Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2022) | Viewed by 13819

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Research for Development (IRD), UMR Eco&Sols, UM, IRD, INRAe, CIRAD, SupAgro Montpellier, Montpellier, France
Interests: ecohydrology; hydrology; biogeochemistry; ecological functioning; ecological engineering; bio-inspiration; watershed management; wastewater use; rain harvest; agroecology; soil/water/energy/food/health nexus

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Guest Editor
Laboratoire d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement, Toulouse 3 University, UMR 5245 (CNRS, UT3, INP), Toulouse, France
Interests: functional ecology; biogeochemistry; biodiversity; water; aquatic ecosystems, wetlands, ecological engineering; nature based systems; biomimicry

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Guest Editor
INRAE, LBE, Narbonne, France
Interests: modeling and control of bioprocesses; microbial ecology; mathematical ecology; REUSE; wastewater treatment; MBR technology

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Guest Editor
Institute of Research for Development, UMR GRED, UM, Montpellier, France
Interests: modeling; water management; pesticide management; health risk; urban and rural farming systems; biodiversity

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Guest Editor
Institute of International Training and Cooperation (IITC), Hanoi Architectural University, Hanoi, Vietnam
Interests: landscape; urban design; architecture; green cities; smart cities; urban and rural planning; hydrology systems; watershed management, ecological systems

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Guest Editor
INRAe, UMR RiverLy, Lyon, France
Interests: ecohydrology; hydrology and GCC ; ecological engineering; ecological functioning; rain harvest; watershed management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

How can we use wastewaters for green production in cities? In 2020, the management of domestic wastewaters and rainwaters remains a major global challenge, in addition to feeding the poorest populations, or stopping soil losses occurring through the rapid urbanization and mitigating the environmental quality of our cities. Two thirds of the world’s population still does not have access to sanitation, creating recurrent health and environmental disasters. The majority of these people are in tropical regions, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, in countries whose economy does not allow the rapid development of large rainwater drainage networks and wastewater treatment plants. It is therefore necessary to innovate and change the urban water management model. Like international institutions (UNESCO, USAID, AFD, FFEM, etc.) and the pursuit of the SDGs for the Horizon 2030, the research arena is highly challenged to develop sustainable and cross-disciplinar solutions allowing changes in concepts regarding the perception of the usefulness of wastewaters and rainwaters for green production in cities. The opportunities for innovation are numerous, from process engineering to ecological engineering, from biogeochemists and microbiologists to creators of IoT and AI algorithms, from architects and urban planners to geographers.

This Special Issue titled “Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities” aims to create opportunities for technological innovations and paradigm shifts to make rain waters and domestic wastewaters an economic and ecological asset for green production in the city, for food and human health, and for the poverty alleviation.

Contributions may focus on, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • waste water used and reuse, wash…
  • waste water used and healthy;
  • waste water used and agroecology, ecohydrology;
  • waste water used and ICTs;
  • waste water used and circular economy, bioeconomy;
  • waste water used and green cities, soil and water concern

Dr. Didier Orange
Prof. Dr. Magali Gerino
Dr. Jérôme Harmand
Dr. Marjorie Le Bars
Dr. Nguyen Thai Huyen
Dr. Pascal Breil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater
  • rain water harvesting (RWH)
  • reuse
  • wash
  • agroecology
  • ecohydrology
  • biomimicry
  • ICT
  • circular economy
  • bioeconomy
  • green cities
  • water–soil–energy–food–health nexus
  • urban water management

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 6503 KiB  
Article
Community Approach for Public Flower Garden Renovation in Hanoi Center: Perspective for Building a Green City
by Thai Huyen Nguyen and Didier Orange
Water 2023, 15(15), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152712 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Public gardens in urban areas play an important role in the development of physical and mental health of the people. These spaces are also social spaces, where people meet to interact, exchange, and organize collective activities. They create a unique identity for each [...] Read more.
Public gardens in urban areas play an important role in the development of physical and mental health of the people. These spaces are also social spaces, where people meet to interact, exchange, and organize collective activities. They create a unique identity for each residential area in the city, which is a premise for green urban development. In Hanoi, public flower gardens (PFGs) were formed and developed from the French colonial period, mainly those in the historic city centre. Facing the forceful urbanization process and the changing of urban structure, in order to evaluate the role of all public flower gardens in the historic city centre area, we carried out a systematic survey from 2019 to 2022. We surveyed all 30 PFGs in five central districts of Hanoi, and interviewed 229 users at these gardens. We also conducted research on relevant documents regarding the management and planning of green space and water infrastructure in the city. Moreover, we implemented an experimental workshop, combining an urban living lab (ULL) approach and an in situ landscape approach, to develop urban landscape design ideas with community participation. Based on the data from this research, this paper analyzes the potential for the establishment of urban blue-green infrastructure (BGI) from these PFGs and aims to evaluate the role of community participation in landscape design for the city. Data from multiple collection methods provide a multi-faceted understanding of the original characteristics of the PFGs in Hanoi and their importance in urban life. The project results supply experimental lessons from urban landscape design activities through community participation, which opens up the potential for developing sustainable urban spaces based on existing natural structures in the city. The main result proves that active community participation until the end of the research project raises public awareness and ensures the social acceptance of the final design. These lessons allow the improvement of urban landscape design practices and the establishment of BGIs from PFGs in an efficient and sustainable manner for green cities in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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25 pages, 9023 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Approach for Treated Wastewater Reuse Strategies Focusing on Water and Its Nitrogen Content “A Case Study for Olive Growing Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Sousse, Tunisia”
by Mohamed Kefi, Nesrine Kalboussi, Alain Rapaport, Jérôme Harmand and Hakim Gabtni
Water 2023, 15(4), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040755 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
One of Tunisia’s main challenges is to conserve and protect water resources for current and future generations. Using non-conventional water in agriculture, such as treated wastewater, can be a sustainable water-saving solution. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the [...] Read more.
One of Tunisia’s main challenges is to conserve and protect water resources for current and future generations. Using non-conventional water in agriculture, such as treated wastewater, can be a sustainable water-saving solution. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the value chain of treated wastewater for olive growing farms production and (ii) to apply mathematical modeling to maximize the olive production in optimizing irrigation distribution and nitrogen amendment in olive growing farms. The work is carried out in a peri-urban irrigated perimeter of Msaken, Sousse, which is mainly occupied by olive trees and irrigated by treated wastewater. A SWOT analysis is also applied to identify the strengths and weaknesses of reuse in this study area. Moreover, mathematical models are used to determine the optimal schedule for fertigation with treated wastewater. In this process, data on rainfall, soil, water quality and olive production were collected from local farmers, local decision makers, field and laboratory experiments. SWOT results determine farmers’ perceptions of reusing treated wastewater for irrigation. The viability analysis, in terms of soil humidity and nitrogen, shows that the nitrogen stress is not a limiting factor for olive biomass production, but water stress is. This analysis provides numerical values for the maximum irrigation rate and total amount of irrigation water to ensure maximum olive production. It was found that the maximum irrigation could be 5.77 m3/day/ha and the total annual water requirement is 1240 m3/ha. Modeling appears to be an important tool to help local decision makers and to support and encourage local farmers to reuse treated wastewater under safe conditions and without environmental risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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15 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impacts of Phyto-Remediation on Water Quality of the Litani River by Means of Two Wetland Plants (Sparganium erectum and Phragmites australis)
by Fadi Karam, Rachelle Haddad, Nabil Amacha, Wissam Charanek and Jérôme Harmand
Water 2023, 15(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010004 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Water pollution from human activities is largely a result of the discharge of wastewater and industrial waste into rivers. Phytoremediation, the technique that uses plants to remove pollutants from the polluted waters, is a growing field of research because of its various environmental [...] Read more.
Water pollution from human activities is largely a result of the discharge of wastewater and industrial waste into rivers. Phytoremediation, the technique that uses plants to remove pollutants from the polluted waters, is a growing field of research because of its various environmental advantages. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland in removing pollutants and treating the polluted waters of the Litani River in Lebanon, by means of two aquatic plants, Phragmites australis and Sparganium erectum. Results showed that the levels of the physicochemical and biological parameters measured on water samples at downstream of the wetland were lower than those obtained at upstream. Results revealed that average removal efficiency was 41% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 54% for biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 97% for nitrate (NO3), 40% for nitrite (NO2), 67% for phosphate (PO43−), while it was negative (−62%) for sulfate (SO42−), indicating an increase in sulfate content in the treated effluent returning to the river. On the other hand, most of the effluent chemical and biological characteristics were within the provisional discharge limits of effluent to water body set by the Ministry of Environment (MoE) and Lebanese Wastewater Reuse Guidelines of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Statistical analyses also showed significant variations (p < 0.5) among the two sampling sites along the wetland. Our findings clearly demonstrate that phytoremediation is a viable solution to remove pollutants in a competitive environment and improve the quality of contaminated waters by acting as a sink for various contaminants. The gained experience may be scalable to other sites and environments across the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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14 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Density Effect of Eisenia sp. Epigeic Earthworms on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Sand Filters for Wastewater Treatment
by Océane Gilibert, Magali Gerino, Dan-Tâm Costa, Sabine Sauvage, Frédéric Julien, Yvan Capowiez and Didier Orange
Water 2022, 14(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071048 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
Inside sand filters, as inside other microporous substrates, several invertebrates create temporary burrows that impact on water movement through the filter. Lumbricids Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei live under a wide range of environmental conditions and have a high reproduction rate so they [...] Read more.
Inside sand filters, as inside other microporous substrates, several invertebrates create temporary burrows that impact on water movement through the filter. Lumbricids Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei live under a wide range of environmental conditions and have a high reproduction rate so they are good candidates for ecological engineering tests. We assessed the impact of these species at different densities (0, 100, 500, 1000 g m−2) on the hydraulic conductivity of small-sized experimental filters made of columns filled with filter sand classically used for sanitation mixed with 5% organic matter. The hydraulic conductivity was recorded every 7 days over 37 days in non-saturated conditions. On day 23, 40 g of peat bedding was added at the column surfaces to simulate a surface clogging organic matter pulse input. Columns with an earthworm density equal or superior to 500 g m−2 revealed the highest hydraulic conductivities during the first 21 days. At these densities, the hydraulic conductivity was also restored in less than 7 days after the addition of the surface organic matter, showing the influence of the earthworm species on the resilience capacity of the hydraulic conductivity. It was also highlighted that the hydraulic flow was dependent on the lumbricid densities with an optimal density/effect around 500 g m−2 in this specific substrate composition. This study showed that the feeding habits and burrowing activity of both Eisenia species significantly enhanced the hydraulic flow in a sandy substrate, providing a sustainable solution to limit the clogging of the substrate similar to the one used in filters to treat wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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14 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable and Low-Cost Soil Filter Column for Removing Pathogens from Swine Wastewater: The Role of Endogenous Soil Protozoa
by Lavane Kim, Tao Yan, Russell Yost and Guy Porter
Water 2021, 13(18), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182472 - 8 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
The increase of swine production in the Pacific Islands has inevitably led to environmental pollution concerns from discharged wastewater derived from both washing and manure. The slurry accumulates in lagoons, where supernatant wastewater containing high levels of pathogens and nutrients becomes nonpoint source [...] Read more.
The increase of swine production in the Pacific Islands has inevitably led to environmental pollution concerns from discharged wastewater derived from both washing and manure. The slurry accumulates in lagoons, where supernatant wastewater containing high levels of pathogens and nutrients becomes nonpoint source water pollution that deteriorates the quality of receiving water bodies. Soil filtration is a promising cost-effective technology for removing pollutants from swine wastewater; however, the excessive growth of bacteria in soil media often accompanies the filtration process. This study investigates soil filtration mediated by protozoa activities to remove Escherichia coli (E. coli) in synthetic swine wastewater. The experiment used plastic columns packed with Leilehua soil from Oahu Island, Hawaii. The soil physicochemical adsorption was seen to reduce 95.52–96.47% of E. coli. However, the average removal efficiencies were increased to 98.17% in a single stage, and 99.99% in two sequential columns, under predation conditions. The filtration media containing naturally established bacterivores with the prey, provided a bioactive means to remove E. coli from the influent. The proper design of Leilehua soil filters potentially removes E. coli from the influent to meet the standard level of recycled water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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17 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
How Organization Models Impact the Governing of Industrial Symbiosis in Public Wastewater Management. An Explorative Study in Sweden
by Karolina Södergren and Jenny Palm
Water 2021, 13(6), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060824 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
The industrial symbiosis (IS) landscape is evolving rapidly. While previous studies have argued for the importance of municipalities participating in the governing of IS, research on the implications of different forms of municipal organization is still lacking. This paper aims to investigate how [...] Read more.
The industrial symbiosis (IS) landscape is evolving rapidly. While previous studies have argued for the importance of municipalities participating in the governing of IS, research on the implications of different forms of municipal organization is still lacking. This paper aims to investigate how municipal administration and municipally-owned corporations, as two forms of organization, impact the governing of IS in the water and sewage sector. This is explored in relation to the Swedish municipality Simrishamn, which recently underwent changes in the form of organization. Results show that municipal administration contributes to a more inclusive process where many actors can influence and bring ideas and perspectives on how to develop an IS. The risk, however, is that other issues within the municipality are seen as more pressing and, therefore, get prioritized before IS. In corporate form, the development of IS becomes more business-like as the focus is kept on core business. Technology development is strengthened as skills and competencies are promoted through the expertise of the employees. Drawbacks include processes becoming less transparent and political goals, such as citizen welfare not receiving the same level of priority as within municipal administration. There is also a risk that fewer perspectives are included in the process of developing IS, which may inhibit innovation, even if the results also indicate that an increased business focus of the corporate form strengthens the innovation capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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Review

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17 pages, 2097 KiB  
Review
What Inspiring Elements from Natural Services of Water Quality Regulation Could Be Applied to Water Management?
by Magali Gerino, Didier Orange, José Miguel Sánchez-Pérez, Evelyne Buffan-Dubau, Sophie Canovas, Bertrand Monfort, Claire Albasi and Sabine Sauvage
Water 2022, 14(19), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193030 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Theoretical and functional ecology is a source of useful knowledge for ecological engineering. The better understanding of the natural service of water quality regulation is now inspiring for optimization of water resource management, restoration and bioremediation practices. This transfer with a biomimicry approach [...] Read more.
Theoretical and functional ecology is a source of useful knowledge for ecological engineering. The better understanding of the natural service of water quality regulation is now inspiring for optimization of water resource management, restoration and bioremediation practices. This transfer with a biomimicry approach applies particularly well in the urban, rural and agricultural areas, but is yet underexplored for water quality purposes. This natural service intensely involves the benthic boundary layer as a biogeochemical hot spot with living communities. A selection of processes related to the bioturbation phenomena is explored because of their influence on properties of the aquatic environment. The applications are valuable in a range of fields, from water treatment technology to management of ecosystems such as constructed and natural wetlands, streams, rivers, lagoons and coastal ecosystems. This paper gathers the more obvious cases of potential applications of bioturbation research findings on the biomimicry of natural services to water practices. These include pollution pumping by bioturbated sediment, water column oxygen saving during early diagenesis of deposits under conveyors transport and conservation of macroporous as well as fine sediment. Some applications for constructed devices are also emerging, including infiltration optimization and sewage reduction based on cross-biological community involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Water Used for Green Production in Cities)
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