Extreme Hydrometeorological Events and Forest Ecosystem Services under Changing Climate

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 June 2023) | Viewed by 3976

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Natural Environment, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia
Interests: hydrology; landscape ecology; forest ecology; bioclimatology; agrometeorology
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Guest Editor
Department of Natural Environment, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia
Interests: tree physiology; biometeorology; forestry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is no doubt that the increasing trend in the frequency of hydrometeorological extremes occurrence is evident worldwide. All socio-economic sectors are affected by this phenomenon. Society is therefore looking for adequate ecosystems that could be helpful in the mitigation of these hazards. The most relevant seems to be a forest ecosystem; the forest soils' high infiltration and water retention abilities, lowering the rain erosion force by interception, cooling effect by forest micro and mesoclimate and ability to balance runoff from the river catchments. However, forest ecosystems also face climate change impacts, and therefore their mitigation abilities are also affected. This raises the following questions. How will climate-related ecosystem services be changed by climate change? How severe will direct climate change impacts on forest ecosystems be? Moreover, what kind of forest ecosystem management could improve its resistance and resilience in a future climate? We kindly invite researchers to try to answer these questions in the promoted Special Issue.

Dr. Jaroslav Vido
Dr. Paulína Nalevanková
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • forest ecosystem
  • ecosystem services
  • hydrometeorology
  • extreme hydrometeorological events

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1235 KiB  
Communication
Comparative Assessment of Sap Flow Modeling Techniques in European Beech Trees: Can Linear Models Compete with Random Forest, Extreme Gradient Boosting, and Neural Networks?
by Paulína Nalevanková, Peter Fleischer, Jr., Mohammad Mukarram, Zuzana Sitková and Katarína Střelcová
Water 2023, 15(14), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142525 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Transpiration and sap flow are physiologically interconnected processes that regulate nutrient and water uptake, controlling major aspects of tree life. They hold special relevance during drought, where wrecked sap flow can undermine overall tree growth and development. The present study encompasses five-year (2012–2015 [...] Read more.
Transpiration and sap flow are physiologically interconnected processes that regulate nutrient and water uptake, controlling major aspects of tree life. They hold special relevance during drought, where wrecked sap flow can undermine overall tree growth and development. The present study encompasses five-year (2012–2015 and 2017) sap flow datasets on European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Four different techniques were used for sap flow modeling, namely, a linear model (LM), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting machine (XGBM), and neural networks (NN). We used six variants (Variants 1–6) differing in the captured conditions and the dataset size. The ‘prediction power’ was the ratio of the predicted and observed sap flow. We found the LM had the maximum prediction power for the overall sap flow in beech trees with 1 h shift of global radiation. In the reaming variants, the LM provided comparable prediction power to RF and XGBM. At the same time, NN exhibited relatively poor prediction power over other machine learning models. The study supports an easier-to-apply and computationally simpler approach (LM) to assess sap flow over more sophisticated machine learning approaches (RF, XGBM, and NN). Full article
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17 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Complexity of Drought within the Soil Profile in Beech Ecosystems on Their Lower Altitudinal Limit in Slovakia
by Zuzana Oravcová and Jaroslav Vido
Water 2022, 14(9), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091338 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Due to the ongoing climate change, decreasing amounts of available water and increasing evapotranspiration during the growing season may impact the stability of some beech ecosystems at lower altitudes. This paper aims to evaluate the risk of drought from a meteorological point of [...] Read more.
Due to the ongoing climate change, decreasing amounts of available water and increasing evapotranspiration during the growing season may impact the stability of some beech ecosystems at lower altitudes. This paper aims to evaluate the risk of drought from a meteorological point of view and the subsequent response in soil hydrology throughout hydrological years 2015 and 2016 in beech forests situated in Central Slovakia. Precipitation sufficiency was assessed by means of a climate irrigation index (CII). Hydrological modelling was carried out using GLOBAL, the simulation model of water movement in a soil profile with an emphasis on the root zone. The greatest drought risk occurs during the summer, when the ecosystem suffers from long periods of water deficiency according to the CII (>20 days). The water content in specific soil horizons responds differently to changing meteorological situations. Simulations indicated a later decrease (approx. 5 days) of the water content in the B horizon (main root zone) compared with the A horizon. Drought lasts longer in deeper layers and retreats only in the case of long-lasting rainfall. Sudden heavy rainfall has proven ineffective at moistening the entire soil profile and impacts only the upper few centimetres while the main root zone suffers from water shortage. Full article
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