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Special Issue "Catchments as Observatories of the Hydrological and Biogeochemical Functioning of the Critical Zone"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jean-Luc PROBST

ECOLAB, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), University of Toulouse, campus ENSAT, Auzeville Tolosane, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biogeochemitry; catchment hydrology; river transports; weathering; erosion; carbon cycle; major elements; nutrients; suspended matters; trace elements; rare earth elements; pesticides; stable isotopes; critical zone
Guest Editor
Dr. Anne PROBST

ECOLAB, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), University of Toulouse, campus ENSAT, Auzeville Tolosane, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Environmental biogeochemistry; soil and water contamination; acid atmospheric deposition; nitrogen and trace metal deposition; chemical weathering; forest-eco-pedology; critical load modelling; small catchment; mining impact; agriculture impact

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Catchments are geographic, geomorphologic and hydrologic unities, today recognized to be relevant natural infrastructures for supporting the development of new research on the critical zone and the management of water resources and soil protection at the continental scale, as well as at regional or local scales. The long term survey of rivers allows us to determine the impacts of climate changes and anthropogenic activities on the hydrological and biogeochemical functioning of their drainage basin, but also on soil erosion, pollutant transfers, biogeochemical cycles, soil and water quality, living organisms and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They also allow us to assess the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services and finally, the relationships between man, societies and their environments at different scales.

A better understanding of the mechanisms and a better estimation of mass balances at the scale of catchments requires us to set up long-term surveys to take into account the recurrence of dry and humid periods. These surveys must be done with a high resolution or even continuously (using multi-parameter probes with different sensors) during flood events (“hot moments”), which are the main periods of soil erosion and river transport. The input and output of water and sediment fluxes and their chemical and isotopic composition must be evaluated in relation to changes in climate, hydrology, land cover and agricultural practices. These global surveys make such catchments real environmental observatories of the continental surfaces and interfaces, and particularly of what we today call the critical zone.

This Special Issue calls for innovative papers:

- to show the advances in the coupling of hydrological, biogeochemical and/or ecological approaches to better understand the processes that control the functioning of the critical zone at the scale of catchments, from small catchments until large river basins.

- to show how to survey “catchment pulsation” using continuous or high-frequency measurements in order to assess new hydrological and bigeochemical processes and to better estimate the mass balance of particulate and solute river loads and of physical erosion and chemical weathering.

- to determine the respective contribution of climate change and anthropogenic activities on interannual fluctuations and the long-term trends in hydrological and biogeochemical parameters measured in the river systems.

- to show how to use integrative modelling approaches to better simulate the riverine fluxes of dissolved and particulate elements, organic and inorganic, originating from natural or anthropogenic sources.

Dr. Jean-Luc PROBST
Dr. Anne PROBST
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • innovative approaches
  • critical zone
  • integrative modelling
  • coupling hydrology and biogeochemistry
  • catchment
  • river
  • climate change
  • anthropognenic impact
  • high frequency measurements
  • long term trends
  • solute river loads
  • particulate river loads
  • physical erosion
  • chemical weathering
  • suspended matter
  • nutrients
  • carbon
  • major elements
  • trace elements
  • contaminants

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Transfer Pathways and Fluxes of Water-Soluble Pesticides in Various Compartments of the Agricultural Catchment of the Canche River (Northern France)
Water 2019, 11(7), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071428
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
PDF Full-text (5276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five frequently used water-soluble pesticides (atrazine, diflufenican, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and ethofumesate) were monitored in surface water and groundwater of an agricultural catchment (Canche River) in Northern France for examining the edge-of-field pathways of substances and their characteristic time of transport. The study of [...] Read more.
Five frequently used water-soluble pesticides (atrazine, diflufenican, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and ethofumesate) were monitored in surface water and groundwater of an agricultural catchment (Canche River) in Northern France for examining the edge-of-field pathways of substances and their characteristic time of transport. The study of surface water contamination was conducted in 2016 through two time scales: continuously over one year at a single location of the catchment and punctually during four seasons at 15 sampling locations along a longitudinal river profile. In addition, groundwater in winter and summer shows a generally low and relatively constant contamination level. Nevertheless, the outflow of pesticides from groundwater results in a background contamination of surface water. In addition to this, a contamination peak above the baseline level is observed in surface water subsequently to the period of substance application on the fields. Our results show that pesticides were essentially transported into the surface water by fast flow components (runoff water). Loss of pesticides during the contamination peak period and long-term monitoring were compared showing that the transport of substances within weeks after pesticides spreading dominates the annual flux of pesticides, except for atrazine which shows a constant background contamination pattern. Low frequency monitoring schemes provide only a partial picture of the contamination state and do not enable to evaluate the true contamination state of such rivers with regard to the fact that 3/4 of the annual load of pesticides are transported in the stream during only 2–3 months. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decline of Fine Suspended Sediments in the Madeira River Basin (2003–2017)
Water 2019, 11(3), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030514
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
PDF Full-text (2484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Madeira River is the second largest Amazon tributary, contributing up to 50% of the Amazon River’s sediment load. The Madeira has significant hydropower potential, which has started to be used by the Madeira Hydroelectric Complex (MHC), with two large dams along the [...] Read more.
The Madeira River is the second largest Amazon tributary, contributing up to 50% of the Amazon River’s sediment load. The Madeira has significant hydropower potential, which has started to be used by the Madeira Hydroelectric Complex (MHC), with two large dams along the middle stretch of the river. In this study, fine suspended sediment concentration (FSC) data were assessed downstream of the MHC at the Porto Velho gauging station and at the outlet of each tributary (Beni and Mamoré Rivers, upstream from the MHC), from 2003 to 2017. When comparing the pre-MHC (2003–2008) and post-MHC (2015–2017) periods, a 36% decrease in FSC was observed in the Beni River during the peak months of sediment load (December–March). At Porto Velho, a reduction of 30% was found, which responds to the Upper Madeira Basin and hydroelectric regulation. Concerning water discharge, no significant change occurred, indicating that a lower peak FSC cannot be explained by changes in the peak discharge months. However, lower FSCs are associated with a downward break in the overall time series registered at the outlet of the major sediment supplier—the Beni River—during 2010. Full article
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Figure 1

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