Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 11524

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
The Department of Environmental Hydrology & Microbiology (EHM), Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva, Israel
Interests: groundwater; vadose zone; solute transport; heat transfer; mathematical modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Hydrology & Microbiology (EHM), Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva, Israel
Interests: numerical methods; transport phenomena in heterogeneous media; shock waves through porous media; decision support systems for water resources management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue on “Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems” focuses on recent advances and prospects of groundwater studies including, but not limited to:

  • Fundamental investigations addressing various experimental techniques, mathematical and numerical modeling of physical mechanisms for fluid momentum, and energy ranging from inertia to drag dominant balances, stochastic and deterministic methods, big data decision support, management strategies, and experience learned from case studies;
  • Monitoring and prediction of groundwater flow and solute migration at different spatial and temporal scales, hydrogeochemistry, karst, freshwater–saltwater interactions, groundwater contamination, remediation, risk analysis, and protection;
  • Effect of heterogeneity on dynamic and distribution of contaminants, calibrating flow and transport models, and uncertainty associated with predictions and observations.

We invite contributions from researchers involved with experimental and theoretical aspects linked to water flow and solute migration, with application to water resources, groundwater contamination and remediation, mining and hydrocarbon geology, geothermal resources, and related areas. 

By presenting this integrative and multidisciplinary volume, we aim to transfer new knowledge to hydrologists, water resources planners, and policymakers engaged in the sustainable development of groundwater resources.

Prof. Dr. Alexander Yakirevich
Prof. Dr. Shaul Sorek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • porous and fractured media
  • groundwater and multiphase
  • hydrology
  • geochemistry
  • solute transport
  • field and laboratory studies
  • conceptual and mathematical modeling
  • heterogeneity
  • climate
  • water resources

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 149 KiB  
Editorial
Flow and Transport Phenomena through Heterogenous Media in Groundwater Systems
by Alexander Yakirevich and Shaul Sorek
Water 2024, 16(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010105 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Globally, groundwater is an indispensable and invaluable source for producing drinking water, agricultural irrigation [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 4252 KiB  
Article
A Concept of Fuzzy Dual Permeability of Fractured Porous Media
by Boris Faybishenko
Water 2023, 15(21), 3752; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213752 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
The interpretation of the results of hydrogeological field observations and the modeling of fractured porous subsurface media is often conducted using dual-porosity and/or dual-permeability concepts. These concepts, however, do not consider the effects of spatial and temporal variations and uncertainties, or fuzziness, in [...] Read more.
The interpretation of the results of hydrogeological field observations and the modeling of fractured porous subsurface media is often conducted using dual-porosity and/or dual-permeability concepts. These concepts, however, do not consider the effects of spatial and temporal variations and uncertainties, or fuzziness, in the evaluation of the subsurface flow characteristics of fractured porous media. The goal of the paper is to introduce a concept of fuzzy dual permeability of fractured porous media based on the fuzzy system analysis of the results of ponded infiltration tests in fractured basalt. The author revisited the results of the tests conducted in areas close to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho, USA: small-scale (approximately 0.5 m2) ponded tests at the Hell’s Half Acre site, mesoscale (56 m2) ponded tests at the Box Canyon site, and a large-scale infiltration test (31,416 m2) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at INL. Methods of fuzzy clustering and fuzzy regression were applied to describe the time-depth waterfront penetration and to characterize the phenomena of rapid flow through a predominantly fractured component and slow flow through a predominantly porous matrix component. The concept of fuzzy dual permeability is presented using a series of fuzzy membership functions of the waterfront propagation with depth and time. To describe the time variation of the flux, a fuzzy Horton’s model is presented. The developed concept can be used for the uncertainty quantification in flow and transport in geologic media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems)
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22 pages, 20923 KiB  
Article
Integrated Management and Environmental Impact Assessment of Sustainable Groundwater-Dependent Development in Toshka District, Egypt
by Marwa M. Aly, Ahmed M. I. Abd Elhamid, Heba Abdel-Aziz Abu-Bakr, Ahmed Shalby and Shymaa A. K. Fayad
Water 2023, 15(12), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122183 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Egypt has recently inaugurated a mega development project aiming to alleviate the overpopulation along the Nile River and to meet the looming food gap. Toshka is a promising area where groundwater-dependent activities are being expanded adjacent to Lake Nasser. Thus, it is of [...] Read more.
Egypt has recently inaugurated a mega development project aiming to alleviate the overpopulation along the Nile River and to meet the looming food gap. Toshka is a promising area where groundwater-dependent activities are being expanded adjacent to Lake Nasser. Thus, it is of utmost importance to provide a sustainable development approach and to assess the resulting environmental implications. Accordingly, a coupled groundwater flow and transport model was invoked. The generated model was successfully calibrated for the observed water levels and salinity. The proposed exploitation regime of 102 wells each pumping 1000 m3/day was simulated for a 100-year test period. The maximum resulting drawdown was about 25 m, compatible with the advocated sustainable restriction limit. Climate change (CC) impacts of reducing the lake’s storage and increasing the crops’ water requirements were investigated. The lake’s water level fluctuations were a key factor in the aquifer hydraulics and flow direction. The drawdown breakthrough considering the CC catastrophic scenario (RCP8.5) has increased by about 20%. The developed solute transport model was utilized to simulate the salinity spatial distribution and the lateral movement of leaking pollutants from the underway activities. Cultivation activities were found feasible up to 80 km away from the lake border where salinity does not exceed 2000 ppm. Yet, a protection strip of not less than 4.8, 6.0, and 7.2 km according to the lake operating condition is inevitable to ensure that pollutants do not intrude into the lake. These findings will assist the decision-makers in scheming environmental impact assessment criteria for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems)
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36 pages, 5358 KiB  
Article
A Deforming Mixed-Hybrid Finite Element Model for Robust Groundwater Flow Simulation in 3D Unconfined Aquifers with Unstructured Layered Grids
by Mohammed Adil Sbai and Abdelkader Larabi
Water 2023, 15(6), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061177 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Determining the water table shape and position in unconfined aquifers is fundamental to many groundwater flow assessment studies. The commonly used industry-standard fixed mesh models, contrary to popular belief, do not provide an accurate description of the phreatic surface. When using such models, [...] Read more.
Determining the water table shape and position in unconfined aquifers is fundamental to many groundwater flow assessment studies. The commonly used industry-standard fixed mesh models, contrary to popular belief, do not provide an accurate description of the phreatic surface. When using such models, the water table position is post-processed from the simulated groundwater heads, leading to an approximation error. This error becomes larger for coarse vertical grids. This paper introduces a novel moving mesh technique to simulate the groundwater table in three-dimensional unconfined aquifers under steady-state or transient conditions. We adopt the face-based mixed-hybrid finite element discretization approach in space, leading to a more accurate approximation of the specific discharge field. The model uses an adaptive unstructured but layered mesh which is iteratively adjusted until its top fits the phreatic surface. The developed algorithm accounts for a linearized form of the kinematic boundary condition prescribed on the moving boundary and also supports usual boundary conditions as well. The model was compared to the existing analytical, fixed mesh, and previously published solutions. The obtained results show that the developed model is superior in terms of its numerical stability, convergence behavior, and accuracy. Furthermore, the simulated phreatic surface is free from a cellwise interpolation error and independent of the vertical grid size as used in fixed mesh methods. We also found that the robustness of the moving mesh method cannot be surpassed by a fixed mesh alternative. The model’s efficiency is supported by an almost quadratic rate of convergence of the outer iteration loop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems)
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18 pages, 5678 KiB  
Article
Analytical Method for Groundwater Seepage through and Beneath a Fully Penetrating Cut-off Wall Considering Effects of Wall Permeability and Thickness
by Jinling Mei, Hong Cao, Guanyong Luo and Hong Pan
Water 2022, 14(23), 3982; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233982 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
A fully penetrating cut-off wall is a vertical seepage barrier that fully penetrates an aquifer and is embedded in an underlying aquitard to a certain depth. Groundwater seepage with this type of wall occurs through three paths: leakage through the body of the [...] Read more.
A fully penetrating cut-off wall is a vertical seepage barrier that fully penetrates an aquifer and is embedded in an underlying aquitard to a certain depth. Groundwater seepage with this type of wall occurs through three paths: leakage through the body of the wall in the aquifer, leakage through the body of the wall embedded in the aquitard, and seepage under the wall. Seepage through the first path can be simply treated as one-dimensional flow. However, due to the mutual influence of seepage through the latter two paths, the seepage problem is complicated and still needs to be studied. An analytical method is proposed to solve this problem in this study. Mathematic expressions for flow rate and head value are obtained by superposition of drawdowns of two exact models, namely, the model with only leakage through the wall body and the model with only seepage under the wall, respectively. Exact solutions are quoted or derived for the exact models, but they involve Legendre’s elliptic integrals of the first and third kinds. To facilitate an engineering application, approximate models of the exact models are introduced and their solutions are applied to the analytical formulas. The accuracy and applicability of the proposed method are verified compared with the numerical method. The proposed method provides a simple but effective method for quickly estimating the quantity of seepage in the aquitard (including leakage through the wall body and seepage under the wall) when simultaneously considering the effects of wall permeability and thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems)
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14 pages, 13685 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Groundwater Flow Changes Associated with Drainage within Multilayer Aquifers in a Semiarid Area
by Li Chen, Xiaojun Wang, Gelong Liang and Haicheng Zhang
Water 2022, 14(17), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172679 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
In order to evaluate the impact of groundwater drainage on groundwater flow, the Hetaoyu coal field was taken as a case study in the Longdong area, China, where the coal seam was covered with multilayer aquifers. A three-dimensional unsteady groundwater flow model and [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate the impact of groundwater drainage on groundwater flow, the Hetaoyu coal field was taken as a case study in the Longdong area, China, where the coal seam was covered with multilayer aquifers. A three-dimensional unsteady groundwater flow model and a one-dimensional fracture water flow model were calculated by joint equations for changing hydrogeological structures under coal mining. According to the results, mine construction had greatly affected groundwater reserves in the Quaternary phreatic aquifer, Cretaceous Huanhe confined aquifer, and Luohe confined aquifer. The groundwater drainage was mainly from the Cretaceous aquifer, in which the aquifer reserves of the Luohe Formation decreased by 30,861.8 m3/m, accounting for about 92% of the total changes in local groundwater reserves. A drop funnel with an area of about 2.3 km2 would be formed under the groundwater discharge of 187.6 m3/h for the main inclined shaft excavation of the Hetaoyu coal mine. With the continuation of mining activities, the mine water flow will reach 806.83 m3/h and would result in descending funnel area of about 4.5 km2, the groundwater level drawdown at least 16 m, which would exceed the limited value regulated by the government. Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of coal mining and protect groundwater resources, the Hetaoyu Coal Mine departments should take some water loss prevention and control projects to reduce the drawdown of groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Transport Processes in Groundwater Systems)
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