Special Issue "River Basin Management and River Evolution Research"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Daniel Bucur
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in Iasi - Romania
Interests: environmental impact assessment; land reclamation; water resources management; hydrological modelling; water quality; soil and water conservation
Dr. José María Senciales-González
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Malaga, Department of Geography, Malaga, Spain
Interests: river; geography; hydrography; fluvial geomorphology; soil geography; climate change
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Along with the society development, the human actions in the natural environment - at first isolated and insignificant - have gradually increased so lately, anthropogenic intervention on relatively large areas has become decisive in the soil degradation by erosion and landslides processes and affected the water conditions in terms of quality and quantity.

In addition, water resources in the hydrographic network are irregular distributed throughout the territory of many countries and show large variations, both in the volumes of water drained in rainy or dry years - compared to the average year - and in streamflow during a year. In recent decades, the frequency of extreme hydrological phenomena with particularly damaging effects has considerably complicated the river basin management in many regions of the world.

On the other hand, river evolution provides important evidence of the dynamic cycles along the Earth’s landscape. However, in addition to natural factors, human activities are affecting river and catchment evolution with geomorphological and hydrological consequences. Rivers and catchments are being subjected to changes and modifications, resulting in the development of significant hazards or risks in the forms of gullies, landslides, flash floods and sediment mobilisations. These phenomena are able to drastically change fluvial areas in a very short period of time by modifying river beds, banks, vegetation or biodiversity, among other effects. Also, peri-urban, urban and rural areas can be affected by non-controlled river changes. Therefore, understanding the past, present and future processes of each catchment evolution could aid in the protection of human and natural entities, including river ecosystems.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to foster advances in soil conservation and preventing or mitigating the destructive consequences of floods or prolonged droughts, including through forecasting and warning actions, as well as for the optimal use of water by consumers.

We will also collection of state-of-the-art of river and catchment evolution studies. Authors are invited to submit studies focused on changes in drainage density, fluvial profiles, fluvial processes, flash floods or effects of human structures on fluvial behaviour. We also welcome research analysing river and catchment evolution related to climate change, deforestation and changes in riparian vegetation or studies on the effects of geomorphological dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scales.

Prof. Dr. Daniel Bucur
Dr. José María Senciales-González
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

climate change, water quality, flood, drought, hydrological modelling, surface runoff, soil erosion, landslide hazard, reservoir sedimentation, land use/cover change

river evolution; catchment evolution; flash flood; river profiles; bank erosion; fluvial drainage; river ecosystem; watershed management; vegetation restoration

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Development and Verification of the Available Number of Water Intake Days in Ungauged Local Water Source Using the SWAT Model and Flow Recession Curves
Water 2021, 13(11), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111511 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Climate change significantly affects water supply availability due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of runoff and severe drought events. In the case of Korea, despite a high water supply ratio, more populations have continued to suffer from restricted regional water supplies. [...] Read more.
Climate change significantly affects water supply availability due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of runoff and severe drought events. In the case of Korea, despite a high water supply ratio, more populations have continued to suffer from restricted regional water supplies. Though Korea enacted the Long-Term Comprehensive Water Resources Plan, a field survey revealed that the regional government organizations limitedly utilized their drought-related data. These limitations present a need for a system that provides a more intuitive drought review, enabling a more prompt response. Thus, this study presents a rating curve for the available number of water intake days per flow, and reviews and calibrates the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model mediators, and found that the coefficient of determination, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) from 2007 to 2011 were at 0.92%, 0.84%, and 7.2%, respectively, which were “very good” levels. The flow recession curve was proposed after calculating the daily long-term flow and extracted the flow recession trends during days without precipitation. In addition, the SWAT model’s flow data enables the quantitative evaluations of the number of available water intake days without precipitation because of the high hit rate when comparing the available number of water intake days with the limited water supply period near the study watershed. Thus, this study can improve drought response and water resource management plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Basin Management and River Evolution Research)
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Article
Simulation of Soil Water Dynamics in a Black Locust Plantation on the Loess Plateau, Western Shanxi Province, China
Water 2021, 13(9), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091213 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Soil moisture plays an important role in vegetation restoration and ecosystem rehabilitation in fragile regions. Therefore, understanding the soil water dynamics and water budget in soil is a key target for vegetation restoration and watershed management. In this study, to quantitatively estimate the [...] Read more.
Soil moisture plays an important role in vegetation restoration and ecosystem rehabilitation in fragile regions. Therefore, understanding the soil water dynamics and water budget in soil is a key target for vegetation restoration and watershed management. In this study, to quantitatively estimate the water budget of the GFGP forests in a dry year and a wet year and to explore the recharge in deep profiles, the vertical and temporal soil moisture variations in a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation were simulated under typical rainfall events and two-year cycles in a loess area between April 2014 and March 2016. We calibrated and tested the HYDRUS-1D (Salinity Laboratory of the USDA, California, USA) model using the data collected during in situ field observations. The model’s performance was satisfactory, the R2, Nash efficiency coefficient (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.82, 0.80, 0.021, and 0.030, respectively. For the four rainfall events of 9.1 mm, 25 mm, 71.1 mm, and 123.6 mm, the infiltration amounts were 8.1 mm, 19.3 mm, 65.2 mm, and 95.3 mm, respectively. Moreover, the maximum infiltration depths were 30 cm, 100 cm, 160 cm, and >200 cm, respectively. Additionally, in the two-year model cycles, the upward average water flux was 1.4 mm/d and the downward water flux was 1.69 mm/d in the first-year cycle; the upward average annual water flux was 1.0 mm/d and the downward water flux was 1.1 mm/d in the second-year cycle. The annual water consumption amounts in the two-year cycles were 524.6 mm and 374.2 mm, and the annual replenishment amounts were 616.8 mm and 401 mm. The amounts of percolation that recharged the deep soil were only 28.1 mm and 2.04 mm. A lower annual rainfall would cause a water deficit in the deep soil, which was not conducive to the growth of Robinia pseudoacacia vegetation. To ensure the high-quality sustainable development of the forest land, it is suggested to adjust the stand density in a timely manner and to implement horizontal terraces to increase the infiltration and supply of precipitation. Our study provides an improved understanding of the soil water movement in Robinia pseudoacacia plantations and a simulated temporal moisture variation under different time scales. The results of our study provide a feasible approach for the sustainable management of Robinia pseudoacacia plantations during vegetation restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Basin Management and River Evolution Research)
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Article
Adsorption Performance of Modified Fly Ash for Copper Ion Removal from Aqueous Solution
Water 2021, 13(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020207 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
The initial characteristics of Romanian fly ash from the CET II Holboca power plant show the feasibility of its application for the production of a new material with applicability in environmental decontamination. The material obtained was characterized using standard techniques: scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
The initial characteristics of Romanian fly ash from the CET II Holboca power plant show the feasibility of its application for the production of a new material with applicability in environmental decontamination. The material obtained was characterized using standard techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, and thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The adsorption capacity of the obtained material was evaluated in batch systems with different values of the initial Cu(II) ion concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time in order to optimize the adsorption process. According to the experimental data presented in this study, the adsorbent synthesized has a high adsorption capacity for copper ions (qmax = 27.32–58.48 mg/g). The alkali treatment of fly ash with NaOH improved the adsorption capacity of the obtained material compared to that of the untreated fly ash. Based on the kinetics results, the adsorption of copper ions onto synthesized material indicated the chemisorption mechanism. Notably, fly ash can be considered an important beginning in obtaining new materials with applicability to wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Basin Management and River Evolution Research)
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Article
Short-Term Peak-Shaving Operation of Head-Sensitive Cascaded Hydropower Plants Based on Spillage Adjustment
Water 2020, 12(12), 3438; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123438 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
There are many cascaded hydropower plants with poor regulation performance and sensitive water heads accompanied by water spillage during the wet season. Faced with the increasing load peak–valley differences, it is necessary to tap the peak-shaving potential of such head-sensitive cascaded hydropower plants [...] Read more.
There are many cascaded hydropower plants with poor regulation performance and sensitive water heads accompanied by water spillage during the wet season. Faced with the increasing load peak–valley differences, it is necessary to tap the peak-shaving potential of such head-sensitive cascaded hydropower plants (HSCHPs) because relying solely on hydropower plants with better regulation performance for peak shaving is inadequate. To address the modeling, solving, and water spillage treatment difficulties posed by HSCHPs, a new short-term peak-shaving method based on spillage adjustment is introduced. First, fuzzy cluster analysis is used to determine when to release more water spillage by automatically identifying valley periods of the daily load curve. Furthermore, a spillage adjustment strategy, implemented through an easy gate operation, is adopted to readjust the water release during each period of the load curve. The ratio of the water spillage released in advance in a certain period to its total water spillage is defined as the water spillage ratio (WSR) of the period. Finally, a mixed-integer linear programming model linearized by special ordered sets of type two is solved to determine the optimal WSRs, which achieves the optimal peak-shaving effect. HSCHPs in the Hongshui River Basin during the wet season were selected as case studies. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve a good peak-shaving effect without significantly reducing the power generation and adding additional water spillage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Basin Management and River Evolution Research)
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Article
Study on Landscape Patches Influencing Hillslope Erosion Processes and Flow Hydrodynamics in the Loess Plateau of Western Shanxi Province, China
Water 2020, 12(11), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113201 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
Although vegetation restoration plays an important role in the management of surface runoff and soil erosion, the large-scale restoration of vegetation can increase water consumption and reduce surface water resources, thus affecting the health of river ecosystems. Therefore, vegetation restoration should aim to [...] Read more.
Although vegetation restoration plays an important role in the management of surface runoff and soil erosion, the large-scale restoration of vegetation can increase water consumption and reduce surface water resources, thus affecting the health of river ecosystems. Therefore, vegetation restoration should aim to achieve a vegetation landscape pattern that optimizes protection of soil resources while limiting water consumption. This study established field runoff plots with different landscape patch types, including bare land, S-road patches, strip patches, grid patches, and random patches, as well as different quantities patches of 5, 10, 15, and 20. An artificial rainfall experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different vegetation patches in reducing runoff and sediment, and the relationship between the types and number of vegetation patches and hydrodynamic parameters. The results showed that the runoff yields of the four vegetation patch types decreased by 16.1–48.7% compared with that of bare land, whereas sediment yields decreased by 42.1–86.5%. In addition, the resistance coefficients of the poorly connected patch patterns, including strip patches, grid patches, and random patches, ranged between 0.2–1.17 times higher than that of the well-connected S-road patch pattern, and the stream power decreased by 33.3–50.7%. Under a set vegetation coverage rate, an increase in the number of vegetation patches resulted in a significant reduction in runoff velocity, runoff yield, and sediment yield, increases in surface roughness and flow resistance, and reductions in runoff shear force and stream power. Besides, the sensitivity of soil to erosion decreased with an increasing number of the patch in the vegetation landscape, whereas the sensitivities of patch combinations with poor connectivity were lower than those with good connectivity. The results of this study highlight the importance of vegetation patch type and quantity for control of soil erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Basin Management and River Evolution Research)
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Article
A Systematic, Automated Approach for River Segmentation Tested on the Magdalena River (Colombia) and the Baker River (Chile)
Water 2020, 12(10), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102827 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
This paper proposes a systematic procedure to identify river reaches from a geomorphic point of view. Their identification traditionally relies on a subjective synthesis of multi-dimensional information (e.g., changes of slope, changes of width of valley bottom). We point out that some of [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a systematic procedure to identify river reaches from a geomorphic point of view. Their identification traditionally relies on a subjective synthesis of multi-dimensional information (e.g., changes of slope, changes of width of valley bottom). We point out that some of the attributes adopted to describe geomorphic characters of a river (in particular sinuosity and confinement) depend on the length of reaches, while these latter are not yet identified; this is a source of ambiguity and introduces, at least conceptually, an unpleasant, implicit, iterative procedure. We introduce a new method which avoids this difficulty. Furthermore, it is simple, objective, and explicitly defined, and as such, it is automatable. The method requires to define and determine a set of intensive attributes, i.e., attributes that are independent of the segment length. The reaches are then identified by the intersection of the segmentations induced by such attributes. We applied the proposed procedure in two case studies, the Magdalena River (Colombia) and the Baker River (Chile), and investigated whether the adoption of the traditional approach for the definition of reaches would lead to a different result. We conclude that there would be no detectable differences. As such, the method can be considered an improvement in geomorphic river characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Basin Management and River Evolution Research)
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