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Article

Distributions of Groundwater Age under Climate Change of Thailand’s Lower Chao Phraya Basin

Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand
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Water 2020, 12(12), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123474
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
Groundwater is important for daily life, because it is the largest freshwater source for domestic use and industrial consumption. Sustainable groundwater depends on many parameters: climate change is one factor, which leads to floods and droughts. Distribution of groundwater age indicates groundwater velocity, recharge rate and risk assessment. We developed transient 3D mathematical models, i.e., MODFLOW and MODPATH, to measure the distributions of groundwater age, impacted by climate change (IPSL-CM5A-MR), based on representative concentration pathways, defined in terms of atmospheric CO2 concentration, e.g., 2.6 to 8.5, for the periods 2020 to 2099. The distributions of groundwater age varied from 100 to 100,000 years, with the mean groundwater age ~11,000 years, generated by climate led change in recharge to and pumping from the groundwater. Interestingly, under increasing recharge scenarios, the mean age, in the groundwater age distribution, decreased slightly in the shallow aquifers, but increased in deep aquifers, indicating that the new water was in shallow aquifers. On the other hand, under decreasing recharge scenarios, groundwater age increased significantly, both shallow and deep aquifers, because the decrease in recharge caused longer residence times and lower velocity flows. However, the overall mean groundwater age gradually increased, because the groundwater mixed in both shallow and deep aquifers. Decreased recharge, in simulation, led to increased groundwater age; thus groundwater may become a nonrenewable groundwater. Nonrenewable groundwater should be carefully managed, because, if old groundwater is pumped, it cannot be restored, with a detriment to human life. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; groundwater resource; groundwater age distribution; recharge rate climate change; groundwater resource; groundwater age distribution; recharge rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanachaichoksirikun, P.; Seeboonruang, U. Distributions of Groundwater Age under Climate Change of Thailand’s Lower Chao Phraya Basin. Water 2020, 12, 3474. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123474

AMA Style

Tanachaichoksirikun P, Seeboonruang U. Distributions of Groundwater Age under Climate Change of Thailand’s Lower Chao Phraya Basin. Water. 2020; 12(12):3474. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123474

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanachaichoksirikun, Pinit, and Uma Seeboonruang. 2020. "Distributions of Groundwater Age under Climate Change of Thailand’s Lower Chao Phraya Basin" Water 12, no. 12: 3474. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123474

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