is necessary to continue paying attention to the changes of TBT concentrations and their potential ecological risks in the marine environment, and to formulate TBT management plans and strategies to mitigate their impacts in marine ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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Article
Method Development for Low-Concentration PAHs Analysis in Seawater to Evaluate the Impact of Ship Scrubber Washwater Effluents
Water 2022, 14(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030287 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
A naval ship’s exhaust gas scrubber may discharge polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into seawater. Due to the high lipophilicity and low water solubility of PAHs, their concentrations in seawater are extremely low, making them difficult to detect or accurately determine. To accurately assess [...] Read more.
A naval ship’s exhaust gas scrubber may discharge polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into seawater. Due to the high lipophilicity and low water solubility of PAHs, their concentrations in seawater are extremely low, making them difficult to detect or accurately determine. To accurately assess the impact of scrubber washwater effluent on the PAHs concentration of seawater, appropriate analysis methods must be established. In this study, a large-volume pre-concentration water sampler was used onboard to concentrate PAHs in surface seawater (100 L) from four sites offshore of southern Taiwan. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of dissolved PAHs in seawater and quality control samples were implemented using a GC/MS system with the aid of internal and surrogate standards. Results showed that the field and equipment blank samples of quality control samples were lower than twice the detection limit. The detection limit of individual PAHs is between 0.001 (naphthalene, NA) and 0.014 ng/L (dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, DBA), which meets the requirements for evaluating PAHs in seawater (that is, less than the maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs)). The concentration of total PAHs (TPAHs) in the four seawater samples ranged from 2.297 to 4.001 ng/L and had an average concentration of 3.056 ± 0.727 ng/L. The concentrations of 16 PAHs were determined in each seawater sample, indicating that the analytical method in this study is suitable for the determination of low-concentration PAHs in seawater. Phenanthrene (PHE) is the most dominant compound in seawater samples accounting for 59.6 ± 12.6% of TPAHs, followed by fluorine (FL) accounting for 8.5 ± 3.7%. The contribution of high-ring PAHs to TPAHs is not high (0.5–9.2%), but the observed concentrations can cause a higher risk to aquatic organisms than low-ring PAHs. The diagnostic ratio showed that the sources of PAHs in the seawater collected offshore of southern Taiwan may include mixed sources such as petrogenic, petroleum combustion, and biomass combustion. The results can be used for regular monitoring, which contributes to pollution prevention and management of the marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Ships and Marine Environment)
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