Sorption Procesess in Wastewater Treatment: Current State of Knowledge and Future Opportunities

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2024) | Viewed by 12133

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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Science, Faculty of Chemistry, Marie Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Square 2, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
Interests: sorption; separation; removal; recovery; heavy and noble metals; dyes; phenols; textile wastewaters treatment; ion-exchange resins; synthetic oxide materials; hybrid materials; low-cost adsorbents; environmental protection
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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Science, Faculty of Chemistry, Marie Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
Interests: sorption; separation of inorganic and organic compounds; heavy metal ions; dyes; phenols; textile wastewaters treatment; chemical modification of synthetic and natural polymers; adsorbents for water treatment; hybrid materials; low-cost adsorbents; ion-exchange resins; synthetic oxide materials; photochemistry; environmental protection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water plays an important role in both the drinking water supply and the economic sector, and is one of the basic factors for all of life and human survival. From year to year there is an increase in the demand for water, and the world is facing a crisis related to the availability of water, as well as its quality. Intensive industrial development contributes to the deterioration of water, soil, and air quality. According to global trends, 70% of all wastewater is subject to treatment in high-income countries, whereas this figure is only 28–38% in higher and middle-income countries. Additionally, in low-income countries, more than 80% of all wastewater is discharged without treatment. Depending on wastewaters’ origins, wastewaters can contain many harmful and toxic substances that pose a real threat to aquatic ecosystems, life, and human health. Effective wastewater treatment is an essential part of green chemistry and sustainable development.

Over the past few decades, among physicochemical removal methods, adsorption has gained prominence. It is now a well-established and widely used method for purification, decolorization and separation, recovery, or concentration. The removal of harmful substances from water and wastewater, the recycling of waste materials, and the recovery of substances of economic importance or at risk of shortage are now priority tasks. The increasing requirements for standards and the limits on wastewater discharged into the environment have resulted in continuous and intensive work on the development of new and selective sorbents that will be able to reduce the pollutant load to an acceptable level.

We are pleased to invite you to submit scientific articles, reviews, or short communications discussing the latest developments in adsorption for wastewater treatment technologies, including heavy metals, dyes, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and new emerging pollutants, etc. This Special Issue of Water, collecting the results of the newest research trends in the field of adsorption and sorbents dedicated for wastewater treatments, will present the current state of the art of the subject as well as reports on new sorbents prepared, the modification of adsorbents’ properties, and commercially available adsorbents in addition to their beneficial properties.

Dr. Anna Wołowicz
Dr. Monika Wawrzkiewicz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • sorption
  • adsorbents
  • removal
  • recovery
  • wastewater treatment
  • emerging pollutants
  • heavy metals
  • dyes
  • surfactants
  • pharmaceuticals
  • pesticides
  • hormones
  • organic compounds

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 14972 KiB  
Article
The Cr(III) Exchange Mechanism of Macroporous Resins: The Effect of Functionality and Chemical Matrix, and the Statistical Verification of Ion Exchange Data
by Khizar Hussain Shah, Noor S. Shah, Gul Afshan Khan, Sadaf Sarfraz, Jibran Iqbal, Aneeqa Batool, Ahmad Jwuiyad, Shabnam Shahida, Changseok Han and Monika Wawrzkiewicz
Water 2023, 15(20), 3655; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203655 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
This study focuses on investigating and comparing the influence of the surface functional groups and chemical matrices of macroporous resin on the Cr(III) exchange mechanism. The results discussed herein indicate that sulfonic resin removed Cr(III) ions with faster kinetics than carboxylic resin. Equilibrium [...] Read more.
This study focuses on investigating and comparing the influence of the surface functional groups and chemical matrices of macroporous resin on the Cr(III) exchange mechanism. The results discussed herein indicate that sulfonic resin removed Cr(III) ions with faster kinetics than carboxylic resin. Equilibrium was established within 15 and 7 min for the carboxylic and sulfonic resins, respectively, with a 99.5% removal efficiency at 333 K. The Langmuir exchange capacity was observed to be higher for the sulfonic resin (1.5 mmol∙g−1) than the carboxylic resin (0.80 mmol∙g−1) at 333 K. The adsorption isotherms obtained for the carboxylic and sulfonic resins were H and S types, respectively, representing a higher affinity of the carboxylic resin for Cr(III) removal at a low metal ion concentration. Additionally, it was noted that the carboxylic resin preferentially co-sorbed H+ and Cr(OH)2+ ions below Cr(III) concentrations of 6–8 mmol.L−1. The H+ ions co-sorption was almost negligible, whereas the Cr(III) exchange was 87 and 34.5% for the carboxylic acid resin and sulfonic acid resins, respectively. The data of the concentration studies were evaluated using non-linear forms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models, and the kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-Ist- and pseudo-IIst-order kinetic models. The activation energy Ea for Amberlite IRC-50 (Na+) was greater (22.4 kJ∙mol−1) than that of Amberlyst-15 (Na+) 17 kJ∙mol−1, indicating a higher energy barrier for the ion exchange reaction on carboxylic resin. As per the findings of a statistical error analysis (RMSE and SSE) and absolute average relative distribution (AARD) statistical model, a close agreement between the experimental and theoretical values suggested that the Langmuir isotherm was well-fitted to the current adsorptive investigations. The interaction of the COO and SO3− functional sites of the resins for the exchange of Cr(III) ions was validated through an FT-IR analysis. The macroporous resins used in the current study for Cr(III) exchange showed promising performances compared to other resins. The current investigations revealed valuable insights for choosing macroporous resins as adsorbents in water filtration systems. Full article
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14 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Used Filter Cartridges as Potential Adsorbents of Organic Pollutants
by Martyna Szymańska and Piotr Nowicki
Water 2023, 15(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040714 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of exhausted activated carbon-based filter cartridges for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions using the example of two model pollutants: synthetic dyes with different particle sizes, i.e., methylene blue (MB) [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of exhausted activated carbon-based filter cartridges for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions using the example of two model pollutants: synthetic dyes with different particle sizes, i.e., methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG). In order to determine the organic dyes’ adsorption mechanism, the effects of phase contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, and temperature of the system were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were employed to analyze the experimental data. Additionally, all adsorbents were characterized in terms of the ash content, type of porous structure, presence of surface functional groups, pH value, and iodine adsorption number—which is one of the quality control parameters of activated carbons. Adsorption tests have shown that carbonaceous materials from bottle filters and filter jugs can be successfully used for the removal of organic dyes from the liquid phase. The maximum sorption capacity of this type of adsorbent towards methylene blue was 333.06 mg/g, while in the case of malachite green it was 308.75 mg/g. For all carbonaceous materials, a better fit to the experimental data was achieved with a Langmuir isotherm than a Freundlich one. It has also been shown that the efficiency of MB and MG adsorption from aqueous solutions decreases with increasing temperature of the system—the best results were obtained at 25 °C. A better fit of the kinetics data was achieved using the pseudo-second order model. Full article
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18 pages, 4667 KiB  
Article
Sorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from Agricultural Leachate Using Termite Mound Soil: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology
by Yalemtsehay Debebe, Esayas Alemayehu, Zemene Worku, Wookeun Bae and Bernd Lennartz
Water 2023, 15(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020327 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
The extensive use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) pesticide leads to the contamination of surfaces and groundwater. In this respect, it is critical to develop an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for 2,4-D-laden agricultural leachate. In the current study, termite mound soil (TMS) from [...] Read more.
The extensive use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) pesticide leads to the contamination of surfaces and groundwater. In this respect, it is critical to develop an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for 2,4-D-laden agricultural leachate. In the current study, termite mound soil (TMS) from Ethiopia was used as an adsorbent in a batch mode aimed at the removal of 2,4-D from an aqueous solution. The TMS was characterized using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The effects of various operating parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration were investigated. In addition, the optimization process and interaction effect were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). A high 2,4-D removal percentage (89.6%) was achieved for a 2,4-D initial concentration of 50.25 mg/L at pH 2, an adsorbent dose of 15.25 g/L, and a contact time of 180.5 min. The 2,4-D adsorption isotherms could be adequately described by the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9687), while the kinetics of the 2,4-D adsorption on the TMS best fit the pseudo-second-order model. Overall the study showed that TMS is an effective adsorbent for the removal of 2,4-D from agricultural leachate. Full article
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10 pages, 3774 KiB  
Article
Wastewater Treatment with the Natural Sorbents from the Arctic
by Elena Vialkova and Anastasiia Fugaeva
Water 2022, 14(24), 4009; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244009 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Oil and gas production has an adverse impact on the ecological state of the Russian Arctic. The local natural materials, such as peat, moss, and reindeer moss are considered as naturel sorbents in wastewater treatment technologies. The sorption properties of these local materials [...] Read more.
Oil and gas production has an adverse impact on the ecological state of the Russian Arctic. The local natural materials, such as peat, moss, and reindeer moss are considered as naturel sorbents in wastewater treatment technologies. The sorption properties of these local materials were studied. The sorption isotherms at different initial concentrations of the pollutant (250, 50, and 0.5 mg/L) were constructed. The patterns of changes in the sorption intensity of oil products were determined. The sorbents were modified by microwave radiation (600 W, one minute), which had a visible positive effect on the samples. Preliminary calculations of the filter cassette dimensions with the performance 200 m3/day were carried out. Efficiency and cheapness predict the economic feasibility of using these materials in wastewater filtering equipment. Full article
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21 pages, 3257 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Analysis of Selected Anionic Surfactants Behaviour in Aqueous Systems Containing Metal Ions and Inorganic Acid
by Anna Wołowicz, Katarzyna Staszak and Zbigniew Hubicki
Water 2022, 14(22), 3676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223676 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
The influence of co-ions on the adsorption properties of two surfactants: ABS (dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) and its sodium salt ABSNa50 in the aqueous systems, has been studied and discussed. On the basis of experimental measurements of equilibrium and dynamic surface tension, a series [...] Read more.
The influence of co-ions on the adsorption properties of two surfactants: ABS (dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) and its sodium salt ABSNa50 in the aqueous systems, has been studied and discussed. On the basis of experimental measurements of equilibrium and dynamic surface tension, a series of parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), adsorption parameters, diffusion coefficients, and the micellar dissociation constant. It was proved that values of CMC vary according the contents of accompanying metal ions (zinc(II), copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II)) and hydrochloric acid in the system under discussion. Moreover, it was found that as the concentration of surfactant in the system increases, the estimated values of the diffusion coefficients decrease. The obtained results indicate the need to analyse the basic surface properties of surfactants in case of their application in the systems containing additional substances. Full article
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Review

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48 pages, 3055 KiB  
Review
Municipal Solid Waste Fly Ash-Derived Zeolites as Adsorbents for the Recovery of Nutrients and Heavy Metals—A Review
by Christian Vogelsang and Muhammad Umar
Water 2023, 15(21), 3817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213817 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Though fly ash from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW-FA) is considered hazardous waste, its huge and increasing volumes and potential value due to high concentrations of salts and heavy metals such as copper and zinc have attracted commercial interest in mining [...] Read more.
Though fly ash from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW-FA) is considered hazardous waste, its huge and increasing volumes and potential value due to high concentrations of salts and heavy metals such as copper and zinc have attracted commercial interest in mining it for resources. The associated treatments used for extracting these resources may make it economically feasible to extract other constituents from the residuals, adding another potential pathway towards a zero-waste society. This review assesses the feasibility of using zeolites, synthesized from precursors extracted from MSW-FA, as sorbents for the recovery of nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate) and heavy metals. It is possible to tailor the properties of the zeolites; however, the large variability in reported adsorption capacities and specificities, as well as the inherent heterogenic nature and variable composition and concentrations of most nutrient- or heavy metal-rich waste streams, make such tailoring challenging. A remaining important issue is the transfer of unwanted micropollutants from the MSW-FA or waste stream to the final products and the loss of surfactants from surfactant-modified zeolites during adsorption and/or desorption of nitrate and/or phosphate. Nonetheless, the recovery process is benefited by high concentrations of the target compounds and low concentrations of competing ions. Full article
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