Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2024) | Viewed by 9591

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, A114, Ottawa, ON K1N6N5, Canada
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; turbulent mixing; outfall systems and sustainable design; numerical modeling of riverine and coastal waters; jets and plumes and environmental sustainability; sediment transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N6N5, Canada
Interests: CFD coding; turbulence; turbulence modeling; turbulent flow; computational fluid dynamics; CFD Simulation; numerical simulation; computational fluid mechanics; numerical modeling; fluent
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louise Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
2. Water Resources Engineer, Barr Engineering Co., 808 4 Ave. SW, Calgary, AB T2P 3E8, Canada
Interests: environmental fluid mechanic; river engineering; coastal engineering; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); effluent discharge; near-field and far-field mixing; dam breach analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydraulic engineering methods can be applied to a wide range of water resources research problems, including coastal engineering, river engineering, and lake modeling. This Special Issue deals with numerical, field and laboratory studies related to the above-mentioned topics. Sediment transport, waves, pollutant fate and transport, hydraulic structures, coastal structures, coastal erosion, coastal flow simulation, dam breach analysis, mine water management, stream restoration and lake modeling are included in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Majid Mohammadian
Dr. Xiaohui Yan
Dr. Hossein Kheirkhah Gildeh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • modeling
  • lab studies
  • field studies
  • coastal engineering
  • river engineering
  • lakes

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4871 KiB  
Article
Predicting Epipelic Algae Transport in Open Channels: A Flume Study to Quantify Transport Capacity and Guide Flow Management
by Li Pan, Guoying Wu, Mingwu Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Zhongmei Wang and Zhiqiang Lai
Water 2024, 16(7), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16070983 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
The functionality of rivers and open diversion channels can be severely impacted when the epipelic algae group that grows on concrete inclined side walls, which are typical of urban rivers, joins the water flow. This study aims to increase the long-distance transport of [...] Read more.
The functionality of rivers and open diversion channels can be severely impacted when the epipelic algae group that grows on concrete inclined side walls, which are typical of urban rivers, joins the water flow. This study aims to increase the long-distance transport of epipelic algae groups in urban rivers and open diversion channels through flow scheduling and to anticipate their transport capacity with respect to water flow. Current research on contaminant movement is primarily based on mathematical models with limited data on flake epipelic algae types. A sidewall epipelic algae group in a flume was modeled using a generalized hydrodynamic experimental approach. Hydraulic experiments were conducted to study the physical movement form and transport capacity of the suspended epipelic algae group. This study suggests that the epipelic algae group will create transport movement without sedimentation when the velocity reaches 80–85% of the main flow velocity and settle to the bottom when it falls below 80%. This research can support the mathematical modelling of hydrodynamic transport, provide a research foundation for long-distance transport, and estimate potential gathering places and sediment amounts under different water flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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22 pages, 10251 KiB  
Article
A Methodology to Predict the Impact of a Marine Structure on Longshore Dynamics and Shoreline Evolution
by Maria Amélia V. C. Araújo, Steven Wallbridge and Liam Fernand
Water 2024, 16(5), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050705 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Globally, due to climate change and increased rates of coastal erosion, along with the need to protect sensitive habitats, there is an increasing requirement for a sustainable approach which considers both the effect of the marine environment on critical infrastructure and the impact [...] Read more.
Globally, due to climate change and increased rates of coastal erosion, along with the need to protect sensitive habitats, there is an increasing requirement for a sustainable approach which considers both the effect of the marine environment on critical infrastructure and the impact of that infrastructure on the local environment. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the impact of a marine structure on longshore dynamics and shoreline evolution by using an external coupling of the phase-resolving ARTEMIS wave model and the shoreline evolution model, UNIBEST. The methodology can be applied at any coastal location, but for this study, it was applied to Sizewell Bay on the east coast of England to assess the impact of a shore-normal jetty on a gently curving stretch of shoreline with relatively complex offshore geomorphology. Results from simulating 22 years of shoreline evolution have shown that, at the jetty location, the shoreline at Sizewell will migrate seaward up to 45 m compared with the no-jetty case. Immediately south of the jetty, the shoreline was predicted to retreat landward by about 15 m. This behaviour is similar to observed changes at other locations, and the predicted longshore transport rates are in agreement with findings from previous studies, validating the methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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17 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Collective Irrigation Network Layout through the Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Multicriteria Analysis Method
by César González-Pavón, Carmen Virginia Palau, Juan Manzano Juárez, Vicente Estruch-Guitart, Santiago Guillem-Picó and Ibán Balbastre-Peralta
Water 2024, 16(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030370 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
On numerous occasions, we often have very little information or must make a decision considering qualitative aspects that are difficult to evaluate. This study focuses on obtaining objective criteria to assist in decision-making in the design phase of pressurized water pipes in collective [...] Read more.
On numerous occasions, we often have very little information or must make a decision considering qualitative aspects that are difficult to evaluate. This study focuses on obtaining objective criteria to assist in decision-making in the design phase of pressurized water pipes in collective irrigation networks. In the layout of these networks, various types of paths and roads for laying pipes can be encountered, and it is not always a simple task to obtain the least costly layout or the one with the fewest issues during construction. In order to obtain objective results, different layout alternatives are evaluated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Multicriteria Analysis Methodology and the Dijkstra algorithm to obtain optimal solutions. This is applied to twelve case studies where the types of available layout paths are identified as alternatives, and four criteria are established for their evaluation. Recognized experts in irrigation modernization conduct the evaluation to derive weighting coefficients for selecting the optimal layout. The coefficients or resistances obtained weigh the lengths of the pipes, allowing the selection of the most suitable alternative based on the defined criteria. The results are compared with a network designed by an expert using classical methodologies, revealing cost improvements in the design phase and a reduction in conflict points, thus leading to faster execution of the works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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20 pages, 9791 KiB  
Article
Downscaling Daily Reference Evapotranspiration Using a Super-Resolution Convolutional Transposed Network
by Yong Liu, Xiaohui Yan, Wenying Du, Tianqi Zhang, Xiaopeng Bai and Ruichuan Nan
Water 2024, 16(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020335 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The current work proposes a novel super-resolution convolutional transposed network (SRCTN) deep learning architecture for downscaling daily climatic variables. The algorithm was established based on a super-resolution convolutional neural network with transposed convolutions. This study designed synthetic experiments to downscale daily reference evapotranspiration [...] Read more.
The current work proposes a novel super-resolution convolutional transposed network (SRCTN) deep learning architecture for downscaling daily climatic variables. The algorithm was established based on a super-resolution convolutional neural network with transposed convolutions. This study designed synthetic experiments to downscale daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data, which are a key indicator for climate change, from low resolutions (2°, 1°, and 0.5°) to a fine resolution (0.25°). The entire time period was divided into two major parts, i.e., training–validation (80%) and test periods (20%), and the training–validation period was further divided into training (80%) and validation (20%) parts. In the comparison of the downscaling performance between the SRCTN and Q-M models, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) values indicated the accuracy of the models. For the SRCTN model, the RMSE values were reported for different scaling ratios: 0.239 for a ratio of 8, 0.077 for a ratio of 4, and 0.015 for a ratio of 2. In contrast, the RMSE values for the Q-M method were 0.334, 0.208, and 0.109 for scaling ratios of 8, 4, and 2, respectively. Notably, the RMSE values in the SRCTN model were consistently lower than those in the Q-M method across all scaling ratios, suggesting that the SRCTN model exhibited better downscaling performance in this evaluation. The results exhibited that the SRCTN method could reproduce the spatiotemporal distributions and extremes for the testing period very well. The trained SRCTN model in one study area performed remarkably well in a different area via transfer learning without re-training or calibration, and it outperformed the classic downscaling approach. The good performance of the SRCTN algorithm can be primarily attributed to the incorporation of transposed convolutions, which can be partially seen as trainable upsampling operations. Therefore, the proposed SRCTN method is a promising candidate tool for downscaling daily ET0 and can potentially be employed to conduct downscaling operations for other variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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27 pages, 10853 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Confluence Flow in a Degraded Bed
by Ehsan Behzad, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Colin D. Rennie and Qingcheng Yu
Water 2024, 16(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010085 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 862
Abstract
The fluid dynamics of channel confluences are highly complex due to flow separation and secondary currents. Although numerous studies in the past few decades have focused on the numerical simulation of confluence flow, deformed beds were rarely used. This study attempts to address [...] Read more.
The fluid dynamics of channel confluences are highly complex due to flow separation and secondary currents. Although numerous studies in the past few decades have focused on the numerical simulation of confluence flow, deformed beds were rarely used. This study attempts to address this issue through numerical simulation of the flow behavior in an open-channel confluence flume with an equilibrium degraded bed in OpenFOAM (version 6.0) to compare the results with a flatbed. In the present study, different turbulence models, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS), large-eddy simulation (LES), and detached eddy simulation (DES) models were performed using rigid-lid and volume-of-fluid (VoF) methods. The accuracy of the models was statistically analyzed by comparing them with observation data. The results demonstrated that the LES model had the best performance, with a minimum average normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 3% under the VoF assumption. The investigation also further illuminated the intricate interplay of vortical structures within the confluence zone. Notably, the number and behavior of vortices were found to be influenced by channel geometry and size, as well as interactions between separated shear layers. Circulation within the separation zone near the inner bank differed in rotation between the degraded and flatbed cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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21 pages, 7971 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Temporal Patterns of Temperature, Precipitation, and Drought Incidents: A Comprehensive Study of Environmental Trends in the Upper Draa Basin, Morocco
by Fadoua El Qorchi, Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza, Onyango Augustine Omondi, Ahmed Karmaoui, Quoc Bao Pham and Siham Acharki
Water 2023, 15(22), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223906 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Quantifying variation in precipitation and drought in the context of a changing climate is important to assess climate-induced changes and propose feasible mitigation strategies, particularly in agrarian economies. This study investigates the main characteristics and historical drought trend for the period 1980–2016 using [...] Read more.
Quantifying variation in precipitation and drought in the context of a changing climate is important to assess climate-induced changes and propose feasible mitigation strategies, particularly in agrarian economies. This study investigates the main characteristics and historical drought trend for the period 1980–2016 using the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), Standard Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI), Run Theory and Mann–Kendall Trend Test at seven stations across the Upper Draa Basin. The results indicate that rainfall has the largest magnitude over the M’semrir and Agouim (>218 mm/pa) and the lowest in the Agouilal, Mansour Eddahbi Dam, and Assaka subregions (104 mm–134 mm/pa). The annual rainfall exhibited high variability with a coefficient of variation between 35−57% and was positively related to altitude with a correlation coefficient of 0.86. However, no significant annual rainfall trend was detected for all stations. The drought analysis results showed severe drought in 1981–1984, 2000–2001, and 2013–2014, with 2001 being the driest year during the study period and over 75% of both SPEI and SPI values returned drought. Conversely, wet years were experienced in 1988–1990 and 2007–2010, with 1989 being the wettest year. The drought frequency was low (<19%) across all the timescales considered for both SPI and SPEI, with Mansour Eddahbi Dam and Assaka recording the highest frequencies for SPI-3 and SPEI-3, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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23 pages, 8552 KiB  
Article
The Multi-Channel System of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: Impacts on the Flow Dynamics under Relative Sea-Level Rise Scenarios
by Hoang-Anh Le, Thong Nguyen, Nicolas Gratiot, Eric Deleersnijder and Sandra Soares-Frazão
Water 2023, 15(20), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203597 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
The Mekong Delta has the world’s third-largest surface area. It plays an indisputable role in the economy and livelihoods of Vietnam and Cambodia, with repercussions at regional and global scales. During recent decades, the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta underwent profound human [...] Read more.
The Mekong Delta has the world’s third-largest surface area. It plays an indisputable role in the economy and livelihoods of Vietnam and Cambodia, with repercussions at regional and global scales. During recent decades, the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta underwent profound human interventions (construction of dykes and multi-channel networks), which modified the hydrodynamic regime, especially cycles of field submersion. In this study, we first applied a full 2D numerical hydraulic model, TELEMAC-2D, to examine the effects of the complex channel and river networks on the spatial and temporal distribution of the flow in the 40,000 km2 of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Then, two scenarios of relative sea-level rise in 2050 and 2100 were implemented to simulate the future patterns of water fluxes in the delta. The results show that dykes and multi-channel networks would reduce the inundation area by 36% and lessen the peak water level by 15% and the discharge over the floodplains by 24%. Despite this protection, under a relative sea-level rise of 30 cm and 100 cm, the maximum flooded area could occupy about 69% and 85% of the whole delta in 2050 and 2100, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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16 pages, 9598 KiB  
Article
Surface Condensation Water under Salix psammophila Is the Main Water Source in Addition to Rainfall in the Kubuqi Desert
by Haichao Wang, Junyao Zhang, Yanwei Cao, Han Wang, Xiaomin Liu, Xiaotian Sun, Kai Sun, Ying Li and Zhiyong Pei
Water 2023, 15(17), 3098; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173098 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Amidst climate change, managing water and vegetation adaptability is vital in ecology and agriculture. Salix psammophila is key in deserts, maintaining ecological balance and combating desertification. Understanding its surface condensation and response to weather is critical for survival. This study aims to investigate [...] Read more.
Amidst climate change, managing water and vegetation adaptability is vital in ecology and agriculture. Salix psammophila is key in deserts, maintaining ecological balance and combating desertification. Understanding its surface condensation and response to weather is critical for survival. This study aims to investigate the formation patterns of surface condensation water under S. psammophila at different irrigation levels and the influence of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. Conducted in China’s Kubuqi Desert from June to September 2022, the study employed micro-lysimeters with four irrigation test sets and a control group, conducting detailed observations at various locations. The results indicate that S. psammophila significantly influences surface condensation water by blocking solar radiation and reducing wind speed. The drip irrigation system also regulates surface condensation water on S. psammophila. Moreover, meteorological factors such as 24 h maximum temperature, relative humidity difference, wind speed, and air vapor pressure deficit show significant correlations with surface condensation water formation. In conclusion, this study enhances the understanding of desert ecosystem water balance, vegetation adaptability, and efficient water resource utilization. It provides valuable scientific guidance for the conservation and restoration of desert ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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15 pages, 5087 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Hydrodynamics of an Open Channel with Algae Attached to the Side Wall
by Li Pan, Lianjun Zhao, Mingwu Zhang and Zhiqiang Lai
Water 2023, 15(16), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162921 - 13 Aug 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
The construction of large-scale water diversion projects has effectively alleviated the current situation of the uneven distribution of water resources in China. However, due to the siltation of very fine sediment and organic matter on the side wall of an open channel, and [...] Read more.
The construction of large-scale water diversion projects has effectively alleviated the current situation of the uneven distribution of water resources in China. However, due to the siltation of very fine sediment and organic matter on the side wall of an open channel, and the slow velocity of the side wall flow field, it is easy for epipelic algae to be produced, which affects water quality. Because prototype observation cannot be used to predict the series of flow in real time, and the calculation of the mathematical model is affected by parameter limitations, these two methods often cannot truly reflect the hydrodynamic characteristics of an open channel with epipelic algae. Therefore, by referring to the design parameters of the water diversion project channel, this study took the epipelic algae growing on the side wall of an open channel as the research object and used the scale of 1:30 to carry out a generalized flume experiment. Through the analysis of the physical characteristics of the prototype sample, and the simulation of the cohesive force between the oblique side wall and the epipelic algae, multi-group and multi-series hydrodynamic tests were carried out. The velocity distribution law and flow field distribution law were analyzed. The research results show that the presence of epipelic algae has a certain hindering effect on the flow velocity and significantly reduces the range of the peak velocity of the channel along the water depth. The position of the maximum velocity on the vertical line of the channel flow appears at the relative water depth of 0.6. In the case of small flow, the epipelic algae group only reduces the average flow rate of the channel by 5~6%; in the case of large flow, the effect of epipelic algae on the channel flow rate is minimal. This paper includes important scientific guiding significance and practical value for the regulation of water quantity and water quality safety, as well as the protection of long-distance projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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22 pages, 6041 KiB  
Article
Fast Prediction of Solute Concentration Field in Rotationally Influenced Fluids Using a Parameter-Based Field Reconstruction Convolutional Neural Network
by Xiaohui Yan, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Huijuan Yu, Tianqi Zhang, Jianwei Liu, Sheng Chang and Hongyi Song
Water 2023, 15(13), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132451 - 03 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Many high-performance fluid dynamic models do not consider fluids in a rotating environment and often require a significant amount of computational time. The current study proposes a novel parameter-based field reconstruction convolutional neural network (PFR-CNN) approach to model the solute concentration field in [...] Read more.
Many high-performance fluid dynamic models do not consider fluids in a rotating environment and often require a significant amount of computational time. The current study proposes a novel parameter-based field reconstruction convolutional neural network (PFR-CNN) approach to model the solute concentration field in rotationally influenced fluids. A new three-dimensional (3D) numerical solver, TwoLiquidMixingCoriolisFoam, was implemented within the framework of OpenFOAM to simulate effluents subjected to the influence of rotation. Subsequently, the developed numerical solver was employed to conduct numerical experiments to generate numerical data. A PFR-CNN was designed to predict the concentration fields of neutrally buoyant effluents in rotating water bodies based on the Froude number (Fr) and Rossby number (Ro). The proposed PFR-CNN was trained and validated with a train-validation dataset. The predicted concentration fields for two additional tests demonstrated the good performance of the proposed approach, and the algorithm performed better than traditional approaches. This study offers a new 3D numerical solver, and a novel PFR-CNN approach can predict solute transport subjected to the effects of rotation in few seconds, and the PFR-CNN can significantly reduce the computational costs. The study can significantly advance the ability to model flow and solute transport processes, and the proposed CNN-based approach can potentially be employed to predict the spatial distribution of any physical variable in the lentic, ocean, and earth system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic and Water Resources Research)
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