Impact of Atmospheric and River Inputs on the Transfer of Elements and Organic Matter to the Ocean

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 11747

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditerranéens, Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, UMR 5110, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, CEDEX, F-66860 Perpignan, France
Interests: trace metals; marine and continental waters; photochemistry

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditerranéens, Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, UMR 5110, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, CEDEX, F-66860 Perpignan, France
Interests: land-to-sea continuum; trace elements; rare earth elements; atmospheric deposition; rivers fluxes; isotopes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal marine environments are key environments at the crossroads of continental, oceanic and atmospheric domains where natural or anthropogenic inputs can be stored in the sediment, redistributed, or exported further offshore by hydrodynamic processes (currents, waves, storms, “cascading”) and affect biogeochemical cycles at a larger scale. If, for many years, material export to the marine environments was supposed to be mainly supplied by rivers and ground waters, it has been recently recognized that a significant fraction of the exported material could also come from atmospheric inputs. Moreover, if a part of the riverine flux is subject to biogeochemical modifications and removal in estuarine and coastal systems, atmospheric deposition is widespread and affects marine surface layers over large areas. Atmospheric aerosol deposition has consequently been recognized recently as a significant source of elements that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate.

In this Special Issue, we would like to encourage studies highlighting the impact of the transfer of elements (e.g., nutrients, trace metals, organic matter, contaminants, etc.) by rivers and atmosphere (particulate and dissolved phase) on marine environment both at local scale (coastal zone) and at a larger scale, i.e., open ocean.

We also welcome contributions that focus on budget estimates of elements by rivers/atmosphere to the sea, as well as contributions on the impact of inputs on different compartments of the marine environment (e.g., biota, sediment, water column).

Dr. Bruno Charrière
Dr. Dominique Aubert
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • trace metals
  • nutrients
  • marine and continental waters
  • atmospheric deposition
  • rivers inputs
  • organic matter
  • contaminants
  • photochemistry

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 8574 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Runoff and Wind with Respect to Yellow River Estuary Salinity Plume Based on FVCOM
by Huawei Qin, Hongyuan Shi, Yunyun Gai, Shouwen Qiao and Qingjie Li
Water 2023, 15(7), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071378 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
In 2020, Yellow River runoff was more than twice as much as past years, and the proportion of strong winds was also higher than that in past years, which will inevitably lead to a change in salinity plume distribution in the Yellow River [...] Read more.
In 2020, Yellow River runoff was more than twice as much as past years, and the proportion of strong winds was also higher than that in past years, which will inevitably lead to a change in salinity plume distribution in the Yellow River Estuary and Laizhou Bay. Based on FVCOM numerical modelling, this paper presents the spatial salinity distribution and dispersion of the Yellow River Estuary and Laizhou Bay during the wet and dry seasons in 2020. We used data from six tidal and current stations and two salinity stations to verify the model, and the results showed that the model can simulate the local hydrodynamic and salinity distribution well. The influence of river discharge and wind speed on salinity diffusion was then investigated. The simulation results showed that under the action of residual currents, fresh water from the Yellow River spread to Laizhou Bay, and the low salinity area of Laizhou Bay was mainly distributed in the northwest. The envelope area of 27 psu isohaline can account for about one-quarter of Laizhou Bay in the wet season, while the low-salinity area was only concentrated near the estuary of Yellow River in the dry season. River discharge mainly affects the diffusion area and depth of fresh water, and wind can change the diffusion structure and direction. In the wet season, with the increase in wind speed, the surface area of the plume decreased gradually, and the direction of the fresh water plume changed counterclockwise from south to north. During the dry season, the plume spread to the northwest along the nearshore. The increase in wind speed in the early stage increased the surface plume area, and the plume area decreased above a wind speed of 10 m/s due to the change in the turbulence structure. The model developed and the results from this study provide valuable information for establishing robust water resource regulations for the Yellow River. This is particularly important to ensure that the areas with low salinity in the Yellow River Estuary will not decrease and affect the reproduction of fish species. Full article
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14 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Long-Term (2002–2021) Trend in Nutrient-Related Pollution at Small Stratified Inland Estuaries, the Kishon SE Mediterranean Case
by Barak Herut, Yaron Gertner, Yael Segal, Guy Sisma-Ventura, Nurit Gordon, Natalia Belkin and Eyal Rahav
Water 2023, 15(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030484 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Nutrient pollution may negatively affect the water quality and ecological status of rivers and estuaries worldwide, specifically in stratified and small inland estuaries. We present a long-term, two-decade data set of dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), dissolved oxygen (DO), [...] Read more.
Nutrient pollution may negatively affect the water quality and ecological status of rivers and estuaries worldwide, specifically in stratified and small inland estuaries. We present a long-term, two-decade data set of dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), dissolved oxygen (DO), and potentially toxic algal cell concentrations at the Kishon River estuary (Israel) as a case study for assessing nutrient ecological thresholds in such type of estuaries, prevalent along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. In-situ measurements and water samples were collected at 3 permanent stations at the lower part of the estuary every March and October/November in 40 campaigns over the years 2002 to 2021. In spite of an improvement in nutrient loads and concentrations as recorded over the last 2 decades, the nutrient and chl-a levels at the Kishon estuary surface water represent mostly a ‘bad’ or ‘moderate’ ecological state, considering the recommended thresholds discussed in this study. It is suggested to develop a combined suite of nutrient and biological variables for assessing Good Environmental Status (GES), considering the relatively high residence time of such small, low-flow estuarine water bodies. Full article
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19 pages, 4720 KiB  
Article
Impact of Dense Water Formation on the Transfer of Particles and Trace Metals from the Coast to the Deep in the Northwestern Mediterranean
by X. Durrieu de Madron, D. Aubert, B. Charrière, S. Kunesch, C. Menniti, O. Radakovitch and J. Sola
Water 2023, 15(2), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020301 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the interannual variability of dense shelf water cascading and open ocean convection in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) based on long-term temperature and current records and its impact on particle fluxes and associated metals. These observations highlight [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the interannual variability of dense shelf water cascading and open ocean convection in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) based on long-term temperature and current records and its impact on particle fluxes and associated metals. These observations highlight the predominant role of the rare intense events of dense shelf water cascading (1999/2000, 2005/2006, 2012/2013) in the basinward export of particles, which are mainly brought by rivers. Measurements of particulate trace metals in 2012 indicate that the monitored intense cascading event may be responsible for a significant fraction (~15%) of the annual input to the shelf. To this first process is added the effect of somehow more recurrent deep convection events (2005, 2009–2013) that remobilize the deep sediments, receptacle of coastal inputs, and disperse them rapidly at the scale of the northern Mediterranean basin, and gradually over the entire western basin. Coastal and oceanic dense water formations are key physical processes in the Mediterranean margins, whose reduction in intensity and recurrence has already been observed and also anticipate in climate scenarios that will likely change the dispersion pathways of chemical particles in this region. Full article
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19 pages, 3051 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Approximation to Microbiological Beach Sand Quality along the Coast of the Department of Atlántico (Caribbean Sea of Colombia): Influence of the Magdalena River
by Hernando José Bolívar-Anillo, Zamira E. Soto-Varela, Hernando Sánchez Moreno, Diego Andrés Villate Daza, David Rosado-Porto, Shersy Vega Benites, Camila Pichón González and Giorgio Anfuso
Water 2023, 15(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010048 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Beaches represent important economic resources linked to “Sun, Sea and Sand” tourism and, therefore, their water quality constitutes an issue of great relevance especially in developing countries. The main objective of this work was to determine the microbial quality of beach sediments along [...] Read more.
Beaches represent important economic resources linked to “Sun, Sea and Sand” tourism and, therefore, their water quality constitutes an issue of great relevance especially in developing countries. The main objective of this work was to determine the microbial quality of beach sediments along the Caribbean coast of the Department of Atlántico (Colombia) and its relationships with the existence of local sources of contamination (e.g., streams containing wastewaters), beach exposition to waves, the quantity of beach visitors—which is reflected by beach typology (e.g., urban, rural, etc.), the presence of tourist activities/infrastructures and the beach sand sedimentological characteristics. Along the study area, samples of beach sediments were gathered in beach face and backshore areas at 11 sectors and the microbiological counts of three faecal indicator bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens, were determined. A homogeneous distribution was recorded along the coast of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens in both beach face and backshore sediments, in the order of 5 and 2 log CFU/100 mL, respectively; Enterococcus spp. was, at places, not observed in backshore sediments. No relationships existed between, on one side, the counts of the faecal indicator bacteria considered and, on the other side, the presence of streams and tourist activities/infrastructures, beach typology, exposition to waves and the sedimentological characteristics of beach sands. Such results suggest a chronic contamination of beach face and backshore sediments linked to the heavily polluted sedimentological load of the Magdalena River. Full article
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16 pages, 3571 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dry and Wet Negev Soil–Dust Deposition on the Induction of Autoxidation of Soil–Dust Lipid Components
by Jean-François Rontani, Bruno Charriere, Christophe Menniti, Itzhak Katra and Dominique Aubert
Water 2022, 14(24), 4092; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244092 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Lipids and their oxidation products were quantified in loess samples from the Negev Desert (Israel), well known to be a source of desert dusts in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The results obtained showed the presence of higher plant material (angiosperms and gymnosperms), but [...] Read more.
Lipids and their oxidation products were quantified in loess samples from the Negev Desert (Israel), well known to be a source of desert dusts in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The results obtained showed the presence of higher plant material (angiosperms and gymnosperms), but also bacteria and fungi. Although a strong autoxidation of lipids could be demonstrated, the resulting oxidation products appeared to be weakly accumulated, likely due to the high temperatures and solar irradiance observed in the Negev Desert. Incubation of this dust analogue in fresh water (to mimic their behavior in rainwater) resulted in the release of metal ions (mainly iron), but also a fast heterolytic degradation of their weak content of hydroperoxides. Induction of autoxidation processes in dry and wet atmospheric dusts arising from the Negev Desert in seawater (needing simultaneous presence of metal ions and hydroperoxides) seems thus very unlikely due to the relatively high pH of seawater hindering metal dissolution and the degradation of hydroperoxides in rainwater. Full article
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21 pages, 4882 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Role of Extreme Mediterranean Events on Coastal River Outlet Dynamics
by Florian Meslard, Yann Balouin, Nicolas Robin and François Bourrin
Water 2022, 14(16), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162463 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
River mouths are highly dynamic environments responding very rapidly to changes in wave energy or river floods. While the morphological response during floods or during marine storm events has been widely documented in the literature, little is known about the mechanisms acting during [...] Read more.
River mouths are highly dynamic environments responding very rapidly to changes in wave energy or river floods. While the morphological response during floods or during marine storm events has been widely documented in the literature, little is known about the mechanisms acting during the co-occurrence of fluvial and marine hazards. This concomitance of river flood and marine storm is quite common in the western Mediterranean Sea, and was the case for the Gloria event, considered to be the most extreme event in recent decades. During this event, monitoring of hydrodynamics and morphological evolution was implemented, making it possible to better understand the impact of concomitant marine storm and fluvial flood during an extreme meteorological event on spit breaching of a small Mediterranean river mouth. Monitoring using a combination of high-resolution hydrodynamic measurements, topographic and bathymetric surveys, and sediment cores was used before, during, and after the storm “Gloria”. The results suggest an amplification of the morphological impact of the events and a different morphogenic response than if each of the events had acted independently on the system. The marine storm, occurring first, weakened the spit and initiated its breaching, which was continued by the extreme fluvial flood, thus leading to the complete destruction of the mouth. The destruction of the spit acted as a sediment source for subaqueous large delta deposition amounting to 50% of the total volume. The contribution of the river, estimated at 30%, was quite low for an exceptional event, showing the importance of locating rainfall in a catchment area controlled by a dam. For this event, extreme morphological evolution was observed, as well as the importance of water levels in the river mouth, which probably increased flood hazards, demonstrating the importance of including the compounding effect of extreme coastal water levels in river flood risk management. Full article
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