Special Issue "Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Moumtaz Razack
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Hydrogeology UMR 6532, University of Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers cedex, France
Interests: water resources (assessment, management, protection); modeling; climate change; geostatistics; hard rocks and coastal hydrogeological systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bedri Kurtulus
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Environment and Water, King Fahd Petroleum and Mineral Unviersity, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Interests: Karst, Hydrogeology, Remote Sensing, GIS, Geostatistics
Prof. Dr. Philippe Le Coustumer
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Bordeaux Imaging Center, PIE, CGFB, UMS3420 CNRS-Université-US4 INSERM, 146 rue L. Saignant, CS 61292, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France
Interests: hydrogeochemistry; colloids; emergent contaminants; nanoparticles
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mohamed Meddi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Hydraulique, LGEE, Blida 9000, Algeria
Interests: irrigation; water balance; hydrology; hydrogeology; water resources; climate change; groundwater; meteorology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assist. Prof. Dr. Mustafa Can Canoğlu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sinop University - ENviromental Engineering Department, Turkey
Interests: Hydrogeology, Vadose Zone, Karst, Landslide

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater has over the past few decades become a fundamental resource for social, economic and environmental sustainability. Human well-being, livelihoods, ecosystems, industries, agriculture and urban development are more and more reliant on groundwater. Groundwater development should therefore be carefully managed to fully benefit from its potential, to protect its quality and to guard against the over-exploitation of aquifers.

The sustainability of groundwater is on the one hand linked to policy issues influencing water and land use, and represents one of the major global challenges in natural resource management. On the other hand, groundwater is technically complex. Practical advances in this field are urgently needed, so that technical experts and water managers can reach a common understanding. There is also a need to integrate groundwater and surface water management to ensure better overall water management and allocation.

This Special Issue of Water will focus on the resilience of groundwater resources facing increasingly high pressure exerted by the socio-economic world and facing climate variability and change. Papers on the following subjects are welcomed:

  • Impact of growing pressures and threats (increasing demands, land use changes, drought, over-exploitation) on groundwater resources and related ecosystems.
  • Groundwater and climate change. Resilience and importance of groundwater in adapting to global change.
  • Groundwater monitoring and modelling. Novel approaches to characterizing the spatial–temporal distribution of water resources.
  • Protection and sustainable management of groundwater. Innovative approaches with special emphasis on managed aquifer recharge.
  • Surface water and groundwater interaction. Towards integrated water resource management.
  • Preservation of water resources in coastal aquifers.
  • GW exploration and assessment. Novel approaches using RS and GIS.
  • Understanding water governance. The role of groundwater.
  • Groundwater facing agriculture demands.
  • Case studies.

Prof. Dr. Moumtaz Razack
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bedri Kurtulus
Prof. Dr. Philippe Le Coustumer
Prof. Dr. Mohamed Meddi
Assist. Prof. Dr. Mustafa Can Canoğlu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • climate change
  • over-exploitation
  • resilience
  • management
  • monitoring
  • modelling
  • water governance

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Distributions of Groundwater Age under Climate Change of Thailand’s Lower Chao Phraya Basin
Water 2020, 12(12), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123474 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Groundwater is important for daily life, because it is the largest freshwater source for domestic use and industrial consumption. Sustainable groundwater depends on many parameters: climate change is one factor, which leads to floods and droughts. Distribution of groundwater age indicates groundwater velocity, [...] Read more.
Groundwater is important for daily life, because it is the largest freshwater source for domestic use and industrial consumption. Sustainable groundwater depends on many parameters: climate change is one factor, which leads to floods and droughts. Distribution of groundwater age indicates groundwater velocity, recharge rate and risk assessment. We developed transient 3D mathematical models, i.e., MODFLOW and MODPATH, to measure the distributions of groundwater age, impacted by climate change (IPSL-CM5A-MR), based on representative concentration pathways, defined in terms of atmospheric CO2 concentration, e.g., 2.6 to 8.5, for the periods 2020 to 2099. The distributions of groundwater age varied from 100 to 100,000 years, with the mean groundwater age ~11,000 years, generated by climate led change in recharge to and pumping from the groundwater. Interestingly, under increasing recharge scenarios, the mean age, in the groundwater age distribution, decreased slightly in the shallow aquifers, but increased in deep aquifers, indicating that the new water was in shallow aquifers. On the other hand, under decreasing recharge scenarios, groundwater age increased significantly, both shallow and deep aquifers, because the decrease in recharge caused longer residence times and lower velocity flows. However, the overall mean groundwater age gradually increased, because the groundwater mixed in both shallow and deep aquifers. Decreased recharge, in simulation, led to increased groundwater age; thus groundwater may become a nonrenewable groundwater. Nonrenewable groundwater should be carefully managed, because, if old groundwater is pumped, it cannot be restored, with a detriment to human life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Investigating the Structure of a Coastal Karstic Aquifer through the Hydrogeological Characterization of Springs Using Geophysical Methods and Field Investigation, Gökova Bay, SW Turkey
Water 2020, 12(12), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123343 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 644
Abstract
The electrical resistivity tomography method has been widely used in geophysics for many purposes such as determining geological structures, water movement, saltwater intrusion, and tectonic regime modeling. Karstic springs are important for water basin management since the karst systems are highly complex and [...] Read more.
The electrical resistivity tomography method has been widely used in geophysics for many purposes such as determining geological structures, water movement, saltwater intrusion, and tectonic regime modeling. Karstic springs are important for water basin management since the karst systems are highly complex and vulnerable to exploitation and contamination. An accurate geophysical model of the subsurface is needed to reveal the spring structure. In this study, several karst springs in the Gökova Bay (SW, Turkey) were investigated to create a 3D subsurface model of the nearby karstic cavities utilizing electrical resistivity measurements. For this approach, 2D resistivity profiles were acquired and interpreted. Stratigraphically, colluvium, conglomerate, and dolomitic-limestone units were located in the field. The resistivity values of these formations were determined considering both the literature and field survey. Then, 2D profiles were interpolated to create a 3D resistivity model of the study area. Medium-large sized cavities were identified as well as their locations relative to the springs. The measured resistivities were also correlated with the corresponding geological units. The results were then used to construct a 3D model that aids to reveal the cavity geometry in the subsurface. Additionally, several faults are detected and their effect on the cavities is interpreted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Hydrogeology of a Complex Aquifer System in Semi-Arid Mountainous Region: The Eastern Upper Guir Basin in the High Atlas (Morocco)
Water 2020, 12(10), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102849 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The eastern part of Morocco, surrounded by the High Atlas chain close to Errachidia, represents a very sensitive area in a semi-arid context. Average annual rainfall does not exceed 300 mm/year. Most of the regional water resources are linked to the aquifer systems [...] Read more.
The eastern part of Morocco, surrounded by the High Atlas chain close to Errachidia, represents a very sensitive area in a semi-arid context. Average annual rainfall does not exceed 300 mm/year. Most of the regional water resources are linked to the aquifer systems in the Atlas area. The study site coincides with the Eastern Upper Guir Basin, one of the main rivers in Eastern Morocco. This basin is located close to the eastern border of the Moroccan High Atlas. The geology of the basin consists mainly of Jurassic and Cretaceous formations. The structure of the basin is strongly affected by the Atlasian tectonics. This results in successive large synclines separated by major W-E faults. The hydrogeological system of the basin is accordingly constituted by sub-basins associated with each syncline and separated by faulted anticlines, whose overlapping faults act as semi-impermeable barriers. This compartmentalization causes the very complex functioning of the whole system. The study undertaken, based on structural, meteorological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic data, allowed us to advance significantly in the understanding of this system. The compartments behave as hydrogeological sub-units but remain interdependent on each other. The recharge of the aquifer system is essentially associated with the rains and snowfalls at high altitudes. This is consistent with the stable isotope results. Important development projects are planned in this region, associated with a drastic increase in water demands. Groundwater suitability was assessed using the WHO standards for drinking purposes and the SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) for irrigation. Complementary investigations should be considered to further the results presented here and move towards a quantitative assessment and management of the water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Investigation of the Influence of Excess Pumping on Groundwater Salinity in the Gaza Coastal Aquifer (Palestine) Using Three Predicted Future Scenarios
Water 2020, 12(8), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082218 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The Gaza coastal aquifer (GCA) is the only source of water for about two million citizens living in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The groundwater quality in GCA has deteriorated rapidly due to many factors. The most crucial factor is the excess pumping due to [...] Read more.
The Gaza coastal aquifer (GCA) is the only source of water for about two million citizens living in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The groundwater quality in GCA has deteriorated rapidly due to many factors. The most crucial factor is the excess pumping due to the high population density. The objective of this article was to evaluate the influence of excess pumping on GCA’s salinity using 10-year predicted future scenarios based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANN-based model was generated to predict the GCA’s salinity for three future scenarios that were designed based on different pumping rates. The results showed that when the pumping rate remains at the present conditions, salinity will increase rapidly in most GCA areas, and the availability of fresh water will decrease in disquieting rates by 2030. Only about 8% of the overall GCA’s area is expected to stay within 500 mg/L of the chloride concentration. Results also indicate that salinity would be improved slightly if the pumping rate is kept at 50% of the current pumping rates while the improvement rate is much faster if the pumping is stopped completely, which is an unfeasible scenario. The results are considered as an urgent call for developing an integrated water management strategy aiming at improving GCA quality by providing other drinking water resources to secure the increasing water demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
A Screening Approach for Assessing Groundwater Quality for Consumption in Small Islands: Case Study of 45 Inhabited Islands in the Maldives
Water 2020, 12(8), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082209 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The expense and logistical difficulties of groundwater assessment in geographically dispersed, small landmasses, prevent it from being widely applied in small island developing countries. We propose a survey-based approach for screening groundwater quality using crowd-sourced information. A household-level survey was conducted in 45 [...] Read more.
The expense and logistical difficulties of groundwater assessment in geographically dispersed, small landmasses, prevent it from being widely applied in small island developing countries. We propose a survey-based approach for screening groundwater quality using crowd-sourced information. A household-level survey was conducted in 45 selected inhabited islands across 11 atolls of the Maldives. In each island, covering a sample size between 16 and 85 (median 50) households, use of groundwater, the perceived quality and household groundwater treatment methods applied, were surveyed. The respondents perceived groundwater as highly contaminated and non-potable, but due to the lack of alternative water resources, almost all respondents used it for non-potable purposes. Over 84% of the surveyed islands reported varying degrees of elevated salinity. The water quality indicators of odor, color, and debris were seen to be significantly correlated to each other, but salinity did not show such a correlation. Salinity increased with population density and decreased with the area of the island as well as the latitude. Household treatment of groundwater was rare. Due to the ease of deployment, rapidity of assessment, low cost, and good spatial coverage, crowd-sourced water quality screening can be a viable and important approach alongside detailed groundwater investigation studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Detection of Groundwater Levels Trends Using Innovative Trend Analysis Method in Temperate Climatic Conditions
Water 2020, 12(8), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082129 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
The evolution of groundwater levels is difficult to predict over medium and long term in the context of global climate change. Innovative trend analysis method (ITA) was used to identify these trends, and ITA index was calculated to measure their magnitude. The data [...] Read more.
The evolution of groundwater levels is difficult to predict over medium and long term in the context of global climate change. Innovative trend analysis method (ITA) was used to identify these trends, and ITA index was calculated to measure their magnitude. The data used are sourced from 71 hydrogeological wells that were dug between 1983 and 2018 and cover an area of over 8000 km2 developed in the temperate continental climate in the north-eastern part of Romania. The results obtained by applying the ITA show a general positive trend for groundwater level over 50% of wells for winter and spring seasons and annual values. The negative trends were observed for more than 43% of wells for the autumn season followed by the summer season (less than 40%). The magnitude of trends across the region shows a significant increase for spring season (0.742) followed by winter season (0.353). Important changes in the trends slopes and magnitudes have been identified for groundwater level depth between 0 and 4 m (for winter and spring seasons) and between 4 and 6 m (for summer and autumn seasons). The results can be implemented in groundwater resources management projects at local and regional level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Hydrochemical and Isotopic Assessment of Groundwater in the Goda Mountains Range System. Republic of Djibouti (Horn of Africa)
Water 2020, 12(7), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072004 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
The hydrogeological system of the Goda Mountains Range (GMR) in the Republic of Djibouti (Horn of Africa), hosted by volcanic and sedimentary formations, is the only water resource in the Tadjourah region for more than 85,000 inhabitants. Water needs are expected to drastically [...] Read more.
The hydrogeological system of the Goda Mountains Range (GMR) in the Republic of Djibouti (Horn of Africa), hosted by volcanic and sedimentary formations, is the only water resource in the Tadjourah region for more than 85,000 inhabitants. Water needs are expected to drastically increase in the coming years, due to fast socio-economic development of the region. Accordingly, this system is under high pressure and should sustainably be exploited. However, little is known about the hydrogeology of this system. This study aims to improve the understanding of the hydrochemistry and the recharge processes of this system. The study is based on the combined interpretation of major ions, stable isotopes (18O, 2H), and radiogenic isotopes (3H, 14C). The interpretation of major ions contents using classical hydrochemical methods and principal component analysis highlighted that alteration of volcanic rocks minerals, coastal rainfall infiltration, and evaporation are the main processes from which groundwater acquires mineralization. Stable isotopes revealed that groundwater is of meteoric origin and has undergone high evaporation during infiltration. Radiogenic isotopes showed that groundwater in the basalts is mostly submodern to old, in relation with low hydraulic conductivity of the rocks and/or longer pathways through fissures from outcrop to subsurface. Groundwater in the rhyolites is much younger compared to the basalts due to faster infiltration. The sedimentary part, in connection with the rhyolites, has younger waters compared to the basalts, but older compared to the rhyolites. The overall results show that GMR is a fairly complex hydrogeological system, containing a resource made up of a mixture of waters of different ages. This study has made significant progress in understanding this system and is an initial step towards the sustainable exploitation of resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Securing Access to Drinking Water in North-Eastern Morocco: The Example of the Taourirt-Oujda Corridor
Water 2020, 12(4), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040928 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Taourit-Oujda corridor (T.O.C.) is a geological entity of north-eastern Morocco with a total area of 4000 Km2. The drinking water supply in this arid region still faces challenges that meet a growing demand for a shortage of fresh water. This shortage [...] Read more.
Taourit-Oujda corridor (T.O.C.) is a geological entity of north-eastern Morocco with a total area of 4000 Km2. The drinking water supply in this arid region still faces challenges that meet a growing demand for a shortage of fresh water. This shortage is mainly due to the scarcity and irregularity of the precipitations, the overexploitation of the water resources, and the decrease of the capacity of storage dams that are the main source of drinking water supply in this area. This work aims at estimating deficit (to 2040) for drinking water provided by Machraa Hammadi dam and proposing favourable drilling sites to strengthen drinking water supply through the identification of groundwater resources that can be used in quantity and quality. To do this, a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) covering geological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical aspects using the Geographical Information System (GIS) was carried out. This study shows that T.O.C. aquifer is more productive in the south-west of it, in the centre near the El Aioun municipality and in the north-east at the town of Sidi Bouhouria. According to Moroccan standards, defining the quality norms of surface waters, waters destined for irrigation, and of surface waters used for the production of drinking water, the groundwater in the center and north-east areas is also with good to medium overall quality groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in Crystalline Terrain Using Remote Sensing, GIS Techniques, and Multicriteria Data Analysis (Case of the Ighrem Region, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco)
Water 2020, 12(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020471 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
This research work is intended as a contribution to the development of a multicriteria methodology, combining several factors to control the availability of groundwater resources, in order to optimize the choice of location of future drilling and increase the chances to take water [...] Read more.
This research work is intended as a contribution to the development of a multicriteria methodology, combining several factors to control the availability of groundwater resources, in order to optimize the choice of location of future drilling and increase the chances to take water from productive structures which will satisfy the ever-increasing water demand of local population (Arghen basin in the Western Anti-Atlas chain of Morocco). The geographic information system is used to develop thematic maps describing the geometry and the hydrodynamic functioning of the aquifer. In this study, 11 factors including geology, topography, and hydrology, influencing the distribution of water resources were used. Based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model, GIS, and remote sensing, the study mapped and classified areas according to their hydrogeological potential. The favorable potential sectors cover 17% of the total area of the basin. The medium potential sectors account for 64%, while the unfavorable areas cover 18% of the basin area. The groundwater potential map of the study area has been validated by comparing with data from 159 boreholes scattered throughout the basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Trend Analyses of Meteorological Variables and Lake Levels for Two Shallow Lakes in Central Turkey
Water 2020, 12(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020414 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Trend analyses of meteorological variables play an important role in assessing the long-term changes in water levels for sustainable management of shallow lakes that are extremely vulnerable to climatic variations. Lake Mogan and Lake Eymir are shallow lakes offering aesthetic, recreational, and ecological [...] Read more.
Trend analyses of meteorological variables play an important role in assessing the long-term changes in water levels for sustainable management of shallow lakes that are extremely vulnerable to climatic variations. Lake Mogan and Lake Eymir are shallow lakes offering aesthetic, recreational, and ecological resources. Trend analyses of monthly water levels and meteorological variables affecting lake levels were done by the Mann-Kendall (MK), Modified Mann-Kendall (MMK), Sen Trend (ST), and Linear trend (LT) methods. Trend analyses of monthly lake levels for both lakes revealed an increasing trend with the Mann-Kendall, Linear, and Sen Trend tests. The Modified Mann-Kendall test results were statistically significant with an increasing trend for Eymir lake levels, but they were insignificant for Mogan lake due to the presence of autocorrelation. While trend analyses of meteorological variables by Sen Test were significant at all tested variables and confidence levels, Mann-Kendall, Modified Mann-Kendall, and Linear trend provided significant trends for only humidity and wind speed. The trend analyses of Sen Test gave increasing trends for temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and precipitation; and decreasing trends for humidity, sunshine duration, and pan evaporation. These results show that increasing precipitation and decreasing pan evaporation resulted in increasing lake levels. The results further demonstrated an inverse relationship between the trends of air temperature and pan evaporation, pointing to an apparent “Evaporation Paradox”, also observed in other locations. However, the increased cloud cover happens to offset the effects of increased temperature and decreased humidity on pan evaporation. Thus, all relevant factors affecting pan evaporation should be considered to explain seemingly paradoxical observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in “La Charca de Suárez” Wetlands, Spain
Water 2020, 12(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020344 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
La Charca de Suárez (LCS) is a Protected Nature Reserve encompassing 4 lagoons located 300 m from the Mediterranean coast in southern Spain. LCS is a highly anthropized area, and its conservation is closely linked to the human use of water resources in [...] Read more.
La Charca de Suárez (LCS) is a Protected Nature Reserve encompassing 4 lagoons located 300 m from the Mediterranean coast in southern Spain. LCS is a highly anthropized area, and its conservation is closely linked to the human use of water resources in its surroundings and within the reserve. Different methodologies were applied to determine the hydrodynamics of the lagoons and their connection to the Motril-Salobreña aquifer. Fieldwork was carried out to estimate the water balance of the lagoon complex, the groundwater flow directions, the lagoons-aquifer exchange flow and the hydrochemical characteristics of the water. The study focussed on the changes that take place during dry-wet periods that were detected in a 7-month period when measurements were collected. The lagoons were connected to the aquifer with a flow-through functioning under normal conditions. However, the predominant inlet to the system was the anthropic supply of surface water which fed one of the lagoons and produced changes in its flow pattern. Sea wave storms also altered the hydrodynamic of the lagoon complex and manifested a future threat to the conservation status of the wetland according to predicted climate change scenarios. This research presents the first study on this wetland and reveals the complex hydrological functioning of the system with high spatially and temporally variability controlled by climate conditions and human activity, setting a corner stone for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Water Resource Assessment of a Complex Volcanic System Under Semi-Arid Climate Using Numerical Modeling: The Borena Basin in Southern Ethiopia
Water 2020, 12(1), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010276 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
The Borena basin is located in southern Ethiopia, in a semi-arid climate, on the eastern shoulder of the south Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). The study area covers 18,000 km2 and is characterized by a lack of perennial surface waters that can be [...] Read more.
The Borena basin is located in southern Ethiopia, in a semi-arid climate, on the eastern shoulder of the south Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). The study area covers 18,000 km2 and is characterized by a lack of perennial surface waters that can be used for domestic and agricultural purpose. As a result, groundwater, which occurs in complex volcanic settings, is the only source for water supply in the study area. This work is focused on the basaltic aquifers, which are intensely fractured, resulting in strong connectivity within the system. All available data (geology, hydraulic head, hydraulic parameters, well inventory and discharge, etc.) were compiled in a GIS database. The overall objective of this work is the assessment of groundwater potential, its spatial distribution and factors controlling its movement using numerical groundwater modeling to enhance groundwater management and use in the Borena basin. The modeling task was conducted at two scales: (i) regional scale; (ii) wellfields scale. The regional steady state model was calibrated using the Pilot points approach, highlighting a strongly heterogeneous system. A significant result of the regional model consisted of estimating the water balance of the whole system. The total inflow to the basin amounts to 542 × 106 m3/year, of which 367 × 106 m3/year are provided by superficial recharge. Groundwater resources are exploited with 7 wellfields. Exploitation of the wellfields was optimized based on the Sustainable Yield concept, which reserves a fraction of natural recharge for the benefit of the environment (surface waters, ecosystems). Each wellfield was extracted from the regional model, refined and used to simulate and optimize pumping scenarios, with the objective of maximizing discharge rates and avoiding over-exploitation of the groundwater. The optimized abstraction at all wellfields amounts to 121 × 106 m3/year, which represents 33% of the natural recharge and fully agrees with the sustainable yield concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Hydrodynamic Characterization of Mugla Karst Aquifer Using Correlation and Spectral Analyses on the Rainfall and Springs Water-Level Time Series
Water 2020, 12(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010085 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Karst aquifers have been an important research topic for hydrologists for years. Due to their high storage capacity, karst aquifers are an important source of water for the environment. On the other hand, it is safety-critical because of its role in floods. Mugla [...] Read more.
Karst aquifers have been an important research topic for hydrologists for years. Due to their high storage capacity, karst aquifers are an important source of water for the environment. On the other hand, it is safety-critical because of its role in floods. Mugla Karst Aquifer (SW, Turkey) is the only major water-bearing formation in the close environs of Mugla city. Flooding in the wet season occurs every year in the recharge plains. The aquifer discharges by the seaside springs in the Akyaka district which is the main touristic point of interest in the area. Non-porous irregular internal structures make the karsts more difficult to study. Therefore, many different methodologies have been developed over the years. In this study, unit hydrograph analysis, correlation and spectral analyses were applied on the rainfall and spring water-level time series data. Although advanced karst formations can be seen on the surface like the sinkholes, it has been revealed that the interior structure is not highly karstified. 100–130 days of regulation time was found. This shows that the Mugla Karst has quite inertial behavior. Yet, the storage of the aquifer system is quite high, and the late infiltration effect caused by alluvium plains was detected. This characterization of the hydrodynamic properties of the Mugla karst system represents an important step to consider the rational exploitation of its water resources in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Evaluation of Groundwater Potential by GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Making as a Spatial Prediction Tool: Case Study in the Tigris River Batman-Hasankeyf Sub-Basin, Turkey
Water 2019, 11(12), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122630 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
The Tigris River Batman-Hasankeyf region sub-basin drainage area is in the Upper Tigris basin and lies between the area where the Batman stream joins the river and the Yanarsu stream flows into the river. Intensive agricultural activities are carried out in this region, [...] Read more.
The Tigris River Batman-Hasankeyf region sub-basin drainage area is in the Upper Tigris basin and lies between the area where the Batman stream joins the river and the Yanarsu stream flows into the river. Intensive agricultural activities are carried out in this region, and irrigation is generally obtained from groundwater just as it moves away from the riverfront. The study area is a valuable basin for both Turkey and the Middle East. In this study, the effectiveness of the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a spatial prediction tool was utilized in exploring the groundwater potential of the drainage area. In the analysis, eight hydrological and hydrogeological criteria were considered as influencing factors, namely, geomorphology, geology, rainfall, drainage density, slope, lineament density, land use, and soil properties. The weights of these criteria were determined through the AHP method; the Arc GIS 10.2.2 program and its submodules were used. The major findings of the study were that groundwater-potential index values of the basin were derived. Groundwater-potential-zone evaluation of the basin was obtained as follows: very poor (19%), poor (17%), moderate (34%), good (17%), very good (13%); and groundwater potential zone (GWPZ) maps of the sub-basin were created. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Simulation of Climate Change Impact on A Coastal Aquifer under Arid Climate. The Tadjourah Aquifer (Republic of Djibouti, Horn of Africa)
Water 2019, 11(11), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112347 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
The Republic of Djibouti has an area of 23,000 km2, a coastline 370 km long and a population of 820,000 inhabitants. It experiences an arid climate characterized by high daytime temperatures and low and irregular rainfall (average of 140 mm/year), resulting [...] Read more.
The Republic of Djibouti has an area of 23,000 km2, a coastline 370 km long and a population of 820,000 inhabitants. It experiences an arid climate characterized by high daytime temperatures and low and irregular rainfall (average of 140 mm/year), resulting in continuous periods of drought. These difficult climatic conditions and the absence of perennial surface water have progressively led to an intensive exploitation of groundwater to meet increasing water demands in all sectors (drinking water, agriculture and industries). In coastal areas, seawater intrusion constitutes a significant additional risk of groundwater degradation. This study is focused on the coastal aquifer of Tadjourah which supplies water to the city of Tadjourah, currently comprising 21,000 inhabitants. The main objective of this work is to assess the current resources of this aquifer; its capacity to satisfy, or not, the projected water demands during coming years; and to analyze its vulnerability to seawater intrusion within the frame of climate change. Three RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathway) were used to simulate different climate scenarios up to 2100. The simulated rainfall series allowed to deduce the aquifer recharge up to 2100. The code Seawat was used to model seawater intrusion into the aquifer, using the recharge data deduced from the climate scenarios. The results indicate that the risk of contamination of the Tadjourah coastal aquifer by seawater intrusion is high. The long-term and sustainable exploitation of this aquifer must take into consideration the impact of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Article
Deep Groundwater as an Alternative Source of Water in the Ogaden Jesoma Sandstone Aquifers of Somali Region, Ethiopia
Water 2019, 11(8), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081735 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 2016
Abstract
Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic-induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina, and the Indian Ocean Dipole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in extended periods of low rainfall, low [...] Read more.
Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic-induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina, and the Indian Ocean Dipole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in extended periods of low rainfall, low recharge, and high evapotranspiration. That situation prompted humanitarian water professionals to finance the transportation of water from selected locations with high groundwater potential through water trucks to areas facing groundwater depletion and drought. To mitigate this, UNICEF identified alternative water supplies by exploring sustainable deeper groundwater sources. This paper describes a three-phase methodology of deep groundwater development of wells in the Ogaden Jesoma sandstone aquifers of the Somali region of the Horn of Africa, to a depth of 600 m below ground level. The methodology included the development of groundwater suitability maps using geological and remote sensing data, hydrogeological ground truthing of the maps, and then test drilling at the selected locations. The results concluded that the deep sandstone aquifer of Jesoma can provide fresh water with yields of 15 L/s to the local population of the Somali region. The study provided insights into deep groundwater identification and development as well as adaptive deep borehole drilling as a source for climate-resilient water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Review

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Review
State of the Art and Recent Advancements in the Modelling of Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Withdrawal
Water 2020, 12(7), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072051 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Land subsidence is probably one of the most evident environmental effects of groundwater pumping. Globally, freshwater demand is the leading cause of this phenomenon. Land subsidence induced by aquifer system drainage can reach total values of up to 14.5 m. The spatial extension [...] Read more.
Land subsidence is probably one of the most evident environmental effects of groundwater pumping. Globally, freshwater demand is the leading cause of this phenomenon. Land subsidence induced by aquifer system drainage can reach total values of up to 14.5 m. The spatial extension of this phenomenon is usually extensive and is often difficult to define clearly. Aquifer compaction contributes to many socio-economic effects and high infrastructure-related damage costs. Currently, many methods are used to analyze aquifer compaction. These include the fundamental relationship between groundwater head and groundwater flow direction, water pressure and aquifer matrix compressibility. Such solutions enable satisfactory modelling results. However, further research is needed to allow more efficient modelling of aquifer compaction. Recently, satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) has contributed to significant progress in monitoring and determining the spatio-temporal land subsidence distributions worldwide. Therefore, implementation of this approach can pave the way to the development of more efficient aquifer compaction models. This paper presents (1) a comprehensive review of models used to predict land surface displacements caused by aquifer drainage, as well as (2) recent advances, and (3) a summary of InSAR implementation in recent years to support the aquifer compaction modelling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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